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Trinity College, Cambridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Trinity College
University of Cambridge
Trinity College Great Court
Trinity College Great Court

Scarf colours: navy, with three equally-spaced narrow stripes, the outer stripes of yellow and slightly narrower, the central stripe of red and slightly wider

Trinity College scarf
Trinity College coat of arms
Coat of arms of Trinity College
Arms: Argent, a chevron between three roses gules barbed and seeded proper and on a chief gules a lion passant gardant between two closed books all Or
LocationTrinity Street (map)
Full nameThe College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity within the Town and University of Cambridge of King Henry the Eighth's Foundation
Latin nameCollegium Trinitatis
MottoVirtus Vera Nobilitas[1] (Latin)
Motto in EnglishVirtue is true nobility
FounderHenry VIII of England
Established1546; 478 years ago (1546)
Named afterThe Holy Trinity
Previous namesKing's Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546)
Sister collegeChrist Church, Oxford
MasterDame Sally Davies
Vice-MasterProfessor Louise Merrett
Undergraduates735 (2022-23)
Postgraduates336 (2022-23)
Senior tutorProfessor Catherine Barnard[2]
Endowment£2.19bn (2023)[3]
Charles III, The Crown ex officio[4]
Location in Central Cambridge
Location in Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.[5] Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, Trinity is one of the largest Cambridge colleges,[6] with the largest financial endowment of any Oxbridge college. Trinity performs exceptionally as measured by the Tompkins Table (the annual unofficial league table of Cambridge colleges), coming top from 2011 to 2017.[7] Trinity was the top-performing college for the 2020–21 undergraduate exams, obtaining the highest percentage of good honours.[8]

Members of Trinity have been awarded 34 Nobel Prizes out of the 121 received by members of the University of Cambridge (the highest of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge).[9] Members of the college have received four Fields Medals, one Turing Award and one Abel Prize.[10] Six British prime ministers (the highest of any Cambridge college) and two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees.[11] Trinity is also the largest Oxbridge college measured by the number of undergraduates (730), and has 300 graduate students and 180 fellows.

Trinity's many college societies include the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, and the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club which gives its name to the May ball. Along with Christ's, Jesus, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several well-known members of the Cambridge Apostles, an intellectual "secret society". In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing fee-paying private schools codified the early rules of Association football, known as the Cambridge Rules.[12] Trinity's sister college is Christ Church, Oxford. Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, and its Master is an ex officio governor of the school.[13]

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1575 map showing the King's Hall (top left) and Michaelhouse (top right) buildings before Thomas Nevile's reconstruction.


The college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse (founded by Hervey de Stanton in 1324), and King's Hall (established by Edward II in 1317 and refounded by Edward III in 1337). At the time, Henry had been seizing (Catholic) church lands from abbeys and monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line. The King duly passed an Act of Parliament that allowed him to suppress (and confiscate the property of) any college he wished. The universities used their contacts to plead with his sixth wife, Catherine Parr. The Queen persuaded her husband not to close them down, but to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges (King's Hall and Michaelhouse) and seven hostels to form Trinity.

Nevile's expansion

David Loggan's print of 1690 showing Nevile's Great Court (foreground) and Nevile's Court with the then-new Wren Library (background) – New Court had yet to be built.

The monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile (1593–1615) that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the words of Roger Ascham, Trinity was a colonia deducta.[14]

Most of Trinity's major buildings date from the 16th and 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, rebuilt and redesigned much of the college. This work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court and the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century with the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren. Nevile's building campaign drove the college into debt from which it surfaced only in the 1640s, and the Mastership of Richard Bentley adversely affected applications and finances.[14] Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge and for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Besides, despite not being a sister college of Trinity College in Dublin, as is the case with Saint John's College, Cambridge, it is believed that the Irish institution takes its name from this college, which was the alma mater of its first provost, Adam Loftus and, likewise, from the Oxford college of the same name.

Modern day

Trinity established Cambridge Science Park, the UK's first science park, in 1970.
Remembrance Service at the Great Court in 2018.

In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society. In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound[15] Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college with a landholding alone worth £800 million.[16] For comparison, the second richest college in Cambridge (St. John's) has estimated assets of around £780 million, and the richest college in Oxford (Magdalen) has about £940 million.[17] In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity has some of the most distinctive architecture in Cambridge with its Great Court said to be the largest enclosed courtyard in Europe.[18] The college owns:

In 2018, Trinity revealed that it had investments totalling £9.1 million in companies involved in oil and gas production, exploration and refinement. These included holdings of £1.2 million in Royal Dutch Shell, £1.7 million in Exxon Mobil and £1 million in Chevron.[21] In 2019, Trinity confirmed its plan to withdraw from the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS), the main pre-1992 UK University pension provider.[22] In response, more than 500 Cambridge academics signed an open letter undertaking to "refuse to supervise Trinity students or to engage in other discretionary work in support of Trinity’s teaching and research activities".[23] On 17 February 2020, protestors from the campaign group Extinction Rebellion dug up the front lawn of Trinity College to protest against the College's investments in fossil fuels and its negotiations to sell off a farm in Suffolk that was to be turned into a lorry park.[24]


Lord Byron purportedly kept a pet bear whilst living in the college.[25] Trinity is also often cited as the inventor of an English version of crème brûlée, known as "Trinity burnt cream".[26][27]

Trinity in Camberwell

Trinity College has a long-standing relationship with the Parish of St George's, Camberwell,[28] in South London. Students from the College have helped to run holiday schemes for children from the parish since 1966. The relationship was formalised in 1979 with the establishment of Trinity in Camberwell as a registered charity.[29]

Buildings and grounds

A historical plan of the development of Trinity College by 1897.

Great Gate

The Great Gate is the main entrance to the college, leading to the Great Court. A statue of the college founder, Henry VIII, stands in a niche above the doorway. In 1983, Trinity College undergraduate Lance Anisfeld, then Vice-President of CURLS (Cambridge Union Raving Loony Society), replaced the chair leg with a bicycle pump. Once discovered the following day, the college removed the pump and replaced it with another chair leg. The original chair leg was auctioned off by TV Presenter Chris Serle at a Cambridge Union Society charity raffle in 1985. In 2023, the college replaced the chair leg with a sceptre to mark the 75th birthday of Charles III, an alumnus of the college.[30] In 1704, the University's first astronomical observatory was built on top of the gatehouse. Beneath the founder's statue are the coats of arms of Edward III, the founder of King's Hall, and those of his five sons who survived to maturity, as well as William of Hatfield, whose shield is blank as he died as an infant, before being granted arms.[31]

Great Court

Great Court (built 1599–1608) was the brainchild of Thomas Nevile, who demolished several existing buildings on this site, including almost the entirety of the former college of Michaelhouse. The sole remaining building of Michaelhouse was replaced by the then current Kitchens (designed by James Essex) in 1770–1775. The Master's Lodge is the official residence of the Sovereign when in Cambridge. King's Hostel (built 1377–1416) is located to the north of Great Court, behind the clock tower. This is, along with the King's Gate, the sole remaining building from King's Hall. Bishop's Hostel (built 1671) is a detached building to the southwest of Great Court, and named after John Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. Additional buildings were built in 1878 by Arthur Blomfield.

Nevile's Court

The Wren Library at Nevile's Court.

Nevile's Court (built 1614) is located between Great Court and the river, this court was created by a bequest by the college's master, Thomas Nevile, originally two-thirds of its current length and without the Wren Library. The court was extended and the appearance of the upper floor remodelled slightly in 1758 by James Essex. Cloisters run around the court, providing sheltered walkways from the rear of Great Hall to the college library and reading room as well as the Wren Library and New Court.

Wren Library interior, showing the limewood carvings by Grinling Gibbons.

Wren Library (built 1676–1695, Christopher Wren) is located at the west end of Nevile's Court, the Wren is one of Cambridge's most famous and well-endowed libraries. Among its notable possessions are two of Shakespeare's First Folios, a 14th-century manuscript of The Vision of Piers Plowman, letters written by Sir Isaac Newton, and the Eadwine Psalter.[32] Below the building are the pleasant Wren Library Cloisters, where students may enjoy a fine view of the Great Hall in front of them, and the river and Backs directly behind.

New Court

New Court (or King's Court; built 1825, William Wilkins) is located to the south of Nevile's Court, and built in Tudor-Gothic style; this court is notable for the large tree in the centre. A myth is sometimes circulated that this was the tree from which the apple dropped onto Isaac Newton; in fact, Newton was at home in Woolsthorpe when he deduced his theory of gravity – and the tree is a horse chestnut tree.[33][34] For many years it was the custom for students to place a bicycle high in branches of the tree of New Court. Usually invisible except in winter, when the leaves had fallen, such bicycles tended to remain for several years before being removed by the authorities. The students then inserted another bicycle.

Other courts

Whewell's Court north range

Whewell's Court (1860–1868, Anthony Salvin)[35] is located across the street from Great Court, and was entirely paid for by William Whewell, the Master of the college from 1841 until his death in 1866. The north range was later remodelled by W.D. Caroe. Angel Court (built 1957–1959, H. C. Husband) is located between Great Court and Trinity Street, and is used along with the Wolfson Building for accommodating first year students.

The Wolfson Building (built 1968–1972, Architects' Co-Partnership) is located to the south of Whewell's Court, on top of a podium above shops, this building resembles a brick-clad ziggurat, and is used exclusively for first-year accommodation. Having been renovated during the academic year 2005–06, rooms are now all en-suite. Blue Boar Court (built 1989, MJP Architects) is located to the south of the Wolfson Building, on top of podium a floor up from ground level, and including the upper floors of several surrounding Georgian buildings on Trinity Street, Green Street and Sidney Street. Burrell's Field (built 1995, MJP Architects) is located on a site to the west of the main College buildings, opposite the Cambridge University Library.[36]


Inside Trinity College Chapel

Trinity College Chapel dates from the mid 16th century and is Grade I listed.[37] There are a number of memorials to former Fellows of Trinity within the Chapel, including statues, brasses, and two memorials to graduates and Fellows who died during the World Wars.[38] Among the most notable of these is a statue of Isaac Newton by Roubiliac, described by Sir Francis Chantrey as "the noblest, I think, of all our English statues."[39] The Chapel is a performance space for the College Choir which comprises around thirty Choral Scholars and two Organ Scholars, all of whom are ordinarily students at the University.[40]


The Fellows' Garden is located on the west side of Queen's Road, opposite the drive that leads to the Backs. The Fellows' Bowling Green is located north of Great Court, between King's Hostel and the river. It is the site for many of the tutors' garden parties in the summer months, while the Master's Garden is located behind the Master's Lodge. The Old Fields are located on the western side of Grange Road, next to Burrell's Field. It currently houses the college's gym, changing rooms, squash courts, badminton courts, rugby, hockey and football pitches along with tennis and netball courts.

Trinity Bridge

Trinity Bridge

Trinity Bridge is a stone built triple-arched road bridge across the River Cam. It was built of Portland stone in 1765 to the designs of James Essex to replace an earlier bridge built in 1651 and is a Grade I listed building.[41]


Academic profile

Over the last twenty years, the college has always come at least eighth in the Tompkins Table, which ranks the twenty-nine undergraduate Cambridge colleges according to the academic performance of their undergraduates, and for the last six occasions it has been in first place. Its average position in the Tompkins Table over that period has been between second and third, higher than any other. In 2016, 45% of Trinity undergraduates achieved Firsts, twelve percentage points ahead of second place Pembroke – a recent record among Cambridge colleges.[42]


Trinity's history, academic performance and alumni have made it one of the most prestigious constituent colleges of the University, making admission extremely competitive. About 50% of Trinity's undergraduates attended independent schools. In 2006 it accepted a smaller proportion of students from state schools (39%) than any other Cambridge college, and on a rolling three-year average it has admitted a smaller proportion of state school pupils (42%) than any other college at either Cambridge or Oxford.[43][44][45] According to the Good Schools Guide, about 7% of British school-age students attend private schools, although this figure refers to students in all school years – a higher proportion attend private schools in their final two years before university. Trinity states that it disregards what type of school its applicants attend, and accepts students solely on the basis of their academic prospects. Trinity admitted its first woman graduate student in 1976 and its first woman undergraduate in 1978. It elected its first female fellow (Marian Hobson) in 1977.[46]

Scholarships and prizes

The statue of Sir Isaac Newton in the chapel, where scholars are typically installed.

The Scholars, together with the Master and Fellows, make up the Foundation of the College. In order of seniority:

  • Research Scholars receive funding for graduate studies. Typically, one must graduate in the top ten percent of one's class and continue for graduate study at Trinity. They are given first preference in the assignment of college rooms and number approximately 25.
  • The Senior Scholars usually consist of those who attain a degree with First Class honours or higher in any year after the first of an undergraduate tripos. The college pays them a stipend of £250 a year and allows them to choose rooms directly following the research scholars. There are around 40 senior scholars at any one time.
  • The Junior Scholars usually consist of those who attained a First in their first year. Their stipend is £175 a year. They are given preference in the room ballot over 2nd years who are not scholars.

These scholarships are tenable for the academic year following that in which the result was achieved. If a scholarship is awarded but the student does not continue at Trinity then only a quarter of the stipend is given. However, all students who achieve a First are awarded an additional £240 prize upon announcement of the results.

Many final year undergraduates who achieve first-class honours in their final exams are offered full financial support, through a scheme known as Internal Graduate Studentships, to read for a master's degree at Cambridge.[47] Other support is available for PhD degrees. The College also offers a number of other bursaries and studentships open to external applicants. The right to walk on the grass in the college courts is exclusive to Fellows of the college and their guests. Scholars do, however, have the right to walk on the Scholars' Lawn, but only in full academic dress.


Great Court Run

Great Court, with (from left to right) the dining hall, Master's Lodge, fountain, clock tower, chapel and Great Gate.

The Great Court Run requires a circuit of the 400-yard perimeter of Great Court, in the 43 seconds of the clock striking 12. The time varies according to humidity. Students traditionally attempt to complete the circuit on the day of the Matriculation Dinner. It is a difficult challenge: one needs to be a fine sprinter to achieve it, but it is not necessary to be of Olympic standard, despite assertions made in the press.[48]

It is widely believed that Sebastian Coe successfully completed the run when he beat Steve Cram in a charity race in October 1988. Coe's time on 29 October 1988 was reported by Norris McWhirter to have been 45.52 seconds, but it was actually 46.0 seconds, while Cram's was 46.3 seconds. The clock on that day took 44.4 seconds and the video film confirms that Coe was some 12 metres short of the finish line when the final stroke occurred. The television commentators were wrong to speculate that the dying sounds of the bell could be included in the striking time, thereby allowing Coe's run to be claimed as successful. One reason Olympic runners Cram and Coe found the challenge difficult is that they started at the middle of one side of the court, having to negotiate four right-angle turns. In the days when students started at a corner, only three turns were needed. In addition, Cram and Coe ran entirely on the flagstones, while until 2017 students have typically cut corners to run on the cobbles.[49]

The Great Court Run was portrayed in the film Chariots of Fire about the British Olympic runners of 1924. The run was filmed at Eton College in Berkshire, not in Great Court. Until the mid-1990s, the run was traditionally attempted by first-year students at midnight following their matriculation dinner.[50] Following a number of accidents to undergraduates running on slippery cobbles, the college now organises a more formal Great Court Run, at 12 noon on the day of the matriculation dinner: while some contestants compete seriously, many others run in fancy dress and there are prizes for the fastest man and woman in each category.[51]

Open-air concerts


Singing on the River, 5 June 2016

One Sunday each June, the College Choir perform a short concert immediately after the clock strikes noon. Known as Singing from the Towers, half of the choir sings from the top of the Great Gate, while the other half sings from the top of the Clock Tower approximately 60 metres away, giving a strong antiphonal effect. Midway through the concert, the Cambridge University Brass Ensemble performs from the top of the Queen's Tower.[52]

Later that same day, the College Choir gives a second open-air concert, known as Singing on the River, where they perform madrigals and arrangements of popular songs from a raft of punts lit with lanterns or fairy lights on the river. For the finale, John Wilbye's madrigal Draw on, sweet night, the raft is unmoored and punted downstream to give a fade out effect. As a tradition, however, this latter concert dates back only to the mid-1980s, when the College Choir first acquired female members. In the years immediately before this, an annual concert on the river was given by the University Madrigal Society.[53]


Another tradition relates to an artificial duck known as the Mallard, which should reside in the rafters of the Great Hall. Students occasionally moved the duck from one rafter to another without permission from the college. This is considered difficult; access to the Hall outside meal-times is prohibited and the rafters are dangerously high, so it was not attempted for several years. During the Easter term of 2006, the Mallard was knocked off its rafter by one of the pigeons which enter the Hall through the pinnacle windows. It was reinstated by students in 2016, and is only visible from the far end of the hall.[54][55]

College rivalry

The college remains a great rival of St John's which is its main competitor in sports and academia. This has given rise to a number of anecdotes and myths. It is often cited as the reason why the older courts of Trinity generally have no J staircases, despite including other letters in alphabetical order. A far more likely reason is that the Latin alphabet did not have the letter J—the older courts of St John's College also lack J staircases. There are also two small muzzle-loading cannons on the bowling green pointing in the direction of John's, though this orientation may be coincidental. Another story sometimes told is that the reason that the clock in Trinity Great Court strikes each hour twice is that the fellows of St John's once complained about the noise it made.

Minor traditions

Trinity College undergraduate gowns are readily distinguished from the black gowns favoured by most other Cambridge colleges. They are instead dark blue with black facings. They are expected to be worn to formal events such as formal halls and also when an undergraduate sees the Dean of the College in a formal capacity. Trinity students, along with those of King's and St John's, are the first to be presented to the Congregation of the Regent House at graduation.

College Grace

The High Table is at the far end of the dining hall under the portrait of Henry VIII.

Each evening before dinner, grace is recited by the senior fellow presiding, as follows:

If both of the two high tables are in use then the following antiphonal formula is prefixed to the main grace:

Following the meal, the simple formula Benedicto benedicatur is pronounced.[57]

People associated with the college

Notable fellows and alumni

Charles III, King of the United Kingdom

The Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge contains the graves of 27 Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge most of whom are also commemorated in Trinity College Chapel with brass plaques. Charles III, King of the United Kingdom, attended from 1967 to 1970. Marian Hobson was the first woman to become a Fellow of the college, having been elected in 1977,[58][59] and her portrait now hangs in the college hall along with those of other notable members of the college.[60] Other notable female Fellows include Anne Barton, Marilyn Strathern, Catherine Barnard, Lynn Gladden and Rebecca Fitzgerald.

Sir Isaac Newton studied here in the 17th century.

Nobel Prize winners

Amartya Sen
Bertrand Russell

This list includes winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which is not one of the five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel's will in 1895.

Name Field Year
John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh Physics 1904
Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson Physics 1906
Ernest Rutherford Chemistry 1908
William Bragg Physics 1915
Lawrence Bragg Physics 1915
Charles Glover Barkla Physics 1917
Niels Bohr Physics 1922
Francis William Aston Chemistry 1922
Archibald V. Hill Physiology or Medicine 1922
Austen Chamberlain Peace 1925
Owen Willans Richardson Physics 1928
Frederick Hopkins Physiology or Medicine 1929
Edgar Douglas Adrian Physiology or Medicine 1932
Henry Dale Physiology or Medicine 1936
George Paget Thomson Physics 1937
Bertrand Russell Literature 1950
Ernest Walton Physics 1951
Richard Synge Chemistry 1952
John Kendrew Chemistry 1962
Alan Hodgkin Physiology or Medicine 1963
Andrew Huxley Physiology or Medicine 1963
Brian David Josephson Physics 1973
Martin Ryle Physics 1974
James Meade Economic Sciences 1977
Pyotr Kapitsa Physics 1978
Walter Gilbert Chemistry 1980
Aaron Klug Chemistry 1982
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Physics 1983
James Mirrlees Economic Sciences 1996
John Pople Chemistry 1998
Amartya Sen Economic Sciences 1998
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Chemistry 2009
Sir Gregory Paul Winter Chemistry 2018
Didier Queloz Physics 2019

Fields Medallists

Four members or alumni of Trinity College have been awarded the Fields Medal.

Name Year
Michael Atiyah 1966
Alan Baker 1970
Richard Borcherds 1998
Timothy Gowers 1998

Turing Award winners

Name Year
James H. Wilkinson 1970

British prime ministers

Lord Melbourne whose name gave rise to the Australian city Melbourne served as Prime Minister in 1834–1841
Name Party Year
Spencer Perceval Tory 1809–1812
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Whig 1830–1834
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne Whig 1834–1841
Arthur Balfour Conservative 1902–1905
Henry Campbell-Bannerman Liberal 1905–1908
Stanley Baldwin Conservative 1923–1924

Other Trinity politicians include Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, courtier of Elizabeth I; William Waddington, Prime Minister of France; Erskine Hamilton Childers, fourth President of Ireland; Jawaharlal Nehru, the first and longest serving Prime Minister of India; Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India; Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore; Samir Rifai, Prime Minister of Jordan; Richard Blumenthal, incumbent senior US Senator from Connecticut; and William Whitelaw, Home Secretary and subsequently Deputy Prime Minister.


Martin Rees was Master of Trinity from 2004 to 2012.
Dame Sally Davies, current Master of Trinity

The head of Trinity College is called the Master. The role is a Crown appointment, formally made by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister.[61] Nowadays, the fellows of the college propose a new master for the appointment,[62] but the decision is formally that of the Crown. The first Master, John Redman, was appointed in 1546. Six masters subsequent to Rab Butler had been fellows of the college prior to becoming master (honorary fellow in the case of Martin Rees), the last of these being Sir Gregory Winter, appointed on 2 October 2012.[63][64] He was succeeded by Dame Sally Davies, the first female Master of Trinity College, on 8 October 2019.[65]

See also


  1. ^ James, Simon (4 August 2008). Latin Matters: A Little Knowledge Is A Dangerous Thing. Pavilion Books. ISBN 9781906032319 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge". Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
  3. ^ "Annual Record of Trinity College, Cambridge (pg 237)". Retrieved 15 June 2024.
  4. ^ "Statutes of Trinity College, Cambridge". 2019.
  5. ^ Walker, Timea (21 January 2022). "Trinity College". Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  6. ^ Kirk, Ashley; Peck, Sally (1 October 2019). "Why Trinity is the best Cambridge college, according to our Oxbridge league table". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  7. ^ "Exclusive: Christ's triumphant in 2019 Tompkins Table". Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  8. ^ "Results by College Dashboard". 15 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Research at Cambridge/Nobel Prize". University of Cambridge. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Famous Trinity College Medallists and Prize Winners". Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  11. ^ Atkin, Elizabeth (21 September 2022). "Where did King Charles III go to school? His Majesty's education explained". Metro. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  12. ^ Murray, Bill; Murray, William J (1 January 1998). The World's Game: A History of Soccer. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252067181. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  13. ^ "Westminster School Intranet". Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  14. ^ a b "The colleges and halls – Trinity College | British History Online". Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  15. ^ Sample, Ian (6 April 2011). "Martin Rees wins controversial £1m prize". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  16. ^ "Oxford and Cambridge university colleges hold £21bn in riches". 28 May 2018. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  17. ^ Ruddick, Graham (28 January 2012). "Cambridge's Trinity College buys 50pc stake in Tesco stores". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  18. ^ Stephen Brewer, Donald Olson (2006). Best Day Trips from London: 25 Great Escapes by Train, Bus Or Car. Frommer's. p. 56. ISBN 0-470-04453-5.
  19. ^ "Cambridge Science Park". UK Science Parks Association. November 2006. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  20. ^ "Trinity College buys O2 concert arena". Daily Telegraph. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  21. ^ "Big Oil and deep sea drilling: The corporations underpinning Cambridge colleges' investments". Varsity Online. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
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External links

52°12′25″N 0°06′53″E / 52.2070°N 0.1146°E / 52.2070; 0.1146 (Trinity College)

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