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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tsyklon-3 (Tsiklon-3)
Циклон-3 і 8К99.JPG
Tsyklon-3 on display in downtown Dnipro
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerYuzhmash
Country of originSoviet Union (Ukraine)
Size
Height39.27 m (128.83 ft)
Diameter3 m (9.8 ft)
Mass189,000 kg (416,000 lb)
Stages3
Capacity
Payload to LEO4,100 kg (9,000 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-36, Tsyklon
DerivativesTsyklon-4, Cyclone-4M
ComparableDelta II
Launch history
StatusRetired[1]
Launch sitesPlesetsk Cosmodrome LC-32
Total launches122
Success(es)114
Failure(s)8
First flight24 June 1977
Last flight30 January 2009[1]
Notable payloadsTselina
Meteor
Okean
Geo-IK
Strela
First stage – 11K69
Engines1 RD-261
Thrust3,032 kN (681,620 lbf)
Specific impulse301 sec
Burn time120 seconds
FuelN
2
O
4
/ UDMH
Second stage – 11S692
Engines1 RD-262
Thrust941 kN (211,545 lbf)
Specific impulse318 sec
Burn time160 seconds
FuelN
2
O
4
/ UDMH
Third stage – 11S693
Engines1 RD-861
Thrust78.70 kN (17,694 lbf)
Specific impulse317 sec
Burn time125 seconds
FuelN
2
O
4
/ UDMH

The Tsyklon-3, also known as Tsiklon-3 and Cyclone-3 (known as SL-14 by the United States DoD), GRAU index 11K68, was a Soviet, and subsequently Ukrainian orbital carrier rocket.

Overview

Tsyklon-3 launching a Meteor-3 satellite at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in August 1991
Tsyklon-3 launching a Meteor-3 satellite at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in August 1991

A derivative of the R-36 ICBM, and a member of the Tsyklon family, Tsyklon-3 made its maiden flight on 24 June 1977, and was retired on 30 January 2009.[1] The Ukrainian-built Tsyklon rockets were retired in favour of future all-Russian carrier rockets, such as the Angara, and because they were fuelled by toxic hypergolic propellants.[2]

Successor

Ukraine was developing a commercial derivative of the Tsyklon-3, the Tsyklon-4.[citation needed] The development of Tsyklon-4 ended in 2015 after Ukraine's development partner Brazil pulled out of the project. Tsyklon-4 never made it to launch pad.

Another successor to the Tsyklon rockets, Cyclone-4M (based on Tsyklon-4 desings), is under development as of 2021 for use in the commercial market.

2013 loss of Ecuadorian satellite after impact with Tsyklon-3 space debris

On 23 May 2013 at approximately 05:38 UTC, the Ecuadorian satellite NEE-01 Pegaso passed very close to the spent upper stage of a 1985 Tsyklon-3 rocket over the Indian Ocean. While there was no direct collision between the satellite and upper stage, Pegaso is believed to have suffered a "glancing blow" after passing through a debris cloud around the Tsyklon stage and striking one of the small pieces.[3][4] After the incident, the satellite was found to be "spinning wildly over two of its axes" and unable to communicate with its ground station.[3] Efforts to reestablish control of Pegaso failed,[4] and on 28 August 2013 the decision was made by EXA and the Ecuadorian government to declare the satellite as lost.[5]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c Barbosa, Rui C. (2009-01-30). "Russian Tsyklon-3 bows out with CORONAS launch". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  2. ^ APMC - Космические войска обеспечили реальность сроков сдачи в эксплуатацию перспективного РКК "Ангара" (Russian)
  3. ^ a b "Satellite collides with Soviet-era rocket". Al Jazeera. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Ecuador tries to fix satellite after space debris crash". BBC News. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  5. ^ "Pegasus satellite was declared 'lost' by EXA". Ecuador Times. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 12:47
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