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Trenton, New Jersey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Trenton, New Jersey
Flag of Trenton, New Jersey
Official seal of Trenton, New Jersey
Nickname(s): 
The Capital City,
Turning Point of the Revolution
Motto(s): 
"Trenton Makes, The World Takes"[1]
Location of Trenton in Mercer County highlighted in red (right). Inset map: Location of Mercer County in New Jersey highlighted in orange (left).
Location of Trenton in Mercer County highlighted in red (right). Inset map: Location of Mercer County in New Jersey highlighted in orange (left).
Census Bureau map of Trenton, New Jersey Interactive map of Trenton, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Trenton, New Jersey
Map
Interactive map of Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is located in Mercer County, New Jersey
Trenton
Trenton
Location in Mercer County
Trenton is located in New Jersey
Trenton
Trenton
Location in New Jersey
Trenton is located in the United States
Trenton
Trenton
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°13′13″N 74°45′57″W / 40.22028°N 74.76583°W / 40.22028; -74.76583[2][3]
Country United States
State New Jersey
CountyMercer
FoundedJune 3, 1719
IncorporatedNovember 13, 1792
Named forWilliam Trent
Government
 • TypeFaulkner Act
 • BodyCity Council
 • MayorReed Gusciora (term ends December 31, 2026)[4][5]
 • AdministratorAdam E. Cruz[6]
 • Municipal clerkBrandon Garcia[7]
Area
 • State capital8.20 sq mi (21.25 km2)
 • Land7.61 sq mi (19.70 km2)
 • Water0.60 sq mi (1.55 km2)  7.62%
 • Rank229th of 565 in state
9th of 12 in county[2]
Elevation59 ft (18 m)
Population
 • State capital90,871
 • Estimate 89,620
 • Rank382nd in country (as of 2022)[15]
10th of 565 in state
2nd of 12 in county[17]
 • Density11,989.8/sq mi (4,629.3/km2)
  • Rank25th of 565 in state
1st of 12 in county[17]
 • Urban
370,422 (US: 112th)[11]
 • Urban density2,782.4/sq mi (1,074.3/km2)
 • Metro
387,340 (US: 143rd)[10]
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (Eastern (EDT))
ZIP Codes
08608–08611, 08618–08620, 08625, 08628, 08629, 08638[18][19]
Area code609[20]
FIPS code3402174000[2][21][22]
GNIS feature ID0885421[2][23]
Websitetrentonnj.org

Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. It was the capital of the United States from November 1 until December 24, 1784.[24][25] Trenton and Princeton are the two principal cities of the Trenton–Princeton metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses those cities and all of Mercer County for statistical purposes and constitutes part of the New York combined statistical area by the U.S. Census Bureau.[26] However, Trenton directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area to its west, and the city was part of the Philadelphia combined statistical area from 1990 until 2000.[27]

In the 2020 United States census, Trenton was the state's 10th-most-populous municipality,[28] with a population of 90,871,[13][14] an increase of 5,958 (+7.0%) from the 2010 census count of 84,913,[29][30] which in turn had reflected a decline of 490 (−0.6%) from the 85,403 counted in the 2000 census.[31] The Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that the city's population was 89,661 in 2022,[13] ranking the city the 382nd-most-populous in the country.[15] Trenton is the only city in New Jersey that serves three separate commuter rail transit systems (Amtrak, NJ Transit, and SEPTA), and the city has encouraged a spate of transit-oriented development since 2010.[32]

Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720.[33] A courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720, and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton.[34]

Abraham Hunt was appointed in 1764 as Trenton's first Postmaster.[35][36] On November 25, 1790, Trenton became New Jersey's capital, and by November 13, 1792, the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township. The remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the city on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period with the city absorbing South Trenton (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), Chambersburg Township and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), and Wilbur (February 28, 1898). Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900.[33][37]

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History

The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776, a painting by John Trumbull
The Old Barracks in Trenton, New Jersey

The earliest known inhabitants of the area that is today Trenton were the Lenape Native Americans.[38] The first European settlement in what would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time, and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.[39]

By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name was later shortened to "Trenton".[40][41][42]

The first municipal boundaries were recorded on March 2, 1720, and a courthouse and jail were constructed around the same time.[43]

In 1758, the Old Barracks were built to house British soldiers during the French and Indian War. On January 19, 1764, Benjamin Franklin, Postmaster General of the colonies, appointed Abraham Hunt, a Lieutenant Colonel in the New Jersey Hunterdon County militia and prominent merchant in Trenton, as the city's first postmaster. Hunt was again appointed Trenton's postmaster on October 13, 1775, shortly after the American Revolutionary War broke out.[35][36]

During the American Revolutionary War, Trenton was the site of the Battle of Trenton. On December 25–26, 1776, George Washington and his army crossed the icy Delaware River to Trenton, where they defeated Hessian troops garrisoned there.[44] The second battle of Trenton, Battle of the Assunpink Creek, was fought here on January 2, 1777.[45] After the war, the Congress of the Confederation met for two months at the French Arms Tavern from November 1, 1784, to December 24, 1784.[25] While the city was preferred by New England and other northern states as a permanent capital for the new country, the southern states ultimately prevailed in their choice of a location south of the Mason–Dixon line.[46] On April 21, 1789, the city hosted a reception for George Washington on his journey to New York City for his first inauguration.[47] The Trenton Battle Monument, a 150-foot (46 m) granite column topped with a statue of George Washington, was built in 1893 to commemorate the battle.[48]

Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the New Jersey Legislature often met in the city.[49] The city was incorporated on November 13, 1792.[33] In 1792, the New Jersey State House was built, making it the third-oldest state house in the country.[48] In 1799, the federal government relocated its offices to Trenton for a period of several months, following an outbreak of yellow fever in the then-capital of Philadelphia.[50]

During the War of 1812, the United States Army's primary hospital was at a site on Broad Street.[51]

Trenton had maintained an iron industry since the 1730s and a pottery industry since at least 1723. The completion of both the Delaware and Raritan Canal and the Camden and Amboy Railroad in the 1830s spurred industrial development in Trenton. In 1845, industrialist Peter Cooper opened a rolling mill. In 1848, engineer John Roebling moved his wire rope mill to the city, where suspension cables for bridges were manufactured, including the Brooklyn Bridge. In the late 19th century, Walter Scott Lenox was internationally recognized for the fine china made in his Trenton factory. Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew steadily, as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. Trenton became known as an industrial hub for railroads, trucking, rubber, plastics, metalworking, electrical, automobile parts, glass, and textiles industries.[48]

In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.[52] During the latter half of the century, Trenton annexed multiple municipalities: South Trenton Borough on April 14, 1851, portions of Nottingham Township on April 14, 1856, Chambersburg and Millham Township on March 30, 1888, and Wilbur borough on February 28, 1898.[43]

In 1855, the College of New Jersey was founded in Trenton. In 1865, Rider University was also founded in Trenton. Mercer Community College in Trenton in 1966.[48]

The Trenton Six were a group of black men arrested for the alleged murder of an elderly white shopkeeper in January 1948 with a soda bottle. They were arrested without warrants, denied lawyers and sentenced to death based on what were described as coerced confessions. With the involvement of the Communist Party and the NAACP, there were several appeals, resulting in a total of four trials. Eventually the accused men (with the exception of one who died in prison) were released. The incident was the subject of the book Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, written by Cathy Knepper.[53][54]

In the 1950s, the State of New Jersey purchased a large portion of what was then Stacy Park, a large riverfront park located next to downtown that contained large open lawns, landscaping, and promenades. Much of the park was demolished to make way for the construction of Route 29, despite the protests toward its construction. After it was built, the area was then mostly filled with parking lots and scattered state office buildings, disconnecting the city with the riverfront.[55]

Riots of 1968

The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for injuries suffered while fighting raging blazes or inflicted by rioters. Area residents pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.[56]

Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city.[57]

Geography

The "Falls of the Delaware" at Trenton

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.21 square miles (21.25 km2), including 7.58 square miles (19.63 km2) of land and 0.63 square miles (1.62 km2) of water (7.62%).[2][3] In terms of land area, Trenton is also the second-smallest of the United States capital cities, behind Annapolis, Maryland.[58]

Several bridges across the Delaware River connect Trenton to Morrisville, Pennsylvania, all of which are operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[59] The Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge, originally constructed in 1952, stretches 1,324 feet (404 m), carrying U.S. Route 1.[60] The Lower Trenton Bridge, bearing the legend "Trenton Makes The World Takes Bridge", is a 1,022-foot (312 m) span that was constructed in 1928 on the site of a bridge that dates back to 1804.[61] The Calhoun Street Bridge, dating back to 1884, is 1,274 feet (388 m) long.[62]

Trenton is located near the geographic center of the state, which is located 5 miles (8.0 km) southeast of the city.[63][64] The city is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region, while others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.[65]

However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, the Trenton-Princeton MSA.[26] Locals consider Trenton to be a part of Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's high housing costs.[citation needed]

Trenton is one of two state capitals that border another state—the other being Carson City, Nevada.[66] It is also one of the seven state capitals located within the Piedmont Plateau.

Trenton borders Ewing Township, Hamilton Township and Lawrence Township in Mercer County; and Falls Township, Lower Makefield Township and Morrisville in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, across the Delaware River in Pennsylvania.[67][68][69]

The Northeast Corridor goes through Trenton. A straight line drawn between Center City, Philadelphia and Downtown Manhattan would pass within 2000 feet of the New Jersey State House.

Neighborhoods

Delaware and Raritan Canal flowing under Mulberry Street

Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but, since the 1950s, demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans and newer immigrants, many of whom arrive from Latin America. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton.[70] This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.

The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St. Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Avenue. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church—one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888.[71] The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.[72]

South Ward is a diverse neighborhood, home to many Latin American, Italian-American, and African American residents.[73]

East Ward is the smallest neighborhood in Trenton and is home to the Trenton Transit Center and Trenton Central High School. The Chambersburg neighborhood is within the East Ward and was once noted in the region as a destination for its many Italian restaurants and pizzerias. With changing demographics, many of these businesses have either closed or relocated to suburban locations. West Ward is the home of Trenton's more suburban neighborhoods.

Map of neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey

Neighborhoods in the city include:[74]

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a cooler humid continental climate (Dfa) and the warmer humid subtropical (Cfa), and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. The Cfa climate is the result of adiabatic warming of the Appalachians, low altitude and proximity to the coast without being on the immediate edge for moderate temperatures.[75]

Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 76.3 °F (24.6 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 21.8 days.[76] Episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values reaching 100 °F (38 °C). Extremes in air temperature have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011.[77] However, air temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.

Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 32.0 °F (0.0 °C),[76] and temperatures at or below 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing.[78] Episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values below 0 °F (−18 °C), every few years. The plant hardiness zone at the Trenton Municipal Court is 7a with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of 1.2 °F (−17.1 °C).[79]

The average precipitation is 45.47 inches (115 cm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year.[76][78] The driest month on average is February, with 2.63 in (67 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July with 4.39 in (11 cm) of rainfall on average which corresponds with the annual peak in thunderstorm activity.[76][78] The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (18.4 cm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd.[78] The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (37.0 cm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (172 cm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (0.1 cm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (73 cm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.[80]

Snowfall can vary even more year to year. The average seasonal (November–April) snowfall total is 24 to 30 inches (61 to 76 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918–1919 to as high as 76.5 in (194.3 cm) in 1995–1996, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.[81] The average snowiest month is February which corresponds with the annual peak in nor'easter activity.

Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (Trenton–Mercer Airport) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1865–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
(23)
78
(26)
87
(31)
93
(34)
99
(37)
100
(38)
106
(41)
105
(41)
101
(38)
94
(34)
83
(28)
76
(24)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 62.7
(17.1)
62.7
(17.1)
74.2
(23.4)
83.0
(28.3)
88.6
(31.4)
93.4
(34.1)
96.3
(35.7)
94.3
(34.6)
89.7
(32.1)
81.4
(27.4)
72.0
(22.2)
64.2
(17.9)
97.2
(36.2)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 39.7
(4.3)
42.8
(6.0)
50.8
(10.4)
62.9
(17.2)
72.4
(22.4)
81.0
(27.2)
86.0
(30.0)
84.0
(28.9)
77.1
(25.1)
65.5
(18.6)
54.5
(12.5)
44.4
(6.9)
63.4
(17.4)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.0
(0.0)
34.3
(1.3)
41.7
(5.4)
52.5
(11.4)
62.0
(16.7)
71.0
(21.7)
76.3
(24.6)
74.4
(23.6)
67.4
(19.7)
55.7
(13.2)
45.4
(7.4)
36.8
(2.7)
54.1
(12.3)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 24.3
(−4.3)
25.9
(−3.4)
32.7
(0.4)
42.1
(5.6)
51.6
(10.9)
60.9
(16.1)
66.6
(19.2)
64.8
(18.2)
57.7
(14.3)
45.9
(7.7)
36.3
(2.4)
29.3
(−1.5)
44.8
(7.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 7.2
(−13.8)
10.0
(−12.2)
17.9
(−7.8)
29.0
(−1.7)
37.7
(3.2)
48.3
(9.1)
57.0
(13.9)
54.4
(12.4)
43.2
(6.2)
31.6
(−0.2)
21.8
(−5.7)
14.8
(−9.6)
5.1
(−14.9)
Record low °F (°C) −16
(−27)
−14
(−26)
0
(−18)
11
(−12)
31
(−1)
39
(4)
46
(8)
39
(4)
34
(1)
21
(−6)
9
(−13)
−8
(−22)
−16
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.29
(84)
2.63
(67)
3.97
(101)
3.63
(92)
3.99
(101)
4.25
(108)
4.39
(112)
4.22
(107)
4.09
(104)
3.79
(96)
3.18
(81)
4.04
(103)
45.47
(1,155)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.9
(20)
8.6
(22)
4.9
(12)
0.5
(1.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.5
(1.3)
4.3
(11)
26.8
(67.85)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.1 10.1 11.0 11.5 12.0 11.9 10.8 10.0 8.6 10.0 8.5 11.0 125.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.6 4.3 2.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.3 14.4
Average relative humidity (%) 65.4 61.7 58.0 57.0 62.1 66.1 66.2 68.8 69.8 68.8 66.9 66.5 64.8
Average dew point °F (°C) 21.7
(−5.7)
22.8
(−5.1)
28.1
(−2.2)
37.7
(3.2)
48.7
(9.3)
59.4
(15.2)
63.9
(17.7)
63.5
(17.5)
57.0
(13.9)
45.6
(7.6)
35.9
(2.2)
26.5
(−3.1)
42.7
(5.9)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.1 169.7 207.4 227.2 248.1 262.8 269.2 252.5 215.0 201.5 149.3 140.1 2,505.9
Percent possible sunshine 54 57 56 57 56 58 59 59 57 58 50 48 56
Source 1: NOAA (sun 1961–1981)[82][83][84]
Source 2: PRISM Climate Group (humidity and dew point)[85]


Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
17901,946
18103,000
18203,94231.4%
18303,925−0.4%
18404,035*2.8%
18506,46160.1%
186017,228*166.6%
187022,87432.8%
188029,91030.8%
189057,458*92.1%
190073,30727.6%
191096,81532.1%
1920119,28923.2%
1930123,3563.4%
1940124,6971.1%
1950128,0092.7%
1960114,167−10.8%
1970104,638−8.3%
198092,124−12.0%
199088,675−3.7%
200085,403−3.7%
201084,913−0.6%
202090,8717.0%
2023 (est.)89,620[13][15][16]−1.4%
Population sources: 1790–1920[86]
1840[87] 1850–1870[88] 1850[89]
1870[90] 1880–1890[91] 1910–1930[92]
1940–2000[93] 2000[94][95]
2010[29][30] 2020[13][14]
* = Territory change in previous decade.[33]

2020 census

Trenton, New Jersey – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 1990[96] Pop 2000[97] Pop 2010[98] Pop 2020[99] % 1990 % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 33,247 21,022 11,442 8,510 37.49% 24.62% 13.47% 9.36%
Black or African American alone (NH) 42,089 43,497 42,286 38,386 47.46% 50.93% 49.80% 42.24%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 189 164 219 144 0.21% 0.19% 0.26% 0.16%
Asian alone (NH) 474 684 923 592 0.53% 0.80% 1.09% 0.65%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) N/A 65 30 24 N/A 0.08% 0.04% 0.03%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 146 127 106 440 0.16% 0.15% 0.12% 0.48%
Mixed Race or Multi-Racial (NH) N/A 1,453 1,286 1,870 N/A 1.70% 1.51% 2.06%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 12,530 18,391 28,621 40,905 14.13% 21.53% 33.71% 45.01%
Total 88,675 85,403 84,913 90,871 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

2010 census

The 2010 United States census counted 84,913 people, 28,578 households, and 17,747 families in the city. The population density was 11,101.9 per square mile (4,286.5/km2). There were 33,035 housing units at an average density of 4,319.2 per square mile (1,667.7/km2). The racial makeup was 26.56% (22,549) White, 52.01% (44,160) Black or African American, 0.70% (598) Native American, 1.19% (1,013) Asian, 0.13% (110) Pacific Islander, 15.31% (13,003) from other races, and 4.10% (3,480) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.71% (28,621) of the population.[29]

Of the 28,578 households, 32.0% had children under the age of 18; 25.1% were married couples living together; 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present and 37.9% were non-families. Of all households, 30.8% were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.[29]

25.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females, the population had 106.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 107.2 males.[29]

The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/− $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/− $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/− $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/− $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/− $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.[100]

Economy

The Lower Trenton Bridge is commonly referred to among locals as the "Trenton Makes Bridge"

Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge).[101] The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars. It was home to American Standard's largest plumbing fixture manufacturing facility.[102]

Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices.[103] Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.[104]

Notable businesses of the thousands based in Trenton include Italian Peoples Bakery, a wholesale and retail bakery established in 1936.[105] De Lorenzo's Tomato Pies and Papa's Tomato Pies were also fixtures of the city for many years, though both recently relocated to the suburbs.

Urban Enterprise Zone

Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. The city was selected in 1983 as one of the initial group of 10 zones chosen to participate in the program.[106] In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+58% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[107] Established in January 1986, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in December 2023.[108]

The UEZ program in Trenton and four other original UEZ cities had been allowed to lapse as of January 1, 2017, after Governor Chris Christie, who called the program an "abject failure", vetoed a compromise bill that would have extended the status for two years.[109] In May 2018, Governor Phil Murphy signed a law that reinstated the program in these five cities and extended the expiration date in other zones.[110]

In 2018, the city had an average property tax bill of $3,274, the lowest in the county, compared to an average bill of $8,292 in Mercer County and $8,767 statewide.[111][112] The city had the sixth-highest property tax rate in New Jersey, with an equalized rate of 5.264% in 2020, compared to 2.760% in the county as a whole and a statewide average of 2.279%.[113]

Television market

Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. After the 2000 United States census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets.[114]

Trenton was the site of the studios of the former public television station New Jersey Network.

Landmarks

Sports

Club League Venue MLB affiliate Established Championships
Trenton Thunder MLB Draft League Trenton Thunder Ballpark None 1994 5
Arm & Hammer Park

Because of Trenton's near-equal distance to both New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is common to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Islanders, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.[128]

Between 1948 and 1979, Trenton Speedway, located in adjacent Hamilton Township, hosted world class auto racing. Drivers such as Jim Clark, A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Richard Petty and Bobby Allison raced on the one-mile (1.6 km) asphalt oval and then re-configured 1+12-mile race track.[129] The speedway, which closed in 1980, was part of the larger New Jersey State Fairgrounds complex, which also closed in 1983. The former site of the speedway and fairgrounds is now the Grounds for Sculpture.[130]

The Trenton Thunder, minor league team owned by Joe Plumeri, plays at 6,341-seat Arm & Hammer Park, the stadium which Plumeri had previously named after his father in 1999.[131][132][133] The team was previously affiliated with the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, Detroit Tigers, and, before moving to Trenton, the Chicago White Sox, but became an unaffiliated collegiate summer baseball team of the MLB Draft League beginning in 2021.[134]

The Trenton Freedom of the Professional Indoor Football League were founded in 2013 and played their games at the Sun National Bank Center. The Freedom ended operations in 2015, joining the short-lived Trenton Steel (in 2011) and Trenton Lightning (in 2001) as indoor football teams that had brief operating lives at the arena.[135]

Parks and recreation

Government

Trenton City Hall, seat of local government

Local government

Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government, one of 79 municipalities (of the 564) statewide that use this form of government.[137] The governing body is comprised of a mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently on a non-partisan basis to four-year terms of office as part of the November general election.[8][138][139]

In October 2020, the city council overrode a mayoral veto and shifted municipal elections from May to November, with proponents citing the increased turnout and savings to the city of $180,000 in each election cycle. The mayor and members of council all had their term-end dates extended by six months and moved to December 31 from June 30, 2022.[140] The city retained a runoff provision that would have a December runoff in the event that the candidate with the highest number of votes does not obtain a majority.[141]

As of 2023, the mayor of Trenton is Reed Gusciora, whose term of office ends December 31, 2026; before taking office as mayor, Gusciora had served in the New Jersey General Assembly.[142] Members of the city council are Jasi Edwards (at-large), Crystal Feliciano (at-large), Teska Frisby (West Ward), Yazminelly Gonzalez (at-large), Joseph A. Harrison (East Ward), Jenna Figueroa Kettenburg (South Ward) and Jennifer Williams (North Ward).[4][143][144][145][146][147]

As they had not exceeded the minimum of 50 percent in the November 2022 general election, a run-off was held in December for the seats in the North and South Wards. Jennifer Williams won the North seat by a single vote against Algernon Ward,[148] which made Williams the first transgender individual to be elected to a city council position in New Jersey history as well as being the first LGBTQ+ city council member in Trenton history.[149] Jenna Figueroa Kettenburg won the South ward seat, defeating Damian G. Malave who had been ahead on Election Day but short of the cutoff, while a January 2023 runoff had Jasi Edwards, Crystal Feliciano and Yazminelly Gonzalez winning the three at-large seats.[145][146][150]

In February 2023, Judge William Anklowitz of the New Jersey Superior Court heard a case for election challenges in the North Ward runoff election for both candidates Algernon Ward and Jennifer Williams. Three of the ballots Ward contested were all rejected because they were mail-in ballots that were returned without the required inner envelope. The other rejection Ward challenged was a case involving a cure letter that a voter sent to the wrong place, leading to it being not counted. Williams contested one ballot that was not counted due to it having both a vote for Ward and for Williams. Judge Anklowitz determined that the slash through Ward's vote signaled the voter's intention to vote for Williams and thus determined the vote should have been counted. These election challenges were heard following a recount that was held that did not change the outcome of the vote. Jennifer Williams thus remained to hold her seat on Trenton City Council for the North Ward seat.[151]

In February 2022, the city council appointed Sonya Wilkins to fill the at-large seat expiring in December 2022 that had been held by Jerell A. Blakeley until he resigned from office the previous month to take a job outside the state.[152]

Mayor's conviction and removal from office

On February 7, 2014, Tony F. Mack and his brother, Raphiel, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a sting operation by law enforcement.[153] Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption.[154] Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have been reversed by Muschal.[155] Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.[156]

From February 7 to July 1, 2014, the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to Mack's felony conviction, who had taken office on July 1, 2010.[157] Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.[155]

Federal, state, and county representation

The New Jersey State House in Trenton

Trenton is located in the 12th Congressional District[158] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[159][160][161][162]

For the 118th United States Congress, New Jersey's 12th congressional district is represented by Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[163][164] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2027)[165] and Bob Menendez (Englewood Cliffs, term ends 2025).[166][167]

For the 2024-2025 session, the 15th legislative district of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township) and in the General Assembly by Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (D, Trenton) and Anthony Verrelli (D, Hopewell Township).[168]

Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of County Commissioners that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the commissioners serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year as part of the November general election.[169] As of 2024, the County Executive is Daniel R. Benson (D, Hamilton Township) whose term of office ends December 31, 2027.[170] Mercer County's Commissioners are:

Lucylle R. S. Walter (D, Ewing Township, 2026),[171] Chair John A. Cimino (D, Hamilton Township, 2026),[172] Samuel T. Frisby Sr. (D, Trenton, 2024),[173] Cathleen M. Lewis (D, Lawrence Township, 2025),[174] Vice Chair Kristin L. McLaughlin (D, Hopewell Township, 2024),[175] Nina D. Melker (D, Hamilton Township, 2025)[176] and Terrance Stokes (D, Ewing Township, 2024).[177][178][179]

Mercer County's constitutional officers are: Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, Lawrence Township, 2025),[180][181] Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, Hamilton Township, 2026)[182][183] and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, Lawrence Township, 2026).[184][185][186]

Politics

As of March 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.[187]

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2020[188] 11.2% 2,443 88.2% 19,304 0.6% 146
2016[189] 7.7% 1,715 90.6% 20,131 1.7% 379
2012[190] 6.2% 1,528 93.4% 23,125 0.4% 97
2008[191] 8.2% 2,157 89.9% 23,577 0.5% 141
2004[192] 16.3% 3,791 79.8% 18,539 0.4% 146

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 93.4% of the vote (23,125 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 6.2% (1,528 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (97 votes), among the 27,831 ballots cast by the city's 40,362 registered voters (3,081 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 69.0%.[190][193] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%.[191]

Gubernatorial elections results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2021[194] 10.7% 987 88.6% 8,120 0.7% 59
2017[195] 8.6% 872 89.8% 9,128 1.7% 169
2013[196] 24.7% 3,035 74.7% 9,179 0.7% 77
2009[197] 12.4% 1,560 81.6% 10,235 3.5% 440
2005[198] 15.3% 1,982 81.0% 10,484 3.6% 471

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 74.7% of the vote (9,179 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.7% (3,035 votes), and other candidates with 0.6% (77 votes), among the 11,884 ballots cast by the city's 38,452 registered voters (407 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 30.9%.[196][199] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.[197]

Fire department

The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department.[200] The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engine companies, 3 ladder companies and one rescue company, along with one HAZMAT unit, an air cascade unit, a mobile command unit, a foam unit, one fireboat, and numerous special, support and reserve units, under the command of two battalion chiefs and a deputy chief/tour commander each shift.[201][202]

Education

Colleges and universities

Trenton is the home of two post-secondary institutions: Thomas Edison State University, serving adult students around the nation and worldwide[203] and Mercer County Community College's James Kerney Campus.[204]

The College of New Jersey, formerly named Trenton State College, was founded in Trenton in 1855 and is now located in nearby Ewing Township. Rider University was founded in Trenton in 1865 as The Trenton Business College. In 1959, Rider moved to its current location in nearby Lawrence Township.[205]

Public schools

The Trenton Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade.[206] The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide that were established pursuant to the decision by the New Jersey Supreme Court in Abbott v. Burke[207] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[208][209] The district's board of education, comprised of seven members, sets policy and oversees the fiscal and educational operation of the district through its superintendent administration. As a Type I school district, the board's trustees are appointed by the mayor to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for re-appointment each year. The board appoints a superintendent to oversee the district's day-to-day operations and a business administrator to supervise the business functions of the district.[210][211] The school district has undergone a 'construction' renaissance throughout the district.[citation needed]

As of the 2022–23 school year, the district, comprised of 25 schools, had an enrollment of 14,852 students and 966.4 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 15.4:1.[212] The district includes 13 elementary schools,[213] 6 intermediate schools,[214] three middle schools,[215] and three high schools.[216] They are as follows:

Name Grade(s) Enrollment (2022–23)[217]
Early Childhood Learning Center Pre-Kindergarten N/A
Benjamin C. Gregory Elementary School K–3rd 269
Benjamin Franklin Elementary School 349
Cadwalader Elementary School 163
Carroll Robbins Elementary School 413
Darlene C. McKnight Elementary School[a] 361
Dr. Crosby Copeland Elementary School[b] 296
George Washington Elementary School 289
Gershom Mott Elementary School 357
Joseph Stokes Elementary School 306
Luis Muñoz-Rivera Elementary School 366
Patton J. Hill Elementary School 502
Paul Robeson Elementary School 341
William Harrison Elementary School 239
Battle Monument Intermediate School 4th–6th 460
Clara Parker Intermediate School 515
Hedgepeth-Williams Intermediate School 582
Joyce Kilmer Intermediate School 498
Thomas Jefferson Intermediate School 354
Ulysses S. Grant Intermediate School 542
Arthur J. Holland Middle School 7th–8th 513
Dr. MLK Jr. Middle School 568
Grace A. Dunn Middle School 670
Daylight/Twilight High School 7th–12th 479
Trenton's Ninth Grade Academy 9th 796
Trenton Central High School 9th–12th 2,255

Eighth-grade students from all of Mercer County are eligible to apply to attend the high school programs offered by the Mercer County Technical Schools, a county-wide vocational school district that offers full-time career and technical education at its Health Sciences Academy, STEM Academy and Academy of Culinary Arts, with no tuition charged to students for attendance.[218][219]

Marie H. Katzenbach School for the Deaf (previously New Jersey School for the Deaf and New Jersey State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb), the statewide school for the deaf, opened in Trenton in 1883 and was there until 1923, when it moved to West Trenton.[220]

Charter schools

Trenton is home to several charter schools, including Capital Preparatory Charter High School, Emily Fisher Charter School, Foundation Academy Charter School, International Charter School, Paul Robeson Charter School and Village Charter School.[221]

The International Academy of Trenton, owned and monitored by the SABIS school network, became a charter school in 2014. On February 22, 2017, Trenton's mayor, Eric Jackson, visited the school when it opened its doors in the former Trenton Times building on 500 Perry Street, after completion of a $17 million renovation project. After receiving notice from the New Jersey Department of Education that the school's charter would not be renewed due to issues with academic performance and school management, the school closed its doors on June 30, 2018.[222]

Private schools

Trenton Catholic Academy high school serves students in grades 9–12, while Trenton Catholic Academy grammar school serves students in Pre-K through 8th grade; both schools operate under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.[223]

Trenton is home to Al-Bayaan Academy, which opened for preschool students in September 2001 and added grades in subsequent years.[224]

Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).

Crime

The Trenton Police Department was founded in 1792, when the city was incorporated. It works in conjunction with the Mercer County Sheriff's Office.[225]

In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history.[226] The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide in the 12th annual Morgan Quitno survey.[227] In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous city overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous municipality of 126 cities in the 75,000–99,999 population range.[228]

In September 2011, the city laid off 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.[229]

In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides.[230] In 2014, there were 23 murders through the end of July and the city's homicide rate was on track to break the record set the previous year until an 81-day period when there were no murders in Trenton; the city ended the year with 34 murders.[231][232] In 2020, the city surpassed the 2013 homicide number with a record 40 homicides.[233]

New Jersey State Prison

The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison) has two maximum security units. It houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.[234]

The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison:

Labor, Silence, Penitence.
The Penitentiary House,
Erected By Legislative
Authority.
Richard Howell, Governor.
In The XXII Year Of
American Independence
MDCCXCVII
That Those Who Are Feared
For Their Crimes
May Learn To Fear The Laws
And Be Useful
Hic Labor, Hic Opus.[235]

Transportation

Roads and highways

U.S. Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass

As of May 2010, the city had a total of 168.80 miles (271.66 km) of roadways, of which 145.57 miles (234.27 km) were maintained by the municipality, 11.33 miles (18.23 km) by Mercer County, 10.92 miles (17.57 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 0.99 miles (1.59 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[236]

Several highways pass through the city.[237] These include the Trenton Freeway (part of U.S. Route 1)[238] and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29.[239] Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects U.S. Route 1 and Route 29 in South Trenton.[240] U.S. Route 206,[241] Route 31[242] and Route 33[243] also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).

Route 29 connects the city to Interstate 295 and Interstate 195, the latter providing a connection to the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) at Exit 7A in Robbinsville Township, although the section near downtown is planned to be converted to an urban boulevard.[244]

Public transportation

The Trenton Transit Center, which serves Amtrak, NJ Transit, and SEPTA

Public transportation within the city and to/from its nearby suburbs is provided in the form of local bus routes run by NJ Transit. SEPTA provides bus service to adjacent Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

The Trenton Transit Center, located on the heavily traveled Northeast Corridor, serves as the northbound terminus for SEPTA's Trenton Line (local train service to Philadelphia) and southbound terminus for NJ Transit Rail's Northeast Corridor Line (local train service to New York Penn Station). The train station also serves as the northbound terminus for the River Line, a diesel light rail line that runs to Camden.[245] Two additional River Line stops, Cass Street and Hamilton Avenue, are located within the city.[246]

Long-distance transportation is provided by Amtrak train service along the Northeast Corridor.[247]

The closest commercial airport is Trenton–Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about 8 miles (13 km) from the center of Trenton, which has been served by Frontier Airlines offering service to and from 13 points nationwide.[248]

Other nearby major airports are Newark Liberty International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport, located 55.2 miles (88.8 km) and 43.4 miles (69.8 km) away, respectively, and reachable by direct New Jersey Transit or Amtrak rail link (to Newark) and by SEPTA Regional Rail (to Philadelphia).

NJ Transit Bus Operations provides bus service between Trenton and Philadelphia on the 409 route, with service to surrounding communities on the 600, 601, 603, 606, 607, 608, 609, 611 and 624 routes.[249][250]

The Greater Mercer Transportation Management Association offers service on the Route 130 Connection between the Trenton Transit Center and the South Brunswick warehouse district with stops along the route including Hamilton train station, Hamilton Marketplace, Hightstown and East Windsor Town Center Plaza.[251]

Media

Trenton is served by two daily newspapers, The Times and The Trentonian, and a monthly advertising magazine, "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW and Top 40 WPST are also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the Trenton area.[252]

Trenton is officially part of the Philadelphia television market but some local pay TV operators also carry stations serving the New York City market. While it is its own radio market, many Philadelphia and New York stations are easily receivable.

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Formerly known as Wilson Elementary School.
  2. ^ Formerly known as Columbus Elementary School.

References

  1. ^ Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans" Archived November 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Trenton. There are scant few unfamiliar with the huge neon sign installed in 1935 that sits on the Lower Trenton Bridge, declaring 'Trenton Makes, The World Takes.' Lumber company owner S. Roy Heath came up with the slogan, originally 'The World Takes, Trenton Makes,' for a chamber of commerce contest in 1910."
  2. ^ a b c d e 2019 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Places Archived March 21, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 1, 2020.
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  4. ^ a b Trenton City Council Chambers Archived August 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed February 2, 2023. No members are listed as of date accessed
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  6. ^ Administration & Finance Department Archived October 1, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed March 10, 2023.
  7. ^ City Clerk Archived August 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed March 10, 2023.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 73.
  9. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
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  32. ^ "Welcome to Trenton, New Jersey Trenton Transit District Plans Trenton Transit District Development Project". Archived from the original on May 19, 2023. Retrieved May 18, 2023. As the only city in New Jersey to serve three major railway systems (Amtrak, NJ Transit, and SEPTA), with service to New York and Philadelphia, Trenton has untapped potential to support dense, walkable, and mixed-use development near the City's transit stations.
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  38. ^ "Before There Was Trenton: A 350th Anniversary Look at the 17th Century Display of Early New Netherland Colonial Artifacts June 22 – October 19, 2014" Archived September 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton City Museum, October 12, 2014. Accessed December 1, 2019.
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  51. ^ Some of Trenton's History Archived October 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed October 12, 2015. "During the 1812 War, the primary hospital facility for the U.S. Army was at a temporary location on Broad Street."
  52. ^ Richman, Steven M. Reconsidering Trenton: The Small City in the Post-Industrial Age Archived October 1, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 49. McFarland & Company, 2010. ISBN 9780786462230. Accessed November 15, 2015.
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  54. ^ Schlegel, Sharon. "Harrowing case of the 'Trenton Six'" Archived August 20, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, The Times, January 28, 2012. Accessed June 4, 2018. "The recently published story of the 'Trenton Six,' dramatically told in Cathy Knepper's newest book, Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, is so filled with proven instances of injustice that it is almost hard to believe.... Reading how the men were arrested randomly and haphazardly (despite a partial witness claiming they were not the perpetrators) is horrifying. Equally upsetting is that they were held incommunicado for days without warrants, abused and drugged into confessing."
  55. ^ Chapter 7 Riverfront District Downtown Capital District Master Plan Trenton, New Jersey Archived November 16, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed November 19, 2023.
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  57. ^ Listokin, David; and Listokin, Barbara. Barriers to the Rehabilitation of Afordable Housing Volume II Case Studies Archived October 18, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, May 2001. Accessed December 1, 2019. "Socioeconomic and housing challenges are especially severe in some of Trenton’s oldest neighborhoods. In the Old Trenton area, abandonment went unchecked for decades, and when abandoned houses were demolished by the city, the empty lots remaining would fill with garbage and vermin. Another hard-hit location was the 'Battle Monument' area: 'Time has not been kind to the Battle Monument section of this city. The five-block area, the hub of the Battle of Trenton in 1775 and of transportation in the 1950s, has in the last four decades suffered from abandonment and neglect.'"
  58. ^ The 10 Least Populated State Capitals Archived August 23, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, World Atlas. Accessed August 23, 2023. "Annapolis, Maryland, the 8th smallest state capital by population is also the smallest state capital in size with an area of 6.73 square miles. Other small capitals include Trenton, New Jersey (7.66 sq mi); Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (8.11 sq mi); and Montpelier, Vermont (10.2 sq mi)."
  59. ^ Discover Our Bridges Archived December 31, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  60. ^ Trenton-Morrisville (Rt. 1) Toll Bridge Archived December 19, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge carries U.S. Route 1 over the Delaware River between Trenton, New Jersey and Morrisville, Pennsylvania.... The bridge is a twelve-span, simply supported composite steel girder and concrete deck structure with an overall length of 1,324 feet."
  61. ^ Lower Trenton Toll-Supported Bridge Archived November 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Lower Trenton Toll-Supported Bridge, also known as the 'Trenton Makes The World Takes Bridge,' connects Warren Street in Trenton, N.J. with East Bridge Street in Morrisville, Pa. -- one of three bridges connecting the two communities.... The current 1,022-foot bridge is a five-span Warren Truss built in 1928."
  62. ^ Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge Archived December 19, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge is the oldest bridge structure owned and operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. It turned 125 years old on October 20, 2009.... Of the 20 bridges in the DRJTBC system, the Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge is the only one made of wrought iron. A Phoenix Pratt truss with a total length of 1,274 feet, it also holds the distinction as the Commission’s longest through-truss bridge and the Commission’s only seven-span truss bridge."
  63. ^ Science In Your Backyard: New Jersey Archived August 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, United States Geological Survey. Accessed October 28, 2014.
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  65. ^ Weiss, Daniel. "North/South Skirmishes; A film tries to draw the line between North and South Jersey." Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Monthly, April 30, 2008. Accessed June 12, 2018.
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  70. ^ Di Ionno, Mark. "Chambersburg" Archived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, The Star-Ledger, July 17, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2012. "The difference between Chambersburg, the traditional Italian section of Trenton, and other city neighborhoods that have undergone 'natural progression' is that Chambersburg hung on so long."
  71. ^ Richard Grubb & Associates. Three Centuries of African-American History in Trenton: A Preliminary Inventory of Historic Sites Archived December 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Historic Society, September 2011. Accessed December 1, 2019. "Shiloh Baptist Church is the city’s oldest African-American Baptist congregation. The first groups of Black Baptists were formed in the city around 1880, with Shiloh formally organized in 1896."
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  73. ^ "In their own words, South Ward candidates explain why they should win City Council seat" Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian, October 18, 2009. Accessed June 12, 2018.
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  77. ^ Staff. "Heat sets new record high in Trenton at 106 degrees" Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian, July 22, 2011. Accessed February 12, 2014. "The thermometer reached a record-setting 106 degrees here in the City of Trenton, easily smashing July 22nd's previous high mark from 1926, when the temp reached 101 degrees."
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  81. ^ City of Trenton, New Jersey Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan Archived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton, adopted June 19, 2008. Accessed June 12, 2018. "The average snowfall is 24.9 inches, but has ranged from as low as 2 inches (in the winter of 1918–1919) to as high as 76.5 inches (in 1995–1996). The heaviest snowstorm on record was the Blizzard of 1996 on January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches buried the city."
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  84. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for Trenton/WSO City, NJ 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  85. ^ "PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University". www.prism.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  86. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726–1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905 Archived February 26, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 15, 2013.
  87. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843 Archived July 15, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed July 15, 2013. Population of 4,021 is listed for 1840, 14 less than shown in table.
  88. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, pp. 276–7. J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 15, 2013. "Trenton the capitol of the State, as well as the seat of justice of the county of Mercer, is beautifully located on the east bank of the Delaware, at the head of tide navigation. Here is located the State Capitol, built in 1793, enlarged in 1845 and 1865, and again in 1871. The State Prison, State Arsenal, State Normal and Model schools are also located here. The city has 7 wards. Its population in 1850, was 6,461; in 1860, 17,228; and in 1870, 22,874"
  89. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850 Archived September 30, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 139. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed July 15, 2013.
  90. ^ United States Census Bureau (1872). A compendium of the ninth census, 1870. p. 260.
  91. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III – 51 to 75 Archived October 1, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 98. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed November 20, 2012.
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  93. ^ Table 6: New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1940 - 2000 Archived October 5, 2022, at the Wayback Machine, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, August 2001. Accessed May 1, 2023.
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  95. ^ DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 – Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Trenton city, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 12, 2012.
  96. ^ "New Jersey: 1990" (PDF). Retrieved June 20, 2024.
  97. ^ "P004: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Fort Wayne city, Indiana". United States Census Bureau.
  98. ^ "P2 Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Trenton city, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 30, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  99. ^ "P2 Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Trenton city, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 30, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  100. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Trenton city, Mercer County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  101. ^ Bruder, Jessica. "Jerseyana; Trenton's Fighting Words" Archived March 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, May 2, 2004. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Trenton Makes, the World Takes, reads the famous red neon sign that spans a bridge between the state Capitol and Morrisville, Pa., affectionately known by locals as the Trenton Makes bridge.... In its heyday, Trenton was a world-class producer of rubber, steel, wire rope, and pottery. The cables for three famous suspension bridges – the Brooklyn, George Washington and Golden Gate – were produced here at John A. Roebling's factory."
  102. ^ Blackwell, Jon. "1911: 'Trenton Makes' history" Archived September 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
  103. ^ Mickle, Paul. "1984: A whole new skyline" Archived July 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
  104. ^ Raboteau, Albert. "Diversifying city's economy a major goal for Trenton" Archived November 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Times, January 30, 2003. Accessed October 28, 2014. "Another large goal is to lure private companies whose employees, officials say, are likely to work later in the evening and have more money to spend than the 20,000 or so state workers who swell downtown during business hours, then commute home to other municipalities."
  105. ^ History Archived November 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Italian Peoples Bakery. Accessed May 13, 2016. "The origin of Italian Peoples Bakery goes back to 1936 when Pasquale Gervasio, the patriarch of the family, opened a bakery on Hamilton Avenue in Trenton, New Jersey."
  106. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Tax Questions and Answers Archived December 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, May 2009. Accessed October 28, 2019. "The Urban Enterprise Zone Program (UEZ) was enacted in 1983. It authorized the designation of ten zones by the New Jersey Urban Enterprise Zone Authority: Camden, Newark, Bridgeton, Trenton, Plainfield, Elizabeth, Jersey City, Kearny, Orange and Millville/Vineland (joint zone)."
  107. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Program Archived July 21, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed October 27, 2019. "Businesses participating in the UEZ Program can charge half the standard sales tax rate on certain purchases, currently 3.3125% effective 1/1/2018"
  108. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Effective and Expiration Dates Archived September 23, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed January 8, 2018.
  109. ^ Racioppi, Dustin. "Christie vetoes urban enterprise zone extension" Archived March 30, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, The record, February 10, 2017. Accessed November 19, 2019. "Gov. Chris Christie on Friday conditionally vetoed the Legislature's attempt to extend the Urban Enterprise Zone status for its five charter communities, calling the economic revitalization program an 'abject failure' with a 'devastating impact' on state revenue.... The Legislature returned with what it called a compromise bill, A-4189, to extend the designation for two years instead of 10 for the first five UEZs -- Bridgeton, Camden, Newark, Plainfield and Trenton -- which expired on Jan. 1."
  110. ^ "Notice: Law Reinstates Five Urban Enterprise Zones And Also Extends The Expiration Date Of 12 Other UEZs" Archived September 23, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of the Treasury Division of Taxation, May 30, 2018. Accessed November 19, 2019. "On May 30, 2018, Governor Murphy signed Senate Bill 846 (A3549). The law reinstated five expired Urban Enterprise Zones (UEZs). If your business is located in one of these zones, you may file an application to establish qualified business status. (Past certifications are no longer valid in these five zones). The five UEZs are in: *Bridgeton *Camden *Newark *Plainfield *Trenton. The UEZs in the five locations listed above expire on December 31, 2023."
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  113. ^ "Here are the 30 N.J. towns with the highest property tax rates" Archived January 19, 2022, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, March 15, 2021. Accessed January 19, 2022. "The average equalized tax rate in New Jersey was 2.279 in 2020, according to data from the Department of Community Affairs. Here is the list of 30 New Jersey towns with the highest property tax rates.... 6. Trenton Equalized tax rate in Trenton, Mercer County, was 5.264 in 2020 Average equalized tax rate in Mercer County: 2.760"
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  133. ^ Pahigian, Josh. The Ultimate Minor League Baseball Road Trip: A Fan's Guide to AAA, AA, A, and Independent League Stadiums Archived October 1, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 45. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781599216270. Accessed January 5, 2015.
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  135. ^ Foster, David. "Sacked: Trenton Freedom indoor football team folds" Archived October 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian, August 26, 2015. Accessed October 12, 2015. "The Trenton Freedom is the latest professional sports team to shutter operations in the capital city, following the same doomed path of several other organizations at the Sun National Bank Center.... The Trenton Freedom, a member of the Professional Indoor Football League (PIFL), became the third indoor football team to fail at the Sun National Bank Center, lasting one year longer than the previous two. The Trenton Steel called the 8,000-seat arena home for six games in 2011. A decade earlier, the Trenton Lightning lasted just one season."
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  140. ^ Avilucea, Issac. "Trenton council overrides mayor’s Election Day veto" Archived May 3, 2022, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian, October 1, 2020. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Council had the last say in this one. The governing body overrode Mayor Reed Gusciora’s veto of an ordinance that moves the municipal election from May to November. The change also moves runoffs to December rather than June and gives the mayor and council members another six months in office.... Vaughn suggested the city would see increased voter turnout and savings as much as $181,000 by aligning Trenton with other municipalities in Mercer County that conduct elections with the general election."
  141. ^ Biryukov, Nikita. "Another town poised to join others moving local elections to November Nonpartisan spring races dwindle as towns seek to boost turnout, cut election costs" Archived November 30, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Monitor, August 11, 2021. Accessed May 3, 2022. "He added the city would likely have to foot the bill for a December runoff election in case no candidate won a majority during the nonpartisan November vote, though that’s nothing new. Trenton already paid for runoff elections held in June before."
  142. ^ Office of the Mayor Archived August 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Reed Gusciora (born March 27, 1960) was sworn in as the 48th mayor of the City of Trenton on July 1st, 2018. Prior to becoming Mayor, he served in the New Jersey General Assembly since 1996, representing the 15th Legislative District, which includes portions of Mercer and Hunterdon Counties."
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  148. ^ Wildstein, David. "Williams still wins by one vote after Trenton recount Two additional ballots added to count after hand tally, but results remained the same" Archived February 13, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Globe, January 14, 2023. Accessed February 13, 2023. "Jennifer Williams gets to hold on to her North Ward seat on the Trenton City Council after prevailing in a recount of ballots cast in the December 13 runoff election by one vote. Williams defeated Algernon Ward, Jr, 428 to 427, after a hand recount found two votes that had previously been uncounted."
  149. ^ Difilippo, Dana. "Transgender councilwoman takes office in Trenton" Archived February 13, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Monitor, January 6, 2023. Accessed February 13, 2023. "From Florida’s notorious 'don’t say gay' law to bathroom bans to the controversy over new sex ed standards in New Jersey schools, Jennifer Williams has felt a mounting alarm at policies and proselytism that demonize the transgender community.... Sunday, Williams made history when she was sworn in as the Trenton City Council’s first LGBTQ member — and the first transgender person elected to any municipal council statewide."
  150. ^ Fox, Joey. "Edwards, Feliciano, Gonzalez overwhelmingly win Trenton at-large council runoff" Archived February 2, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Globe, January 24, 2023. Accessed February 2, 2023. "Jasi Edwards, Crystal Feliciano, and Yazminelly Gonzalez have easily won three at-large seats on the Trenton City Council, defeating three other candidates in the runoff for an election that initially came before voters more than two months ago.... By the time a judge ordered a runoff to be held after all, it was too late to hold it alongside two ward-based runoffs, which were scheduled for December 13. Instead, the election was set for today – a full 77 days after voters first cast ballots in the at-large race. In the meantime, North and South Ward runoff voters narrowly elected Jennifer Williams and Jenna Figueroa Kettenburg, bringing the council to a bare four-member quorum before the reorganization of government on January 1."
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  153. ^ via Associated Press."Mayor Tony Mack of Trenton Is Found Guilty of Taking Bribes" Archived August 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, February 7, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014.
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Sources

External links

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of America

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