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Ukrainian Ground Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ukrainian Ground Forces
Сухопутні Війська України
Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces
Active1919–1922 12 December 1991–present
Size169,000 as of 2016[1]
Part ofArmed Forces of Ukraine
AnniversariesArmy Day (6 December).[2]
EngagementsKosovo Force (KFOR)
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
Russian invasion of Crimea
War in Donbass
Colonel General Serhiy Popko[3]
Ground forces ensign
Ensign of Ukrainian Ground Forces

The Ukrainian Ground Forces (Ukrainian: Сухопутні Війська ЗСУ Sukhoputni Viys’ka (ZSU)) are the land force component of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. They were formed from Soviet Ground Forces formations, units, and establishments, including three military districts (the Kiev, Carpathian, and Odessa Military Districts), that were on Ukrainian soil when the Soviet Union collapsed.

Since Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 Ukraine retained its Soviet-era army equipment. Also, the Armed Forces have been systematically downsized since 1991 and as a result it was largely dilapidated in July 2014.[4] Since the start of the War in Donbass in April 2014 in eastern Ukraine, Ukraine continues to upgrade its Armed Forces.[4][5][6] Its size of 129,950 in March 2014[7] had grown to 204,000 active personnel in May 2015[8], with the Ground Forces branch having 169,000 soldiers as of 2016[9]. In 2016, 75% of the army consisted of contract servicemen.[10] Ukraine's ground forces have also received more modern tanks, APCs, and many other types of combat equipment.[11]


Prior to the October Revolution of 1917, three separate self-governing Ukrainian states existed on what is Ukraine today. Each of these states possessed armed forces. The largest of these, the Ukrainian People's Republic, itself comprised three separate regimes. The Ukrainian People's Army is an example of one of the early national armed forces. Other armed independence movements existed in the wake of both the First World War and the Second World War, and these armies each had distinct organisation and uniforms. These armed forces, and the independent Ukrainian homeland for which they fought, were eventually incorporated into the neighboring states of Poland, Soviet Union, Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia.[12]

Collapse of the USSR

The Armed Forces of Ukraine included approximately 780,000 personnel,[citation needed] 7,000 armored vehicles, 6,500 tanks, and 2,500 tactical nuclear missiles when they were established. However, the problem that Ukraine face was that while it had vast armed forces, it lacked a proper command structure. Therefore, on 24 August 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine ratified the resolution of taking under its control, all military units of former Soviet Armed Forces, situated on the territory of Ukraine; and in turn the establishment of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine.

Creation of the Ground Forces

Armed Forces of Ukraine
Main branches
Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.svg
Ground Forces
Emblem of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg
Air Force
Emblem of the Ukrainian Navy.svg
Emblem of Airmobile troops of Ukraine.svg
Airmobile Forces
Special Operations Forces of Ukraine.svg
Special Operations Forces
Other Corps
Емблема морської піхоти (2007).png
Naval Infantry
Related Services
Emblem of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine.svg
Ministry of Defence
General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg
General Staff
Геральдичний знак - емблема МВС України.svg
Ministry of Internal Affairs
NSAU Logo1.svg
National Space Agency
Security Service of Ukraine Emblem.svg
Security Service
Емблема СЗРУ.png
Foreign Intelligence Service
Emblem of the Defence Intelligence of Ukraine.svg
Military Intelligence Service
History of the Ukrainian Military
History of Ukraine
History of Ukraine during WWII
History of Ukraine during WWI

Following the declaration of Ukrainian independence in 1991, Ukraine inherited the 1st Guards Army, 13th Army, 38th Army, two tank armies (the 6th Guards Tank Army and the 8th Tank Army), and the 32nd Army Corps (32-й Кенигсберский армейский корпус) at Simferopol. In addition, the 28th Guards Motor Rifle Division (MRD) and the 180th MRD were left in Ukraine, having been previously under the 14th Guards Army headquartered at Tiraspol in the Moldovan SSR. The post of commander of ground troops was designated in early 1992. By the end of 1992, the Kiev Military District disbanded, and Ukraine used its structures as the basis for the Ministry of Defence and the General Staff.[13] Between June and August 1993, the first redesignation of armies to army corps appears to have taken place.[14] While the chief of ground forces post had been created in early 1992, it was over two years before the first holder, Colonel General Vasily Sobkov, was appointed on 7 April 1994.[15] The legal framework for the Ground Forces was defined in Article 4 of the law 'On the Armed Forces of Ukraine.' At that time, the Ground Forces had no separate command body, and were directly subordinate to the Ukrainian General Staff.

The creation of the Ground Forces as a separate armed service was legally only put in train by Presidential Decree 368/96 of 23 May 1996, 'On the Ground Forces of Ukraine.'[16] That year both the Ground Forces Command was formed and the 1st Army Corps was reorganised as the Northern Territorial Operational Command (which became the Northern Operational Command in 1998). In 1997 the Carpathian Military District was reorganised as the Western Operational Command.

From 1992 to 1997, the forces of the Kiev MD were transferred to the Odessa MD, and the Odessa MD's headquarters moved to Donetsk.[17] A new 2nd Army Corps was formed in the Odessa MD. Armies were converted to army corps, and motor rifle divisions converted into mechanised divisions or brigades. Pairs of attack helicopter regiments were combined to form army aviation brigades.

President Leonid Kuchma revealed in a December 1996 speech that as many as 191 mechanised infantry and tank battalions were rated not ready, adding,"This is especially dangerous in the forward-based units securing the nation's borders."[18]


According to a plan promulgated in 2000 the Ground Forces were to reduce the number of troops from the then 300,000 to 240,000 by 2015, and an ultimate change from a partial conscript-based force to a fully professional military.[19] Even though the Armed Forces received little more than half of the Hr 68 million it was promised for reform in 2001, officials were able to disband nine regiments and close 21 local military bases.[nb 1]

In 2005–06, the Northern Operational Command was reorganised as Territorial Directorate "North". It was tasked with territorial defence, mobilisation training, and preparation of reserves.[20][nb 2]

From 1991 the Ukrainian Ground Forces bought its military equipment only from Russia and other CIS states, as well as locally producing some of their own equipment.[4][5] The defence industry in Ukraine produced equipment was not used to equip the Armed Forces prior to the War in Donbass (that started in April 2014[22]) but it produced only for export.[4]

Loss of Crimea

In the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution, Russian special forces in unmarked uniforms began surrounding Ukrainian military bases on the Crimea before capturing them individually using a mixture of attrition and threats.[23] Over the following weeks the Russian Armed Forces consolidated control of the peninsula and established road blocks to cut off the possibility of Ukraine sending reinforcements from the mainland.[24] By the end of March, all remaining Ukrainian troops were ordered to pull out of Crimea.[25] The Ukrainian Army was considered to be in a poor state during and after the annexation with only 6,000 of its troops ready for combat and many of its vehicles lacking batteries.[26] (According to February 2016 official Ukrainian figures) after Russia's annexation only 6,000 of the 20,300 Ukrainian soldiers stationed in Crimea before the annexation left the peninsula.[27]

War in Donbass

Military training and education centers

Ukrainian special forces soldiers during an exercise.
Ukrainian special forces soldiers during an exercise.
Ukrainian and Canadian soldiers converse with each other during the 2014 Rapid Trident exercise in Yavoriv, Ukraine.
Ukrainian and Canadian soldiers converse with each other during the 2014 Rapid Trident exercise in Yavoriv, Ukraine.

Training in 2006 was aimed at developing mobility and combat readiness of the forces.[28] The Ukrainian armed forces took advantage of the opportunities provided by UN exercises and exercises where Ukraine and NATO nations and other partners participated.[28][29]

Training resulted in 6,000 combat-ready troops in the spring of 2014 of Ukraine's (then) 129,950 active military personnel.[26][30] In 2016 the Ukrainian army had more than 200,000 combat-ready soldiers of its 260,000 active personnel.[8][31]

In 2015 Ukraine, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada established the Joint Multinational Training Group – Ukraine (JMTG-U) and they set up three new training sites, in Khmelnytskyi, Yavoriv and Kamianets-Podilskyi.[31]

Education centers

In 2007 the system of exercise/training ranges was optimized, decreasing their number and providing a specialized role.[32]

Schooling occurs at:

Training ranges are at:

  • Uzhgorod Military Training Center (48°39'44"N 22°26'27"E)
  • Storozhynets Military Training Center (48°8'5"N 25°50'24"E)
  • Yavoriv Military Training Center (50°2'44"N 23°36'21"E)
  • Rivne Military Training Center (50°48'22"N 26°33'12"E)
  • Novohrad-Volynskyi Military Training Center (50°40'3"N 27°32'33"E)
  • Zhytomyr Military Training Center (50°9'59"N 28°31'9"E)
  • Soshnikovskyi Military Training Center (50°1'19"N 31°10'29"E)
  • Maloye Ozero Military Training Center (51°16'19"N 32°52'41"E)
  • Poltava Military Training Center (49°37'27"N 34°36'35"E)
  • Chuhuiv Military Training Center (49°49'11"N 36°47'31"E)
  • Chervona Polyana Military Training Center (47°50'28"N 33°10'40"E)
  • Samarskyi Bor Military Training Center (48°42'34"N 35°27'27"E)
  • Mykolaiv Military Training Center (47°5'16"N 32°0'32"E)
  • Shyrokiy Lan Military Training Center (47°4'4"N 31°32'40"E)
  • Chornomorske Military Training Center (46°36'44"N 30°55'54"E)
  • Bolhrad Military Training Center (45°41'11"N 28°43'36"E)
  • Shirokyi Ovrag Military Training Center (46°51'48"N 36°58'9"E)

Branches of the Ground Forces

Armoured and mechanised forces

Ukrainian Army soldiers and BMP-2 in Mariupol.
Ukrainian Army soldiers and BMP-2 in Mariupol.
Ukrainian Army T-64BM during a training.
Ukrainian Army T-64BM during a training.

Mechanised Infantry and armoured forces are the primary components of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. Their primary objectives in case of war are capturing and holding targets, maintaining positions, defending against attack, penetrating enemy lines and defeating enemy forces.

The mechanised and armoured forces are equipped with T-64[34] and T-64BM "Bulat"[35] main battle tanks; BTR-4, BTR-60, BTR-70 and BTR-80, wheeled armored personnel carriers and BMP-1, BMP-2 and BMD-2 infantry combat vehicles.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, a large number of the previous Soviet mechanised formations on Ukrainian soil have been disbanded – the IISS says totals have dropped from 14 divisions, in 1992, to two divisions, six brigades, and one independent regiment in 2008.[36] Today, all mechanised and armoured formations are called brigades.

Mountain troops

The Ukrainian Ground Forces also include two mountain infantry brigades.

Army Aviation

Army Aviation provides reconnaissance, tactical fire support and air transport for the Ukrainian Ground Forces. As of 2017 Ukraine's army fields four Army Aviation brigades:

The Army Aviation's maintenance facility is the 57th Aviation Base in Brody. The service's equipment includes: Mi-2, Mi-8, Mi-9, Mi-24 and Mi-26 helicopters.

Rocket Forces and Artillery

Ukrainian BM-30 Smerch heavy multiple rocket launchers on parade in Kiev.
Ukrainian BM-30 Smerch heavy multiple rocket launchers on parade in Kiev.

Army Air Defence

The Army Air Defence units are responsible for protecting troops against enemy air attacks anywhere on the battlefield, and while in combat. The Ukrainian Ground Forces army air defence branch is equipped with a variety of effective surface-to-air missile systems of division level and anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes of regiment level. Regiment level units are characterized by their high rate of fire, vitality, maneuverability, and capability of action under all conditions of modern combat arms operations. Surface-to-air missile systems and complexes of division level are characterized by their long range and firepower and are equipped with surface-to-air missile complexes; S-300V, Osa, Buk, Buk-M1 and Tor. While anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes that are of regiment level are equipped with the Tunguska-M1, Igla MANPADS system, Strela, and Shilka anti-aircraft missile systems.[37] While the army's only separate radar system, meaning it isn't a part of any anti-aircraft system, is the Ukrainian Kolchuga-M. It was designed sometime between the years 1993–1997, the system is said to be one of the most (if not the most) advanced passive sensors in the world, as it was claimed to be able to detect stealth aircraft.[38]


2017 structure of the Ukrainian Ground Forces after the reorganization caused by the Donbass War. It built and expanded on the 2011 structure.[39]

The 4th Army Reserve Corps (Ukrainian: 4-й армійський корпус резерву) is a new formation, directly subordinated to the General Staff. It is also called the Army Strategic Reserve Corps. Its main function is to prepare and administer the reservists of the ground forces. According to plans it should be fully operational by 2020 with reserve servicemen in three separate categories[43]:

  • Operational Reserve of the First Line (оперативний резерв першої черги) – by 2020 it should include about 50,000 reserve servicemen with extensive combat training (60 days of combat training every 2 years) in the reserve companies and batteries of the operational army brigades and regiments and those reservists are to become casualty replacements in wartime
  • Operational Reserve of the Second Line (оперативний резерв другої черги) – it should include reserve servicemen with combat training of 30 days every 2 years in territorial defence brigades. In addition the command personnel will undergo 10 days training cycles yearly. The 4th Army Corps should also act as the pool formation for those territorial brigades and transfer them to the ground forces' operational commands in wartime as needed.
  • Mobilization Reserve (мобілізаційний резерв) – it should include all the Ukrainian citizens, who are eligible to mobilization in case of a war, but do not belong to the first or the second line operational reserve. They could be used to form support units or to boost the service numbers of the territorial brigades as casualty replacements.

Geographic distribution

List of commanders

  • Vasyl Tymofiyovych Sobkov (1994–1998)
  • Petro Ivanovych Shulyak (1998–2001)
  • Oleksandr Ivanovych Zatynayko (2001–2002)
  • Mykola Mykolayovych Petruk (2004–2006)
  • Valeriy Semenovych Frolov (2006–2007)
  • Ivan Yuriyovych Svyda (2007–2009)
  • Henadiy Petrovych Vorobyov (2009–2014)
  • Anatoliy Sabbatiyovych Pushnyakov (2014–2016)
  • Serhiy Mikolayovych Popko (2016–present)

Military ranks

As a non-member state, NATO rank codes are not used in Ukraine, they are presented here for reference purposes only

In the new uniforms the Ukrainian Army unveiled in August 2016 the stars that traditionally adorn shoulder straps have been replaced by diamonds.[44] A new set of insignia are being adopted.

General and officer ranks

OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
Ukraine Ukraine
UA shoulder mark 22.svg
UA shoulder mark 21.svg
UA shoulder mark 20.svg
UA shoulder mark 19.svg
UA shoulder mark 18.svg
UA shoulder mark 17.svg
UA shoulder mark 16.svg
UA shoulder mark 15.svg
UA shoulder mark 14.svg
UA shoulder mark 13.svg
UA shoulder mark 12.svg
UA shoulder mark 11.svg
General of the army of Ukraine
(Генерал армії України)
Colonel General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
(Бригадний генерал)
Lieutenant Colonel
First Lieutenant
(Старший лейтенант)
Second Lieutenant
Officer cadet

Other ranks and NCOs

OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Ukraine Ukraine
UA shoulder mark 10.svg
UA shoulder mark 09.svg
UA shoulder mark 08.svg
UA shoulder mark 07.svg
UA shoulder mark 06.svg
UA shoulder mark 05.svg
UA shoulder mark 04.svg
UA shoulder mark 03.svg
UA shoulder mark 02.svg
UA shoulder mark 01.svg
Chief Master Sergeant
Головний майстер-сержант
Master Sergeant
Sergeant First Class
Головний штаб-сержант
Second Sergeant
Third Sergeant
Головний сержант
Staff Sergeant
Старший сержант
Private First Class
Старший солдат



T-64BM pre parade.jpg
BTR-4E in Kyiv.jpg
OSCE SMM monitoring the movement of heavy weaponry in eastern Ukraine (16730571432).jpg
Ukrainian Humvees IMG 7649.JPG
KrAZ-6322 during the Independence parade in Kiev, 2008.jpg
9K22 Tunguska during the Independence Day parade in Kiev.JPG


The Ukrainian Army unveiled its new uniforms on 24 August 2016 (Independence Day of Ukraine).[44] The new uniforms are modeled on British military styles.[44] They also incorporate details from the uniforms worn by the Ukrainian People's Army.[44] The new cap includes an insignia of a Ukrainian Cossack grasping a cross.[44]

Deployment outside of Ukraine


Henadii Lachkov, commander of the Ukrainian contingent in Iraq, kisses his country's flag
Henadii Lachkov, commander of the Ukrainian contingent in Iraq, kisses his country's flag

Ukraine deployed a sizable contingent of troops to the Iraq War, these were stationed near Kut. Ukraine's troop deployment was the second largest of all former Soviet states besides Georgia and they deployed more soldiers to the nation then many members of NATO such as Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Ukraine also suffered the fifth highest casualty toll during the war, with only Polish, Italian, UK, and US forces suffering heavier losses.[45]

From 2003–2005 over 1,700 Ukrainian soldiers were deployed to Iraq, the third-largest contingent at the time, they were designated to the 5th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine), as in Ukraine's mission to Kosovo the troops deployed were contract soldiers and not conscripts. Ukraine began to severely draw down its troop levels in Iraq in 2005 due to mounting casualties and the political toxicity of the conflict. By 2005 only 876 soldiers, roughly half of the original contingent were deployed, by years end troop levels dropped to below 100. In 2008, one year before the official end of the US military mission, President Viktor Yushchenko ordered all remaining troops deployed to Iraq returned home and Ukraine's mission to the nation officially over.[46]


Since 2001, Ukraine allowed United States military cargo planes to fly over and refuel on Ukrainian soil on their way to Afghanistan. In 2007 Ukraine deployed a detachment of the 143rd De-mining Center of the Armed Forces of Ukraine to Afghanistan. Ukraine has kept a team of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan as part of ISAF since 2007, these mostly consisted of pilots, medical officers, and bomb disposal experts. Ukrainian pilots were responsible for training the pilots of the Afghan Air Force on the operation of several air craft as Afghanistan's forces consisted of many Soviet designed aircraft such as the Mi-17 with which Ukrainian troops were very familiar with. In 2013, the contingent of troops in Afghanistan totaled 26 troops. As of 2014 the Ukrainian contingent was further drawn down and the team included 8 bomb disposal experts and several medical officers.[47]


Ukrainian forces have also been deployed to Kosovo since 2000 as part of the 600 man Polish–Ukrainian Peace Force Battalion. In August 2014, Ukraine ended its mission to Kosovo due to the 2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[48]


Ukrainian peacekeeping forces have been deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and South Sudan and Cote d'Ivoire. Ukrainian forces have also been requested to take a more active role in the Northern Mali Conflict of 2012 in battling Islamic forces. One of the largest deployments is the 18th Separate Helicopter Unit of the Armed Forces of Ukraine which consisted of 160 servicemen and four Mi-24P helicopters and was deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2011.[49]

Military decorations


Ukraine provides combat veterans with various benefits. Ukrainians who have served in World War II, the Soviet–Afghan War, or as liquidators at the Chernobyl disaster are eligible for benefits such as a monthly allowance, a discount on medical and pharmacy services, free use of public transportation, additional vacation days from work, having priority for retention in case of work layoffs, easier loan access and approval process, preference when applying for security related positions, priority when applying to vocation school or trade school, and electricity, gas, and housing subsidies. Veterans are also eligible to stay at military sanatoriums, provided there is available space. Since gaining independence, Ukraine has deployed troops to Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan gaining a new generation of veterans separate from those who have served in the Soviet forces. Most recently the government passed a law extending veteran benefits to Ukrainian troops participating in the War in Donbass. Moreover, veterans from other nations who move to or reside in Ukraine may be eligible for some of the listed benefits, this provision was likely made to ensure World War II, Chernobyl, and Afghanistan veterans from other Soviet states who moved to Ukraine received similar benefits, however as Ukraine has participated in numerous NATO led conflicts since its independence it is unclear if NATO veterans would be extended these benefits.[50]

Veteran groups are not as developed as in the United States which has numerous well known national organizations such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars. World War II veterans, and even persons who have lived through the war are generally treated with the highest respect. Other veterans are not as well known. Ukrainian veterans from the Soviet War of Afghanistan are strikingly similar to the Vietnam veterans of the United States, although the Soviet Union generally kept the public in the dark through the war, unlike in Vietnam, where coverage was very high. Afghanistan is often labeled as a mistake by the Soviet Union and its successor states, but the lack of media coverage, and the censorship through the war have ensured that many still remain unaware of their nation's involvement in the conflict.[51] Despite Ukraine having the 3rd largest contingent of troops in Iraq in 2004, few also realize that their nation has many veterans of the Iraq war.

Soldiers that took part in the War in Donbass can receive free land plots.[52]

See also


  1. ^ According to the State Program of the Ukrainian Armed Forces reform and development to 2005, the ground forces were to have the biggest ratio of personnel of all services (up to 54%). This ratio was to be based on the missions assigned to the armed forces, and also on the fact that the economy of Ukraine could not support any larger troop numbers. However, the ground forces still has priority in the number of personnel, weapons, military equipment development priorities and the development of their future systems, which were to correspond to modern warfare requirements. The ground forces were planned to closely coordinate their assignments with other army branches, engaging appropriate military arts and equipment. They were to also be involved in law enforcement activities during emergencies, dealing with consequences of technological and natural disasters, providing military assistance to other countries, engaging in international military cooperation activities (UN), and participating in international peacekeeping operations according to international agreements.
  2. ^ It was reported on 27 July 2005 that '..[o]ver 70 per cent of planned work on [the] disbandment of the Ukrainian armed forces' Northern Operational Command has been completed,' according to the Defence Ministry's press service.[21]



  1. ^
  2. ^ Culture Smart! Ukraine by Anna Shevchenko, Kuperard, 2006, ISBN 978-1-85733-327-5
  3. ^ Poroshenko appoints ATO chief Commander of Land Forces, UNIAN (28 March 2016)
    Poroshenko appoints ATO chief Popko as commander of ground forces, Interfax-Ukraine (28 March 2016)
  4. ^ a b c d In the Army Now: Answering Many Why's, The Ukrainian Week (8 July 2014)
  5. ^ a b Ukraine must stop importing Russian weapons, switch to NATO standards, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2014)
  6. ^ Poroshenko says military hardware will bring Ukraine's victory closer, Interfax-Ukraine (24 August 2016)
  7. ^ Adam Taylor (3 March 2014). "Ukraine's military is far smaller than Russia's, but there are 3 reasons it might not be so easy to crush". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  8. ^ a b Olga Rudenko (6 May 2014). "Thousands dodge Ukraine army in fight with rebels". USA Today. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Ukrainian army composed of 75% contract servicemen - president, Interfax-Ukraine (24 August 2016)
  11. ^
  12. ^ Abbott, P. & E. Pinak Ukrainian Armies 1914–55 (Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004), ISBN 1780964013, 9781780964010
  13. ^ ANALYSIS: Ukraine adopts program for military reform Archived 2005-11-18 at the Wayback Machine., 03/02/1997
  14. ^ See references at 6th Guards Tank Army and 6th Army Corps (Ukraine). On 1 December 1993, 8th Guards Tank Army became 8th Army Corps.
  15. ^ Jane's Sentinel: Ukraine, 1994
  16. ^ Yuriy Yurchnya, 'The Armed Forces of Ukraine,' DCAF, 2010, 89.
  17. ^ Andrew Duncan, 'Ukraine's forces find that change is good,' Jane's Intelligence Review, April 1997, 162–3.
  18. ^ Stephen D. Olynyk, Ukraine as a Post-Cold War Military Power Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine., Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1997, 93.
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2007-09-24. , page 4 of 136
  20. ^ Yurchnya, 2010, 91.
  21. ^ Interfax-AVN, 'Ukrainian army's Northern Operational Command being disbanded,' Interfax-AVN military news agency web site, Moscow, in English 1152 gmt 27 Jul 05 via BBC Monitoring.
  22. ^ Ukraine crisis timeline, BBC News
  23. ^ "Kiev announces plans to withdraw Ukrainian troops from Crimea". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  24. ^ "Russia has sent 6,000 troops to Crimea says Ukraine". Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Ukraine orders all troops out of Crimea". CBS News. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  26. ^ a b "Ukraine Battles to Rebuild a Depleted Military". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  27. ^ (in Ukrainian) After the annexation of Crimea left only 10% of staff SBU, Ukrayinska Pravda (February 8, 2016)
  28. ^ a b Ukrainian Armed Forces 2006 White Book p.25 Archived 2007-11-27 at Archive-It
  29. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2006 White Book p.26 Archived 2007-11-27 at Archive-It
  30. ^ Explainer: How Do Russia's And Ukraine's Armies Compare?, Radio Free Europe (6 March 2014)
  31. ^ a b Ukrainian army struggling with its training system, Kyiv Post (14 September 2016)
  32. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2007 White Book p.42 Archived 2008-09-10 at Archive-It
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ (in Ukrainian) Minister of Defence visits 1st Armored Brigade
  35. ^ (in Ukrainian) People's Army Magazine
  36. ^ IISS Military Balance 1992/3, p 86, and Military Balance 2008, p 188
  37. ^ Structure of Ukrainian Armed Forces
  38. ^
  39. ^ "Ukrainian Armed Forces White Book 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 20, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Dovbaka Nicholas Ihorovych. "National defense" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba "Сухопутні війська" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  42. ^ "Новостворена танкова бригада склала іспит на полігоні "ШИРОКИЙ ЛАН"" [New Tank Brigade passess test at training ground "Shyrokyi Lan"]. Ministry of Defence of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). 28 December 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  43. ^
  44. ^ a b c d e Fashion statement: Ukrainian troops debut post-Soviet uniforms, The Washington Times (25 August 2016)
  45. ^ "Ukraine withdraws last troops from Iraq". Reliefweb. 2005-12-05.
  46. ^ "Ukrainians complete mission in Iraq". Army Times. 2008-11-08.
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Further reading

External links

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