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20th Century Studios

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

20th Century Studios, Inc.
FormerlyTwentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation (20th Century-Fox)
(1935–1985)
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (20th Century Fox)
(1985–2020)
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryFilm
Predecessors
FoundedMay 31, 1935; 86 years ago (1935-05-31)
Founders
HeadquartersFox Studio Lot Building 88, 10201 West Pico Boulevard, ,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Steve Asbell (president)[1]
ProductsMotion pictures, television films
Number of employees
2,300 (2018)
ParentWalt Disney Studios
Divisions
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.20thcenturystudios.com
Footnotes / references
[2][3][4][5]

20th Century Studios is an American film studio that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company.[6] The studio is located on the Fox Studio Lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles.[7] Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures distributes and markets the films produced by 20th Century.[8]

Until 2019, 20th Century was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios for over 80 years. Formerly known as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, it was formed from the merger of the Fox Film Corporation and 20th Century Pictures in 1935. In 1985, the studio became known as Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (without a hyphen) after being acquired by News Corporation, which was split and succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013, after spinning off its publishing assets. In 2019, Disney purchased 20th Century through its acquisition of 21st Century Fox.[9] The studio's current name was adopted on January 17, 2020.[10] On December 4, 2020, the company started using 20th Century Studios, Inc. for the copyright of films and television productions as a Disney subsidiary.

History

From founding to 1956

Carmen Miranda as Dorita in The Gang's All Here. In 1946, she was the highest-paid actress in the United States.[11]
Carmen Miranda as Dorita in The Gang's All Here. In 1946, she was the highest-paid actress in the United States.[11]
Alice Faye as Baroness Cecilia Duarte, Don Ameche as Larry Martin and Baron Manuel Duarte, and Carmen Miranda as Carmen in That Night in Rio, produced by Fox in 1941
Alice Faye as Baroness Cecilia Duarte, Don Ameche as Larry Martin and Baron Manuel Duarte, and Carmen Miranda as Carmen in That Night in Rio, produced by Fox in 1941
The 20th Century-Fox logo depicted in a 1939 advertisement in Boxoffice
The 20th Century-Fox logo depicted in a 1939 advertisement in Boxoffice
From the 1952 film Viva Zapata!
From the 1952 film Viva Zapata!
The entrance to 20th Century's studio lot
The entrance to 20th Century's studio lot

Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, and began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent.[12][13]

Spyros Skouras, then manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company).[12] The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930.[14]

Fox Film Corporation and Twentieth Century Pictures merged in 1935. Initially, it was speculated in The New York Times that the newly merged company would be named Fox-Twentieth Century Pictures.[15] However, 20th Century brought more to the bargaining table besides Schenck and Zanuck, as it was profitable and had more talent than Fox. The new company, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Schenck and Zanuck. [13] Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief.[16]

The company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century-Fox after spending 18 months in the school. The contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years.[17]

For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding in recent years, even though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915.[18] The company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.

After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, and Betty Grable. 20th Century-Fox also hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930s.[19][20]

Higher attendance during World War II helped 20th Century-Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise the production of U.S. Army training films. His partner, William Goetz, filled in at 20th Century-Fox.[21]

In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio.[22] During the next few years, with pictures like Wilson (1944), The Razor's Edge (1946), Boomerang, Gentleman's Agreement (both 1947), The Snake Pit (1948), and Pinky (1949), Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. 20th Century-Fox also specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven (1945), starring Gene Tierney, which was the highest-grossing 20th Century-Fox film of the 1940s. The studio also produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair (1945), the only work that the partnership written especially for films.

After the war, audiences slowly drifted away with the advent of television. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce"; they were spun off as Fox National Theaters in 1953.[23] That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven process. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, and "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, 20th Century-Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, and in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe.[24]

Zanuck announced in February 1953 that henceforth all 20th Century-Fox pictures would be made in CinemaScope.[25] To convince theater owners to install this new process, 20th Century-Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs (about $25,000 per screen); and to ensure enough product, 20th Century-Fox gave access to CinemaScope to any rival studio choosing to use it. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire (also 1953), Warner Bros., MGM, RKO, Universal-International, Columbia, UA, Allied Artists, and Disney quickly adopted the process. In 1956, 20th Century-Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures, later Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope (but "branded" RegalScope). 20th Century-Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I (both 1956).

CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance, but by 1956 the numbers again began to slide.[26][27] That year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer, seldom being in the United States for many years.

Production and financial problems

Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later.[28] President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, 20th Century Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra (1963) began production in 1959 with Joan Collins in the lead.[29] As a publicity gimmick, producer Walter Wanger offered $1 million to Elizabeth Taylor if she would star;[29] she accepted and costs for Cleopatra began to escalate. Richard Burton's on-set romance with Taylor was surrounding the media. However, Skouras' selfish preferences and inexperienced micromanagement on the film's production did nothing to speed up production on Cleopatra.

Meanwhile, another remake — of the Cary Grant hit My Favorite Wife (1940) — was rushed into production in an attempt to turn over a quick profit to help keep 20th Century-Fox afloat. The romantic comedy entitled Something's Got to Give paired Marilyn Monroe, 20th Century-Fox's most bankable star of the 1950s, with Dean Martin and director George Cukor. The troubled Monroe caused delays daily, and it quickly descended into a costly debacle. As Cleopatra's budget passed $10 million, eventually costing around $40 million, 20th Century-Fox sold its back lot (now the site of Century City) to Alcoa in 1961 to raise funds. After several weeks of script rewrites on the Monroe picture and very little progress, mostly due to director George Cukor's filming methods, in addition to Monroe's chronic sinusitis, Monroe was fired from Something's Got to Give[29] and two months later she was found dead. According to 20th Century-Fox files, she was rehired within weeks for a two-picture deal totaling $1  million, $500,000 to finish Something's Got to Give (plus a bonus at completion), and another $500,000 for What a Way to Go. Elizabeth Taylor's bout with pneumonia and the media coverage of the Burton affair allowed Skouras to scapegoat the two stars for all the production setbacks, which helped earn the long-time industry professional Taylor a new disruptive reputation.[30] Challenges on the Cleopatra set continued from 1960 into 1962, though three 20th Century-Fox executives went to Rome in June 1962 to fire her. They learned that director Joseph L. Mankiewicz had filmed out of sequence and had only done interiors, so 20th Century-Fox was then forced to allow Taylor several more weeks of filming. In the meantime during that summer of 1962 Fox released nearly all of its contract stars to offset burgeoning costs, including Jayne Mansfield.[31][32]

With few pictures on the schedule, Skouras wanted to rush Zanuck's big-budget war epic The Longest Day (1962),[29] an accurate account of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, with a huge international cast, into release as another source of quick cash. This offended Zanuck, still 20th Century-Fox's largest shareholder, for whom The Longest Day was a labor of love that he had dearly wanted to produce for many years. After it became clear that Something's Got to Give would not be able to progress without Monroe in the lead (Martin had refused to work with anyone else), Skouras finally decided that re-signing her was unavoidable. But days before filming was due to resume, she was found dead at her Los Angeles home and the picture resumed filming as Move Over, Darling, with Doris Day and James Garner in the leads. Released in 1963, the film was a hit.[33] The unfinished scenes from Something's Got to Give were shelved for nearly 40 years. Rather than being rushed into release as if it were a B-picture, The Longest Day was lovingly and carefully produced under Zanuck's supervision. It was finally released at a length of three hours and was well received.

At the next board meeting, Zanuck spoke for eight hours, convincing directors that Skouras was mismanaging the company and that he was the only possible successor. Zanuck was installed as chairman, and then named his son Richard Zanuck as president.[34] This new management group seized Cleopatra and rushed it to completion, shut down the studio, laid off the entire staff to save money, axed the long-running Movietone Newsreel (the archives of which are now owned by Fox News), and made a series of cheap, popular pictures that restored 20th Century-Fox as a major studio. The saving grace for the studio's fortunes came from the tremendous success of The Sound of Music (1965),[35] an expensive and handsomely produced film adaptation of the highly acclaimed Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, which became a significant success at the box office and won five Academy Awards, including Best Director (Robert Wise) and Best Picture of the Year.

20th Century-Fox also had two big science-fiction hits in the decade: Fantastic Voyage (1966), and the original Planet of the Apes (1968), starring Charlton Heston, Kim Hunter, and Roddy McDowall. Fantastic Voyage was the last film made in CinemaScope; the studio had held on to the format while Panavision lenses were being used elsewhere.

Zanuck stayed on as chairman until 1971, but there were several expensive flops in his last years, resulting in 20th Century-Fox posting losses from 1969 to 1971. Following his removal, and after an uncertain period, new management brought 20th Century-Fox back to health. Under president Gordon T. Stulberg and production head Alan Ladd, Jr., 20th Century-Fox films connected with modern audiences. Stulberg used the profits to acquire resort properties, soft-drink bottlers, Australian theaters and other properties in an attempt to diversify enough to offset the boom-or-bust cycle of picture-making.

Foreshadowing a pattern of film production still yet to come, in late 1973 20th Century-Fox joined forces with Warner Bros. to co-produce The Towering Inferno (1974),[36] an all-star action blockbuster from producer Irwin Allen. Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios and announced that as 20th Century-Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be career suicide to have competing movies. Thus the first joint-venture studio deal was struck. In hindsight, while it may be commonplace now, back in the 1970s, it was a risky, but revolutionary, idea that paid off handsomely at both domestic and international box offices around the world.

20th Century-Fox's success reached new heights by backing the most profitable film made up to that time, Star Wars (1977). Substantial financial gains were realized as a result of the film's unprecedented success: from a low of $6 in June 1976, stock prices more than quadrupled to almost $27 after Star Wars' release; 1976 revenues of $195  million rose to $301  million in 1977.[37]

Marvin Davis and Rupert Murdoch

With financial stability came new owners, when 20th Century-Fox was sold for $720 million on June 8, 1981, to investors Marc Rich and Marvin Davis.[38] 20th Century-Fox's assets included Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Aspen Skiing Company and a Century City property upon which Davis built and twice sold Fox Plaza.

By 1984, Rich had become a fugitive from justice, having fled to Switzerland after being charged by U.S. federal prosecutors with tax evasion, racketeering and illegal trading with Iran during the Iran hostage crisis. Rich's assets were frozen by U.S. authorities.[39] In 1984 Marvin Davis bought out Marc Rich's 50% interest in 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation for an undisclosed amount,[39] reported to be $116 million.[40] Davis sold this interest to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation for $250 million in March 1985. Davis later backed out of a deal with Murdoch to purchase John Kluge's Metromedia television stations.[40] Murdoch went ahead alone and bought the stations, and later bought out Davis' remaining stake in 20th Century Fox for $325 million.[40] From 1985, the hyphen was quietly dropped from the brand name, with 20th Century-Fox changing to 20th Century Fox.[41][42]

To gain FCC approval of 20th Century-Fox's purchase of Metromedia's television holdings, once the stations of the long-dissolved DuMont network, Murdoch had to become a U.S. citizen. He did so in 1985, and in 1986 the new Fox Broadcasting Company took to the air. Over the next 20-odd years the network and owned-stations group expanded to become extremely profitable for News Corp.

The company formed its Fox Family Films division in 1994 to boost production at the studio and would handled animation films. In February 1998, following the success of Anastasia, Fox Family Films changed its name to Fox Animation Studios and drop its live action production which would be picked up by other production units.[43]

The Fox Broadcasting Company's Los Angeles studios in 2005
The Fox Broadcasting Company's Los Angeles studios in 2005

Since January 2000, this company has been the international distributor for MGM/UA releases. In the 1980s, 20th Century Fox – through a joint venture with CBS called CBS/Fox Video – had distributed certain UA films on video; thus UA has come full circle by switching to 20th Century Fox for video distribution. 20th Century Fox also makes money distributing films for small independent film companies.

In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up[44] under Fox Searchlight head Peter Rice and COO John Hegeman[45] as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment.[44] In early 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox, when Hegeman moved to New Regency Productions. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Spotlight with Liebling overseeing them.[45]

In 2008, 20th Century Fox announced an Asian subsidiary, Fox STAR Studios, a joint venture with STAR TV, also owned by News Corporation. It was reported that Fox STAR would start by producing films for the Bollywood market, then expand to several Asian markets.[46] In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions .[47]

Chernin Entertainment was founded by Peter Chernin after he stepped down as president of 20th Century Fox's then-parent company News Corp. in 2009.[48] Chernin Entertainment's five-year first-look deal for the film and television was signed with 20th Century Fox and 20th Century Fox TV in 2009.[49]

In August 2012, 20th Century Fox signed a five-year deal with DreamWorks Animation to distribute in domestic and international markets. However, the deal did not include the distribution rights for previously released films which DreamWorks Animation acquired from Paramount Pictures later in 2014.[50] Fox's deal with DreamWorks Animation ended on June 2, 2017, with Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie, with Universal Pictures taking over the distribution deal with DreamWorks Animation due to NBCUniversal's acquisition of DreamWorks Animation on August 22, 2016, starting on February 22, 2019, with the release of How to Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World.

21st Century Fox era

In 2012, Rupert Murdoch announced that News Corp. would be split into two publishing and media-oriented companies: a new News Corporation, and 21st Century Fox, which operated the Fox Entertainment Group and 20th Century Fox. Murdoch considered the name of the new company a way to maintain the 20th Century Fox's heritage.[51][52]

Fox Stage Productions was formed in June 2013.[53] In August 2013, 20CF started a theatrical joint venture with a trio of producers, both film and theater, Kevin McCollum, John Davis and Tom McGrath.[54]

In September 2017, Locksmith Animation formed a multi-year production deal with 20th Century Fox, who will distribute Locksmith's films, with Locksmith aiming to release a film every 12–18 months. The deal was to bolster Blue Sky's output and replace the loss of distributing DreamWorks Animation films.[55]

Technoprops, a VFX company that worked on Avatar and The Jungle Book, was purchased in April 2017 to operate as Fox VFX Lab. Technoprops' founder Glenn Derry would continue to run the company as vice president of visual effect reporting to John Kilkenny, VFX president.[56]

On October 30, 2017, Vanessa Morrison was named president of a newly created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, reporting to the Chairman & CEO and Vice Chairman of 20th Century Fox. The family division would develop films that appeal to younger moviegoers and their parents both animated films and films with live-action elements. Also, the division would oversee the studio's family animated television business, which produces based holiday television specials on existing film properties, and oversee feature film adaptation of its TV shows.[57] To replace Morrison at Fox Animation, Andrea Miloro and Robert Baird were named co-presidents of 20th Century Fox Animation.[58]

20th Century Fox issued a default notice in regards to its licensing agreement for the under-construction 20th Century Fox World theme park in Malaysia by Genting Malaysia Bhd. In November 2018 Genting Malaysia filed suit in response and included soon to be parent The Walt Disney Company.[59]

Disney acquisition and rebranding

On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to purchase most of the 21st Century Fox assets, including 20th Century Fox, for $52.4 billion.[60] After a bid from Comcast (parent company of NBCUniversal) for $65 billion, Disney counterbid with $71.3 billion.[61] On July 19, 2018, Comcast dropped out of the bid for 21st Century Fox in favor of Sky plc and Sky UK. Eight days later, Disney and 21st Century Fox shareholders approved the merger between the two companies.[9] Although the deal was completed on March 20, 2019,[62] 20th Century Fox was not planning to relocate to Walt Disney Studios in Burbank. It would retain its headquarters in Century City on the Fox Studio Lot, which is currently leased to Disney by Fox Corporation, for seven years.[7] Various units were moved out from under 20th Century Fox at acquisition.

On January 17, 2020, Disney renamed the studio as 20th Century Studios (legally, 20th Century Studios, Inc.[63]), which served to help avoid brand confusion with the Fox Corporation. Similar to other Disney film units, distribution of 20th Century films is now handled by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, while 20th Century's sister company, Searchlight Pictures, operates their own autonomous distribution unit.[8] The first film released by Disney under the studio's new name was The Call of the Wild.[10]

In January 2020, held-over production president Emma Watts resigned from the company.[64] On March 12, 2020, Steve Asbell was named president, production of 20th Century Studios, while Morrison was named president, streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live-action development and production of Walt Disney Pictures and 20th Century Studios for Disney+. Philip Steuer will now lead physical and post-production and VFX, as president of production at Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production. Randi Hiller will now lead casting as executive VP casting, overseeing both Walt Disney Pictures and 20th Century Studios. Steuer has served as executive VP of physical production for Walt Disney Studios since 2015, and Hiller has led casting for Walt Disney Studios since 2011. Both will dual-report to Asbell and Sean Bailey.[1]

Television

20th Television is the television production division of 20th Century Studios. 20th Century Fox Television was the studio's television production division, along with Fox 21 Television Studios until they were renamed 20th Television and Touchstone Television respectively in 2020. 20th Television was also the studio's television syndication division until it was folded into Disney-ABC Domestic Television in 2020.[65]

During the mid-1950s, feature films were released to television in the hope that they would broaden sponsorship and help the distribution of network programs. Blocks of one-hour programming of feature films to national sponsors on 128 stations were organized by Twentieth Century Fox and National Telefilm Associates. Twentieth Century Fox received 50% interest in the NTA Film network after it sold its library to National Telefilm Associates. This gave 90 minutes of cleared time a week and syndicated feature films to 110 non-interconnected stations for sale to national sponsors.[66]

Buyout of Four Star

Rupert Murdoch's 20th Century bought out the remaining assets of Four Star Television from Ronald Perelman's Compact Video in 1996.[67] The majority of Four Star Television's library of programs are controlled by 20th Television today.[68][69][70] After Murdoch's numerous buyouts during the buyout era of the eighties, News Corporation had built up financial debts of $7 billion (much from Sky TV in the UK), despite the many assets that were held by NewsCorp.[71] The high levels of debt caused Murdoch to sell many of the American magazine interests he had acquired in the mid-1980s.

Music

Between 1933 and 1937, a custom record label called Fox Movietone was produced starting at F-100 and running through F-136. It featured songs from 20th Century movies, first using material recorded and issued on Victor's Bluebird label and halfway through switched to material recorded and issued on ARC's dime store labels (Melotone, Perfect, etc.). These scarce records were sold only at Fox Theaters.

20th Century formed its music arm, 20th Century Fox Records in 1958. It would lay dormant in 1981. Fox Music has been the 20th Century's music arm since 2000. It encompasses music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with Fox Entertainment Group's television and film soundtracks under license by Universal Music Group, EMI, Sony Music, and Warner Music Group. It would also lay dormant on January 17, 2020.

Radio

The Twentieth Century Fox Presents radio series[72] were broadcast between 1936 and 1942. More often than not, the shows were a radio preview featuring a medley of the songs and soundtracks from the latest movie being released into the theaters, much like the modern-day movie trailers we now see on TV, to encourage folks to head down to their nearest Picture House.

The radio shows featured the original stars, with the announcer narrating a lead-up that encapsulated the performance.

Motion picture film processing

From its earliest ventures into movie production, Fox Film Corporation operated its own processing laboratories. The original lab was located in Fort Lee, New Jersey along with the studios. A lab was included with the new studio built in Los Angeles in 1916.[73] Headed by Alan E. Freedman, the Fort Lee lab was moved into the new Fox Studios building in Manhattan in 1919.[74] In 1932, Freedman bought the labs from Fox for $2,000,000 to bolster what at that time was a failing Fox liquidity.[75][76] He renamed the operation "DeLuxe Laboratories," which much later became Deluxe Entertainment Services Group. In the 1940s Freedman sold the labs back to what was then 20th Century Fox and remained as president into the 1960s. Under Freedman's leadership, DeLuxe added two more labs in Chicago and Toronto and processed film from studios other than Fox, such as UA and Universal.

Divisions

20th Century Family

20th Century Family
FormerlyFox Family (2017-2021)
TypeDivision
IndustryFilm
Founded2017; 4 years ago (2017)
HeadquartersFox Studio Lot Building 88, 10201 West Pico Boulevard, ,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Number of employees
2,300 (2018) Edit this on Wikidata
ParentWalt Disney Studios
20th Century Studios

20th Century Family (formerly Fox Family) is a family-friendly production division of 20th Century Studios. Besides family-friendly theatrical films, the division oversees mixed media (live-action with animation), family animated holiday television specials based on film properties, and film features based on TV shows.

On October 30, 2017, Morrison was transferred from her post as president of 20th Century Animation, the prior Fox Family Films, to be president of a newly created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, which as a mandate similar to Fox Family Films. The division pick up supervision of a Bob's Burgers film[57] and some existing deals with animation producers, including Tonko House.[77] With the sale of 21st Century Fox to Disney in March 2019, rights to The Dam Keeper feature animated film returned to Tonko House.[78]

With the August 2019 20th Century Fox slate overhaul announcement, 20th Century Fox properties such as Home Alone, Night at the Museum, Diary of the Wimpy Kid, Cheaper by the Dozen, and the Ice Age spin-off have been assigned for Disney+ release and assigned to 20th Century Family.[79] On March 12, 2020, Morrison was named president, Streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live action development and production of Disney Live Action and 20th Century Studios for Disney+.[1]

Upcoming productions

Former Divisions

Fox VFX Lab (defunct)

Fox VFX Lab
FormerlyTechnocrops (2011-2017)
TypeDivision
IndustryFilm
PredecessorsTechnocrops
Founded2011; 10 years ago (2011)
DefunctAugust 1, 2019; 23 months ago (2019-08-01)
FateDisney just shut down the studio
HeadquartersFox Studio Lot Building 88, 10201 West Pico Boulevard, ,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Number of employees
2,300 (2018) Edit this on Wikidata
ParentWalt Disney Studios
20th Century Studios

Fox VFX Lab was a visual effects company division of 20th Century Studios that was acquired in 2017 known as Technoprops. It is led by president John Kilkenny. Besides their visual effects activities, the division oversees different parts of the world to apply for and work on projects that include films such as Avatar, Rise of the Planet of the Apes, Alita: Battle Angel, The Jungle Book, Rogue One, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, Doctor Strange, and Warcraft[84] and also video game properties like Need for Speed (2015), Battlefield 1, Rainbow Six Siege, Watch Dogs 2, Just Cause 3, Rise of the Tomb Raider, Assassin's Creed Syndicate, Mafia III, Halo 4, Street Fighter V, Call of Duty (Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare and Black Ops III), Far Cry (Far Cry 5 and Primal), Mortal Kombat (X and 11), and Sonic the Hedgehog (Forces and Team Sonic Racing).[85][86] On August 1, 2019, Disney would reportedly shut down the unit after firing all of its executives and employees.[87][88]

Fox Atomic (defunct)

Fox Atomic was a youth-focused film production company and division of Fox Filmed Entertainment that operated from 2006 to April 2009. Atomic was originally paired with either 20th Century Fox or its Fox Searchlight division under their same, respective leadership.

In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up[44] under Fox Searchlight head Peter Rice and COO John Hegeman[45] as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment.[44] Debbie Liebling transferred to Fox Atomic in 2007 from Fox.[45] In January 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox,[89] when Hegeman moved to Regency Enterprises. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Searchlight with Liebling overseeing them.[45]

Films in production at shutting down and transferred to other Fox units

Fox Faith (defunct)

Fox Faith was an over-the-top evangelical Christian-based film production company and division of Fox Filmed Entertainment that operated from 2006 to 2010. In addition to being paired with 20th Century Fox and Fox Searchlight, it was also paired with Fox's home video division, though has had theatrical limited release agreements with AMC Theatres and Carmike Theatres chains.[90] Fox Faith was considered from the studio as "morally-driven, family-friendly programming," and requires them to "have overt Christian [c]ontent or be derived from the work of a Christian author."[91] Faith was located in the Republic of Palau within the Pacific Ocean until 2010 when the company ceased operations and was formed as 20th Century Fox Palau. Its final film, Mama, I Want to Sing!, was filmed in 2009, but was shelved until 2012 due to the studio's closure.

Fox International Productions (defunct)

Fox International Productions
TypeDivision
IndustryFilm
Founded2008; 13 years ago (2008)
Defunct2017; 4 years ago (2017)
SuccessorsDisney International Operations (3 years after the shutdown of the studio)
HeadquartersFox Studio Lot Building 88, 10201 West Pico Boulevard, ,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Number of employees
2,300 (2018) Edit this on Wikidata
Parent20th Century Studios

Fox International Productions was the division of 20th Century Fox in charge of local production in 12 territories in China, Europe, India and Latin America from 2008 to 2017.

In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions under president Sanford Panitch. The company had $900 million in box-office receipts by the time Panitch left the company for Sony Pictures on June 2, 2015.[47] Co-president of worldwide theatrical marketing and distribution for 20th Century Fox Tomas Jegeus was named president of Fox International Productions effective September 1, 2015.[92] The company struck a development and production deal in November 2015 with Zhejiang Huace, a Chinese entertainment group.[93] In December 2017, 20th Century Fox film chairman-CEO Stacey Snider indicated that Fox International Productions would be dissolved in favor of each local and regional offices producing or acquiring projects.[94]

Logo and fanfare

The 20th Century-Fox production logo and fanfare (as seen in 1947)

The familiar 20th Century production logo originated as the logo of Twentieth Century Pictures and was adopted by 20th Century-Fox after the merger in 1935. It consists of a stacked block-letter three-dimensional, monolithic logotype (nicknamed "the Monument") surrounded by Art deco buildings and illuminated by searchlights.[95] In the production logo that appears at the start of films, the searchlights are animated and the sequence is accompanied by a distinctive fanfare that was originally composed in 1933 by Alfred Newman.[96] The original layout of the logo was designed by special effects animator and matte painting artist Emil Kosa Jr..[97][98]

The 20th Century logo and fanfare have been recognized as an iconic symbol of a golden age of Hollywood. Its appearance at the start of popular films such as How Green Was My Valley (1941) and MASH (1970) established its recognition.[99]

In 1953, Rocky Longo, an artist at Pacific Title, was hired to recreate the original logo design for the new CinemaScope picture process. Longo tilted the "0" in "20th" to have the logo maintain proportions in the wider CinemaScope format.[100] Alfred Newman also re-composed the logo's fanfare with an extension to be heard during the CinemaScope logo that would follow after the Fox logo. Although the format had since declined, director George Lucas specifically requested that the CinemaScope version of the fanfare be used for the opening titles of Star Wars (1977). Additionally, the film's main theme was composed by John Williams in the same key as the fanfare (B major), serving as an extension to it of sorts.[101][99] In 1981, the logo was slightly altered with the re-straightening of the "0" in "20th".[100]

In 1994, after a few failed attempts, Fox in-house television producer Kevin Burns was hired to produce a new logo for the company, this time using the then-new process of computer-generated imagery (CGI) adding more detail and animation, with the longer 21-second Fox fanfare arranged by Bruce Broughton used as the underscore. It would later be re-recorded by David Newman in 1997 and again in 1998.[100][99]

In 2009, an updated logo created by Blue Sky Studios debuted with the release of Avatar.[100]

On September 16, 2014, 20th Century Fox posted a video showcasing all of the various versions of the logo, including some variations, up until the 2009 version of the logo, with the 1998 version of the fanfare composed by David Newman, to promote the new Fox Movies website.

On January 17, 2020, it was reported that Disney had begun to phase out the "Fox" name from the studio's branding as it is no longer tied to the current Fox Corporation, with 20th Century Fox and Fox Searchlight Pictures respectively renamed to 20th Century Studios and Searchlight Pictures. Branding elements associated with the studio, including the searchlights, monolith, and fanfare, will remain in use. The first film that carries the new 20th Century Studios name is The Call of the Wild (coincidentally the original film adaptation was the original Twentieth Century Pictures' final movie before its merger with Fox Film).[102][10][103]

For the 20th Century Studios logo, its print logo debuted on a movie poster of The New Mutants[104][105] while the on-screen logo debuted in a television advertisement for and the full version debuted on February 21, 2020, with the film The Call of the Wild.[106]

The 20th Century Studios logo was animated by Picturemill, based on Blue Sky Studios' animation.[107]

In the television series Futurama, a "30th Century Fox" logo appears after some episodes about its setting.

Films and franchises

Lists

Film series

Title Release date Notes
Terrytoons 1924–1994 co-production with CBS Corporation and Viacom Enterprises.
Charlie Chan 1929–1942
State Fair 1933–1962
Flicka 1943–2012 co-production with Fox 2000 Pictures and Dune Entertainment.
Anna and the King of Siam 1946–1999 co-production with Fox 2000 Pictures and Lawrence Bender Productions.
Miracle on 34th Street 1947–1994 co-production with Hughes Entertainment.
Cheaper by the Dozen 1950–present co-production with Dune Entertainment and Robert Simmonds Productions.
The Day the Earth Stood Still 1951–2008 co-production with Dune Entertainment and 3 Arts Entertainment.
Titanic 1953–1997 co-production with Paramount Pictures and Lightstorm Entertainment.
Anastasia 1956–1999 co-production with 20th Century Animation and Fox Animation Studios.
The Fly 1958–1989 co-production with Associated Producers Inc., Lippert Films, and Brooksfilm.
The Flight of the Phoenix 1965–2004 co-production with The Associates and Aldrich and Davis Entertainment.
Derek Flint 1966–1976
Valley of the Dolls 1967–1970
Dr. Dolittle 1967–2009 co-production with APJAC Productions, Davis Entertainment, Eddie Murphy Productions, and Friendly Films.
Bedazzled 1967–2000 co-production with Regency Enterprises and Kirch Media.
Planet of the Apes 1968–present co-production with APJAC Productions, The Zanuck Company, Tim Burton Productions, Chernin Entertainment, 6th & Idaho, Dune Entertainment, and TSG Entertainment.
M*A*S*H 1970–1985 co-production with Aspen Productions and Ingo Preminger Productions.
The French Connection 1971–1974 co-production with Philip D'Antoni Productions.
The Omen 1976–2017 co-production with Dune Entertainment, Mace Neufeld Productions, and Harvey Bernhard Productions.
Star Wars 1977–2005 co-production with Lucasfilm.
Alien 1979–present co-production with Brandywine Productions, Scott Free Productions, Dune Entertainment and TSG Entertainment.
Porky's 1981–2009 co-production with Astral Films.
Romancing the Stone 1984–1985 co-production with The Stone Group.
Revenge of the Nerds 1984–present co-production with Interscope Communications.
Cocoon 1985–1988 co-production with Imagine Entertainment and The Zanuck Company.
Mannequin 1987–1991 co-production with Gladden Entertainment
Predator 1987–present co-production with Silver Pictures, Gordon Company, Davis Entertainment, Dune Entertainment, Troublemaker Studios, and TSG Entertainment.
Wall Street 1987–2010 co-production with Dune Entertainment and Edward Pressman Productions.
Die Hard 1988–present co-production with The Mark Gordon Company, Silver Pictures, Cinergi Pictures, Dune Entertainment, Cheyenne Enterprises, TSG Entertainment, Giant Pictures, and Temple Hill Entertainment.
Young Guns 1988–1990 co-production with Morgan Creek Productions.
Alien Nation 1988–1997 co-production with American Entertainment Partners.
Alien vs. Predator 1989–present co-production with Davis Entertainment, Gordon Company, Brandywine Productions, Dark Horse Entertainment, Impact Pictures, Stillking Films, and Dune Entertainment.
The Simpsons 1989–present co-production with 20th Century Animation, Gracie Films, and The Curiosity Company.
Home Alone 1990–present co-production with Hughes Entertainment.
Hot Shots! 1991–1993 co-production with Jim Abrahams Productions.
FernGully 1992–1998 co-production with 20th Century Animation, CBS/Fox Video, Kroyer Films, and FAI Films.
Buffyverse 1992–2003 co-production with Mutant Enemy Productions, Sandollar Productions, and Kuzui Enterprises.
The X-Files 1993–2018 co-production with Ten Thirteen Productions and Dune Entertainment.
The Sandlot 1993–2007 co-production with Island World.
Speed 1994–1997 co-production with The Mark Gordon Company and Blue Tulip Productions.
Power Rangers 1995–1997 co-production with Fox Family Films, Saban Entertainment, and Toei Company.
Independence Day 1996–present co-production with Centropolis Entertainment, Electric Entertainment, and TSG Entertainment.
Jingle All the Way 1996–2014 co-production with 1492 Pictures and WWE Studios.
Family Guy 1999–present co-production with 20th Century Animation and Fuzzy Door Productions.
Futurama 1999–2013 co-production with 20th Century Animation, Rough Draft Studios, and The Curiosity Company.
Big Momma's House 2000–2011 co-production with Regency Enterprises, Runteldat Entertainment, and Dune Entertainment.
X-Men 2000–2020 co-production with Bad Hat Harry Productions, The Donners' Company, Genre Films, Marvel Entertainment, Dune Entertainment and TSG Entertainment.
Dude, Where's My Car? 2000–present co-production with Alcon Entertainment.
24 2001–present co-production with Imagine Entertainment.
Joy Ride 2001–2014 co-production with Regency Enterprises, Bad Robot Productions, and LivePlanet.
Behind Enemy Lines 2001–2014 co-production with Davis Entertainment.
Super Troopers 2001–2018 co-production with Broken Lizard.
Kung Pow! 2002–present co-production with O Entertainment.
Ice Age 2002–present co-production with 20th Century Animation and Blue Sky Studios.
Minority Report 2002–2016 co-production with DreamWorks Pictures, Amblin Entertainment, Cruise/Wagner Productions, and Blue Tulip Productions.
Like Mike 2002–2006 co-production with Barry Josephson Productions and NBA Productions.
The Transporter 2002–2015 US distribution only (except for the third which was distributed by Lionsgate); produced and released elsewhere by EuropaCorp.
Drumline 2002–2014 co-production with N'Credible Entertainment, Wendy Finerman Productions, and Fox 2000 Pictures.
28 Days Later 2002–2007 US distribution only; produced and released in the UK by UK Film Council; co-production with DNA Films.
Wrong Turn 2003–2014 US distribution only; co-production with Regency Enterprises; produced and released elsewhere by Constantin Film and Summit Entertainment.
Master and Commander 2003–present co-production with Miramax, Samuel Goldwyn Films and Universal Pictures.
Garfield 2004–2009 co-production with 20th Century Animation, Davis Entertainment, Dune Entertainment and Paws, Inc..
Napoleon Dynamite 2004–2012 co-production with Paramount Pictures and MTV Films.
American Dad! 2005–present co-production with 20th Century Animation and Fuzzy Door Productions.
Fantastic Four 2005–2015 co-production with 1492 Pictures, Constantin Film, Genre Films, Marvel Entertainment, and TSG Entertainment.
The Hills Have Eyes 2006–2007 co-production with Dune Entertainment and Craven/Maddalena Films.
The Marine 2006–2018 co-production with Dune Entertainment and WWE Studios.
Eragon 2006–present co-production with Dune Entertainment, Davis Entertainment, and Di Bonaventura Pictures.
Night at the Museum 2006–present co-production with 21 Laps Entertainment, 1492 Pictures, and TSG Entertainment.
Hitman 2007–2015 US distribution only; produced and released elsewhere by EuropaCorp; co-production with TSG Entertainment, Eidos Interactive, IO Interactive and Square Enix.
Alvin and the Chipmunks 2007–2015 co-production with 20th Century Animation, Fox 2000 Pictures, Dune Entertainment, TSG Entertainment, Regency Enterprises and Bagdasarian Productions.
Taken 2008–2014 US distribution only; produced and released elsewhere by EuropaCorp.
Street Kings 2008–2011 co-production with Dune Entertainment and 3 Arts Entertainment.
Mirrors 2008–2010 co-production with Dune Entertainment and Regency Enterprises.
Marley & Me 2008–2011 co-production with Dune Entertainment and Regency Enterprises.
12 Rounds 2009–2015 co-production with Dune Entertainment and WWE Studios.
Dragonball 2009–2018 co-distributed in the US by Funimation; produced and released elsewhere by Toei Company.
Wolverine 2009–2017 co-production with Dune Entertainment, TSG Entertainment, Genre Films, Marvel Entertainment, and Seed Productions.
Glee 2009–2015 co-production with Dune Entertainment and Ryan Murphy Productions.
Archer 2009–present co-production with 20th Century Animation and Floyd County Productions.
Avatar 2009–present co-production with Lightstorm Entertainment.
Tooth Fairy 2010–2013 co-production with Dune Entertainment, Walden Media, Blumhouse Productions, and WWE Studios.
Percy Jackson 2010–2013 co-production with Dune Entertainment, 1492 Pictures, and TSG Entertainment.
Diary of a Wimpy Kid 2010–present co-production with 20th Century Animation, Dune Entertainment, TSG Entertainment and Color Force.
Bob's Burgers 2011–present co-production with 20th Century Animation, Wilo Productions and Bento Box Entertainment.
Rio 2011–2014 co-production with 20th Century Animation and Blue Sky Studios.
Chronicle 2012–present co-production with Dune Entertainment and Davis Entertainment.
Maze Runner 2014–2018 co-production with TSG Entertainment, Oddball Entertainment, Gotham Group, and Temple Hill Entertainment.
Kingsman 2015–present co-production with TSG Entertainment, Genre Films and Marv Films.
Deadpool 2016–2018 co-production with TSG Entertainment, Genre Films, Marvel Entertainment, and Maximum Effort.
Hercule Poirot 2017–present co-production with TSG Entertainment, Genre Films, Scott Free Productions, and The Mark Gordon Company.
Alita 2019–present co-production with TSG Entertainment, Lightstorm Entertainment, and Troublemaker Studios.

Highest-grossing films

The Academy Film Archive houses the 20th Century Fox Features Collection which contains features, trailers, and production elements mostly from the Fox, Twentieth Century, and Twentieth Century-Fox studios, from the late 1920s–1950s.[108]

Highest-grossing films in North America[109]
Rank Title Year Box office gross
1 Avatar 2009 $760,507,625
2 Titanic 1997 $659,363,944
3 Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace 1999 $474,544,677
4 Star Wars 1977 $460,998,007
5 Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith 2005 $380,270,577
6 Deadpool 2016 $363,070,709
7 Deadpool 2 2018 $324,535,803
8 Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones 2002 $310,676,740
9 Return of the Jedi 1983 $309,306,177
10 Independence Day 1996 $306,169,268
11 The Empire Strikes Back 1980 $290,475,067
12 Home Alone 1990 $285,761,243
13 Night at the Museum 2006 $250,863,268
14 X-Men: The Last Stand 2006 $234,362,462
15 X-Men: Days of Future Past 2014 $233,921,534
16 Cast Away 2000 $233,632,142
17 The Martian 2015 $228,433,663
18 Logan 2017 $226,277,068
19 Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel 2009 $219,614,612
20 Mrs. Doubtfire 1993 $219,195,243
21 Alvin and the Chipmunks 2007 $217,326,974
22 Bohemian Rhapsody 2018 $216,428,042
23 X2 2003 $214,949,694
24 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes 2014 $208,545,589
25 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs 2009 $196,573,705
Highest-grossing films worldwide
Rank Title Year Box office gross
1 Avatar 2009 $2,789,679,794
2 Titanic 1997 $2,187,463,944
3 Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace 1999 $1,027,044,677
4 Bohemian Rhapsody 2018 $903,655,259
5 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs 2009 $886,686,817
6 Ice Age: Continental Drift 2012 $877,244,782
7 Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith 2005 $848,754,768
8 Independence Day 1996 $817,400,891
9 Deadpool 2 2018 $785,046,920
10 Deadpool 2016 $783,112,979
11 Star Wars 1977 $775,398,007
12 X-Men: Days of Future Past 2014 $747,862,775
13 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes 2014 $710,644,566
14 Ice Age: The Meltdown 2006 $660,940,780
15 Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones 2002 $649,398,328
16 The Martian 2015 $630,161,890
17 How to Train Your Dragon 2 2014 $621,537,519
18 Logan 2017 $616,225,934
19 Life of Pi 2012 $609,016,565
20 The Croods 2013 $587,204,668
21 Night at the Museum 2006 $574,480,841
22 The Empire Strikes Back 1980 $547,969,004
23 The Day After Tomorrow 2004 $544,272,402
24 X-Men: Apocalypse 2016 $543,934,787
25 The Revenant 2015 $532,950,503

I ‡—Includes theatrical reissue(s).

See also

References

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Sources

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