To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Trenton, New Jersey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Trenton, New Jersey
City of Trenton
Downtown on the Delaware River
Flag of Trenton, New Jersey
Official seal of Trenton, New Jersey
Capital City
Turning Point of the Revolution.
"Trenton Makes, The World Takes"[1]
Location within Mercer County Interactive map of Trenton, New Jersey
Location within Mercer County
Interactive map of Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is located in Mercer County, New Jersey
Location in Mercer County
Trenton is located in New Jersey
Location in New Jersey
Trenton is located in the United States
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°13′26″N 74°45′49″W / 40.223841°N 74.763624°W / 40.223841; -74.763624[2][3]
Country United States
State New Jersey
FoundedJune 3, 1719
IncorporatedNovember 13, 1792
Named forWilliam Trent
 • TypeFaulkner Act
 • BodyCity Council
 • MayorReed Gusciora (term ends December 31, 2022)[4][5]
 • AdministratorAdam E. Cruz[6]
 • Municipal clerkMatthew H. Conlon[7]
 • Total8.20 sq mi (21.25 km2)
 • Land7.61 sq mi (19.70 km2)
 • Water0.60 sq mi (1.55 km2)  7.62%
 • Rank229th of 565 in state
9th of 12 in county[2]
Elevation49 ft (15 m)
 • Total90,871
 • Rank413th in country (as of 2019)[12]
10th of 565 in state
2nd of 12 in county[13]
 • Density11,947.28/sq mi (4,612.68/km2)
  • Rank26th of 565 in state (2010)
1st of 12 in county (2010)[13]
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (Eastern (EDT))
ZIP Codes
08608–08611, 08618–08620, 08625, 08628, 08629, 08638[14][15]
Area code609[16]
FIPS code3402174000[2][17][18]
GNIS feature ID0885421[2][19]

Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey, the county seat of Mercer County and was the capital of the United States from November 1 to December 24, 1784.[20][21] The city's metropolitan area, consisting of Mercer County, is grouped with the New York Metropolitan Area by the United States Census Bureau,[22] but it directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and was from 1990 until 2000 part of the Philadelphia Combined Statistical Area.[23] As of the 2020 U.S. census, Trenton had a population of 90,871,[11] making it the state's 10th-largest municipality.[24]

Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720.[25] A courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720, and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton.[26]

Abraham Hunt was appointed in 1764 as Trenton's first Postmaster.[27][28] On November 25, 1790, the Trenton became New Jersey's capital, and by November 13, 1792 the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township. The remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), both the Borough of Chambersburg Township, and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), as well as Wilbur Borough (February 28, 1898). Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900.[25][29]


The Old Barracks in Trenton, New Jersey
The Old Barracks in Trenton, New Jersey

The earliest known inhabitants of the area that is today Trenton were the Lenape Native Americans.[30] The first European settlement in what would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.[31]

By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name was later shortened to "Trenton".[32][33][34]

On January 19, 1764, Benjamin Franklin, Postmaster General of the colonies, appointed Abraham Hunt, a Lieutenant Colonel in the New Jersey Hunterdon County militia and prominent merchant in Trenton, as the city's first postmaster. Hunt was again appointed Trenton's postmaster on October 13, 1775, shortly after the American Revolutionary War broke out.[27][28]

During the American Revolutionary War, Trenton was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washington's first military victory. On December 25–26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there.[35] The second battle of Trenton, Battle of the Assunpink Creek, was fought here on January 2, 1777.[36] After the war, the Congress of the Confederation met for two months at the French Arms Tavern from November 1, 1784, to December 24, 1784.[21] While the city was preferred by New England and other northern states as a permanent capital for the new country, the southern states ultimately prevailed in their choice of a location south of the Mason–Dixon line.[37] On April 21, 1789, the city hosted a reception for George Washington on his journey to New York City for his first inauguration.[38]

Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the New Jersey Legislature often met in the city.[39] The city was incorporated in 1792.[25] In 1799, the federal government relocated its offices to Trenton for a period of several months, following an outbreak of yellow fever in the then-capital of Philadelphia.[40]

During the War of 1812, the United States Army's primary hospital was at a site on Broad Street.[41]

Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew steadily, as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.[42]

The Trenton Six were a group of black men arrested for the alleged murder of an elderly white shopkeeper in January 1948 with a soda bottle. They were arrested without warrants, denied lawyers and sentenced to death based on what were described as coerced confessions. With the involvement of the Communist Party and the NAACP, there were several appeals, resulting in a total of four trials. Eventually the accused men (with the exception of one who died in prison) were released. The incident was the subject of the book Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, written by Cathy Knepper.[43][44]

Riots of 1968

The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Citizens of Trenton's urban core often pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.[45]

Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city.[46]


The "Falls of the Delaware" at Trenton
The "Falls of the Delaware" at Trenton

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.21 square miles (21.25 km2), including 7.58 square miles (19.63 km2) of land and 0.63 square miles (1.62 km2) of water (7.62%).[2][3]

Several bridges across the Delaware River connect Trenton to Morrisville, Pennsylvania, all of which are operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[47] The Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge, originally constructed in 1952, stretches 1,324 feet (404 m), carrying U.S. Route 1.[48] The Lower Trenton Bridge, bearing the legend "Trenton Makes The World Takes Bridge", is a 1,022-foot (312 m) span that was constructed in 1928 on the site of a bridge that dates back to 1804.[49] The Calhoun Street Bridge, dating back to 1884, is 1,274 feet (388 m) long.[50]

Trenton is located near the geographic center of the state, which is located 5 miles (8.0 km) southeast of the city.[51][52] The city is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region, while others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.[53]

However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Princeton MSA.[54] Locals consider Trenton to be a part of an ambiguous area known as Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's high housing costs.

Trenton is one of two state capitals that border another state—the other being Carson City, Nevada.[55] It is also one of the seven state capitals located within the Piedmont Plateau.

Trenton borders Ewing Township, Hamilton Township and Lawrence Township in Mercer County; and Falls Township, Lower Makefield Township and Morrisville in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, across the Delaware River in Pennsylvania.[56][57][58]

The Northeast Corridor goes through Trenton. A straight line drawn between Center City, Philadelphia and Downtown Manhattan would pass within 2000 feet of the New Jersey State House.


The city of Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but, since the 1950s, demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans and newer immigrants, many of whom arrive from Latin America. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton.[59] This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.

The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St. Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Avenue. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church—one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888.[60] The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.[61]

South Ward is a diverse neighborhood, home to many Latin American, Italian-American, and African American residents.[62]

East Ward is the smallest neighborhood in Trenton and is home to the Trenton Transit Center and Trenton Central High School. The Chambersburg neighborhood is within the East Ward and was once noted in the region as a destination for its many Italian restaurants and pizzerias. With changing demographics, many of these businesses have either closed or relocated to suburban locations.

West Ward is the home of Trenton's more suburban neighborhoods.

Neighborhoods in the city include:[63]

Map of neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey.
Map of neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey.


According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a cooler humid continental climate (Dfa), favoring the former, with four seasons of approximately equal length and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. The Cfa climate is the result of adiabatic warming of the Appalachians, low altitude and proximity to the coast without being on the immediate edge for moderate temperatures.[64]

Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 32.0 °F (0.0 °C),[65] and temperatures at or below 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing.[66] Episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values below 0 °F (−18 °C). The plant hardiness zone at the Trenton Municipal Court is 7a with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of 1.2 °F (−17.1 °C).[67]

Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 76.3 °F (24.6 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 21.8 days.[65] Episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values reaching 100 °F (38 °C). Extremes in air temperature have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011.[68] However, air temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.

The average precipitation is 45.47 inches (115 cm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year.[65][66] The driest month on average is February, with 2.63 in (67 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July with 4.39 in (11 cm) of rainfall on average which corresponds with the annual peak in thunderstorm activity.[65][66] The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (18.4 cm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd.[66] The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (37.0 cm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (172 cm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (0.1 cm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (73 cm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.[69]

Snowfall can vary even more year to year. The average seasonal (November–April) snowfall total is 24 to 30 inches (61 to 76 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918–1919 to as high as 76.5 in (194.3 cm) in 1995–1996, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.[70] The average snowiest month is February which corresponds with the annual peak in nor'easter activity.

Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (Trenton–Mercer Airport) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1865–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
Mean maximum °F (°C) 62
Average high °F (°C) 39.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.0
Average low °F (°C) 24.3
Mean minimum °F (°C) 8
Record low °F (°C) −16
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.29
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.1 10.1 11.0 11.5 12.0 11.9 10.8 10.0 8.6 10.0 8.5 11.0 125.5
Average relative humidity (%) 65.4 61.7 58.0 57.0 62.1 66.1 66.2 68.8 69.8 68.8 66.9 66.5 64.8
Average dew point °F (°C) 21.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.1 169.7 207.4 227.2 248.1 262.8 269.2 252.5 215.0 201.5 149.3 140.1 2,505.9
Percent possible sunshine 54 57 56 57 56 58 59 59 57 58 50 48 56
Source 1: NOAA (sun 1961–1981)[71][72][73]
Source 2: PRISM Climate Group (humidity and dew point)[74]


Historical population
Census Pop.
Population sources: 1790–1920[75]
1840[76] 1850–1870[77] 1850[78]
1870[79] 1880–1890[80] 1910–1930[81]
1930–1990[82] 2000[83][84]
2010[85] 2020[11]
* = Territory change in previous decade.[25]

2020 census

Trenton, New Jersey – Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[86] Pop 2020[87] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 11,442 8,510 13.47% 9.36%
Black or African American alone (NH) 42,286 38,386 49.80% 42.24%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 219 144 0.26% 0.16%
Asian alone (NH) 923 592 1.09% 0.65%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 30 24 0.04% 0.03%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 106 440 0.12% 0.48%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 1,286 1,870 1.51% 2.06%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 28,621 40,905 33.71% 45.01%
Total 84,913 90,871 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2010 Census

The 2010 United States census counted 84,913 people, 28,578 households, and 17,747 families in the city. The population density was 11,101.9 per square mile (4,286.5/km2). There were 33,035 housing units at an average density of 4,319.2 per square mile (1,667.7/km2). The racial makeup was 26.56% (22,549) White, 52.01% (44,160) Black or African American, 0.70% (598) Native American, 1.19% (1,013) Asian, 0.13% (110) Pacific Islander, 15.31% (13,003) from other races, and 4.10% (3,480) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.71% (28,621) of the population.[85]

Of the 28,578 households, 32.0% had children under the age of 18; 25.1% were married couples living together; 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present and 37.9% were non-families. Of all households, 30.8% were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.[85]

25.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females, the population had 106.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 107.2 males.[85]

2006–2010 survey

The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/− $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/− $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/− $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/− $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/− $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.[88]

2000 Census

As of the 2000 United States Census[17] there were 85,403, people, 29,437 households, and 18,692 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,153.6 inhabitants per square mile (4,306.4/km2). There were 33,843 housing units at an average density of 4,419.9/sq mi (1,706.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 52.06% Black, 32.55% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 10.76% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.53% of the population.[83][84] There were 29,437 households, 32.4% of which had children under the age of 18 living with them. 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.38.[83][84]

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.[83][84]

The median income for a household in the city was $31,074, and the median income for a family was $36,681. Males had a median income of $29,721 versus $26,943 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,621. About 17.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.[83][84]

Top 10 ethnicities reported during the 2000 Census by percentage were:[83][84]

  1. African American (50.1)
  2. Puerto Rican (14.5)
  3. Italian (4.6)
  4. Irish (3.5)
  5. Polish (3.0)
  6. Guatemalan (2.8)
  7. English (1.9)
  8. Jamaican (1.5)
  9. Hungarian (1.0)
  10. Mexican (1.0)


The Lower Trenton Bridge is commonly referred to among locals as the "Trenton Makes Bridge"
The Lower Trenton Bridge is commonly referred to among locals as the "Trenton Makes Bridge"

Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge).[89] The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars. It was home to American Standards largest fixture factory.[90]

Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices.[91] Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.[92]

Notable businesses of the thousands based in Trenton include Italian Peoples Bakery, a wholesale and retail bakery established in 1936.[93] De Lorenzo's Tomato Pies and Papa's Tomato Pies were also fixtures of the city for many years, though both recently relocated to the suburbs.

Urban Enterprise Zone

Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. The city was selected in 1983 as one of the initial group of 10 zones chosen to participate in the program.[94] In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+58% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[95] Established in January 1986, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in December 2023.[96]

The UEZ program in Trenton and four other original UEZ cities had been allowed to lapse as of January 1, 2017, after Governor Chris Christie, who called the program an "abject failure", vetoed a compromise bill that would have extended the status for two years.[97] In May 2018, Governor Phil Murphy signed a law that reinstated the program in these five cities and extended the expiration date in other zones.[98]

In 2018, the city had an average property tax bill of $3,274, the lowest in the county, compared to an average bill of $8,292 in Mercer County and $8,767 statewide.[99][100] The city had the sixth-highest property tax rate in New Jersey, with an equalized rate of 5.264% in 2020, compared to 2.760% in the county as a whole and a statewide average of 2.279%.[101]

Television market

Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. However, following the 2000 United States Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets.[102] Trenton was the site of the studios of the former public television station New Jersey Network (a.k.a. NJN).



Club League Venue MLB affiliate Established Championships
Trenton Thunder MLB Draft League Arm & Hammer Park None 1994 3

Because of Trenton's near-equal distance to both New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is common to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Islanders, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.[116]

Between 1948 and 1979, Trenton Speedway, located in adjacent Hamilton Township, hosted world class auto racing. Drivers such as Jim Clark, A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Richard Petty and Bobby Allison raced on the one-mile (1.6 km) asphalt oval and then re-configured 1+12-mile race track.[117] The speedway, which closed in 1980, was part of the larger New Jersey State Fairgrounds complex, which also closed in 1983. The former site of the speedway and fairgrounds is now the Grounds for Sculpture.[118]

The Trenton Thunder, minor league team owned by Joe Plumeri, plays at 6,341-seat Arm & Hammer Park, the stadium which Plumeri had previously named after his father in 1999.[119][120][121] The team was previously affiliated with the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, Detroit Tigers, and, before moving to Trenton, the Chicago White Sox, but became an unaffiliated collegiate summer baseball team of the MLB Draft League beginning in 2021.[122]

The Trenton Freedom of the Professional Indoor Football League were founded in 2013 and played their games at the Sun National Bank Center. The Freedom ended operations in 2015, joining the short-lived Trenton Steel (in 2011) and Trenton Lightning (in 2001) as indoor football teams that had brief operating lives at the arena.[123]

Parks and recreation


Trenton City Hall, seat of local government
Trenton City Hall, seat of local government

Local government

The City of Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government, one of 79 municipalities (of the 564) statewide that use this form of government.[125] The governing body is comprised of a mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently on a non-partisan basis to four-year terms of office as part of the November general election.[8][126]

In October 2020, the city council overrode a mayoral veto and shifted municipal elections from May to November, with proponents citing the increased turnout and savings to the city of $180,000 in each election cycle. The mayor and members of council all had their term-end dates extended by six months and moved to December 31 from June 30, 2022.[127] The city retained a runoff provision that would have a December runoff in the event that the candidate with the highest number of votes doesn't obtain a majority.[128]

As of 2022, the mayor of Trenton is Reed Gusciora, whose term of office ends December 31, 2022; before taking office as mayor, Gusciora had served in the New Jersey General Assembly.[129] Members of the city council are Council President Kathy McBride (At-Large), Marge Caldwell-Wilson (North Ward), Joseph A. Harrison (East Ward), George P. Muschal (South Ward), Santiago Rodriquez (At-Large), Robin M. Vaughn (West Ward) and Sonya Wilkins (At-Large; appointed to serve an unexpired term), all serving terms of office ending December 31, 2022.[4][130][131][132][133]

In February 2022, the city council appointed Sonya Wilkins to fill the at-large seat expiring in December 2022 that had been held by Jerell A. Blakeley until he resigned from office the previous month to take a job outside the state.[134]

Interim mayor 2014

From February 7 to July 1, 2014, the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to the felony conviction of Tony F. Mack, who had taken office on July 1, 2010.[135] Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.[136]

Mayor's conviction and removal from office

On February 7, 2014, Mack and his brother, Raphiel Mack, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a sting operation by law enforcement.[137] Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption.[138] Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have been reversed by Muschal.[136] Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.[139]

Federal, state and county representation

Trenton is located in the 12th Congressional District[140] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[141][142][143] [144]

For the 117th United States Congress, New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[145][146]

New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2027)[147] and Bob Menendez (Harrison, term ends 2025).[148][149]

For the 2022–2023 session, the 15th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (D, Trenton) and Anthony Verrelli (D, Hopewell Township, Mercer County).[150]

Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of County Commissioners that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year as part of the November general election.[151] As of 2022, the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, Princeton, term of office ends December 31, 2023).[152] Mercer County's Commissioners are Commissioner Chair Nina D. Melker (D, Hamilton Township, 2022),[153] Vice Chair Lucylle R. S. Walter (D, Ewing Township, 2023),[154] John A. Cimino (D, Hamilton Township, 2023),[155] Samuel T. Frisby Sr. (D, Trenton, 2024),[156] Andrew Koontz (D, Princeton, 2022),[157] Kristin L McLaughlin (D, Hopewell Township, 2024)[158] and Terrance Stokes (D, Ewing Township, 2024).[159][160][161] Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, Lawrence Township, 2025),[162] Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2023)[163] and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2026).[164][165]


As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.[166]

Presidential Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2020[167] 11.2% 2,443 88.2% 19,304 0.6% 146
2016[168] 7.7% 1,715 90.6% 20,131 1.7% 379
2012[169] 6.2% 1,528 93.4% 23,125 0.4% 97
2008[170] 8.2% 2,157 89.9% 23,577 0.5% 141
2004[171] 16.3% 3,791 79.8% 18,539 0.4% 146

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 93.4% of the vote (23,125 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 6.2% (1,528 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (97 votes), among the 27,831 ballots cast by the city's 40,362 registered voters (3,081 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 69.0%.[169][172] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%.[170]

Gubernatorial Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2021[173] 10.7% 987 88.6% 8,120 0.7% 59
2017[174] 8.6% 872 89.8% 9,128 1.7% 169
2013[175] 24.7% 3,035 74.7% 9,179 0.7% 77
2009[176] 12.4% 1,560 81.6% 10,235 3.5% 440
2005[177] 15.3% 1,982 81.0% 10,484 3.6% 471

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 74.7% of the vote (9,179 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.7% (3,035 votes), and other candidates with 0.6% (77 votes), among the 11,884 ballots cast by the city's 38,452 registered voters (407 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 30.9%.[175][178] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.[176]

Fire department

The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department.[179] The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engine companies, 3 ladder companies and one rescue company, along with one HAZMAT unit, an air cascade unit, a mobile command unit, a foam unit, one fireboat, and numerous special, support and reserve units, under the command of two battalion chiefs each shift.[180][181]


Colleges and universities

Trenton is the home of two post-secondary institutions: Thomas Edison State University, serving adult students around the nation and worldwide[182] and Mercer County Community College's James Kerney Campus.[183]

The College of New Jersey, formerly named Trenton State College, was founded in Trenton in 1855 and is now located in nearby Ewing Township. Rider University was founded in Trenton in 1865 as The Trenton Business College. In 1959, Rider moved to its current location in nearby Lawrence Township.[184]

Public schools

The Trenton Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade.[185] The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide that were established pursuant to the decision by the New Jersey Supreme Court in Abbott v. Burke[186] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[187][188] The district's board of education, comprised of seven members, sets policy and oversees the fiscal and educational operation of the district through its superintendent administration. As a Type I school district, the board's trustees are appointed by the mayor to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for re-appointment each year. The board appoints a superintendent to oversee the district's day-to-day operations and a business administrator to supervise the business functions of the district.[189][190] The school district has undergone a 'construction' renaissance throughout the district.

As of the 2018–19 school year, the district, comprised of 20 schools, had an enrollment of 14,500 students and 884.4 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 16.4:1.[191] Schools in the district (with 2018–19 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[192]) are Columbus Elementary School[193] (371 students; in grades K–5), Franklin Elementary School[194] (405; K–5), Grant Elementary School[195] (571; Pre-K–5), Gregory Elementary School[196] (567; K–5), Harrison Elementary School[197] (221; Pre-K–5), P.J. Hill Elementary School[198] (800; Pre-K–5), Jefferson Elementary School[199] (434; K–5), Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Elementary School[200] (775; K–5), Mott Elementary School[201] (426; K–5), Parker Elementary School[202] (531; K–5), Robbins Elementary School[203] (541; K–5), Washington Elementary School[204] (409; K–5), Wilson Elementary School[205] (498; Pre-K–5), Grace A. Dunn Middle School[206] (893; 6–8), Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School[207] (674; 6–8), Joyce Kilmer Middle School[208] (370; 6–8), Luis Munoz Rivera Middle School[209] (483; 6–8), Trenton Ninth Grade Academy[210] (707; 9), Daylight/Twilight Alternative High School[211] (443; 9–12) and Trenton Central High School[212] (1,818; 9–12).[213][214][215]

Eighth-grade students from all of Mercer County are eligible to apply to attend the high school programs offered by the Mercer County Technical Schools, a county-wide vocational school district that offers full-time career and technical education at its Health Sciences Academy, STEM Academy and Academy of Culinary Arts, with no tuition charged to students for attendance.[216][217]

Marie H. Katzenbach School for the Deaf (previously New Jersey School for the Deaf and New Jersey State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb), the statewide school for the deaf, opened in Trenton in 1883 and was there until 1923, when it moved to West Trenton.[218]

Charter schools

Trenton is home to several charter schools, including Capital Preparatory Charter High School, Emily Fisher Charter School, Foundation Academy Charter School, International Charter School, Paul Robeson Charter School and Village Charter School.[219]

The International Academy of Trenton, owned and monitored by the SABIS school network, became a charter school in 2014. On February 22, 2017, Trenton's mayor, Eric Jackson, visited the school when it opened its doors in the former Trenton Times building on 500 Perry Street, after completion of a $17 million renovation project. After receiving notice from the New Jersey Department of Education that the school's charter would not be renewed due to issues with academic performance and school management, the school closed its doors on June 30, 2018.[220]

Private schools

Trenton Catholic Academy high school serves students in grades 9–12, while Trenton Catholic Academy grammar school serves students in Pre-K through 8th grade; both schools operate under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.[221]

Trenton is home to Al-Bayaan Academy, which opened for preschool students in September 2001 and added grades in subsequent years.[222]

Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).


The Trenton Police Department was founded in 1792, when the city was incorporated. It works in conjunction with the Mercer County Sheriff's Office.[223]

In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history.[224] The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide in the 12th annual Morgan Quitno survey.[225] In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous city overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous municipality of 126 cities in the 75,000–99,999 population range.[226]

In September 2011, the city laid off 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.[227]

In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides.[228] In 2014, there were 23 murders through the end of July and the city's homicide rate was on track to break the record set the previous year until an 81-day period when there were no murders in Trenton; the city ended the year with 34 murders.[229][230] In 2020, the city surpassed the 2013 homicide number with a record 40 homicides.[231]

New Jersey State Prison

The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison) has two maximum security units. It houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.[232]

The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison:

Labor, Silence, Penitence.
The Penitentiary House,
Erected By Legislative
Richard Howell, Governor.
In The XXII Year Of
American Independence
That Those Who Are Feared
For Their Crimes
May Learn To Fear The Laws
And Be Useful
Hic Labor, Hic Opus.[233]


Roads and highways

U.S. Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass
U.S. Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass

As of May 2010, the city had a total of 168.80 miles (271.66 km) of roadways, of which 145.57 miles (234.27 km) were maintained by the municipality, 11.33 miles (18.23 km) by Mercer County, 10.92 miles (17.57 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 0.99 miles (1.59 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[234]

City highways include the Trenton Freeway (part of U.S. Route 1)[235] and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29.[236] Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects US 1 and Route 29 in South Trenton.[237] U.S. Route 206,[238] Route 31[239] and Route 33[240] also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).

Route 29 connects the city to Interstate 295 and Interstate 195, the latter providing a connection to the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) at Exit 7A in Robbinsville Township.

Public transportation

The Trenton Transit Center, which serves Amtrak, NJ Transit, and SEPTA
The Trenton Transit Center, which serves Amtrak, NJ Transit, and SEPTA

Public transportation within the city and to/from its nearby suburbs is provided in the form of local bus routes run by NJ Transit. SEPTA also provides bus service to adjacent Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

The Trenton Transit Center, located on the heavily traveled Northeast Corridor, serves as the northbound terminus for SEPTA's Trenton Line (local train service to Philadelphia) and southbound terminus for NJ Transit Rail's Northeast Corridor Line (local train service to New York Penn Station). The train station also serves as the northbound terminus for the River Line, a diesel light rail line that runs to Camden.[241] Two additional River Line stops, Cass Street and Hamilton Avenue, are located within the city.[242]

Long-distance transportation is provided by Amtrak train service along the Northeast Corridor.[243]

The closest commercial airport is Trenton–Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about 8 miles (13 km) from the center of Trenton, which has been served by Frontier Airlines offering service to and from 13 points nationwide.[244]

Other nearby major airports are Newark Liberty International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport, located 55.2 miles (88.8 km) and 43.4 miles (69.8 km) away, respectively, and reachable by direct New Jersey Transit or Amtrak rail link (to Newark) and by SEPTA Regional Rail (to Philadelphia).

NJ Transit Bus Operations provides bus service between Trenton and Philadelphia on the 409 route, with service to surrounding communities on the 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 606, 607, 608, 609 and 611 routes.[245][246]

The Greater Mercer Transportation Management Association offers service on the Route 130 Connection between the Trenton Transit Center and the South Brunswick warehouse district with stops along the route including Hamilton train station, Hamilton Marketplace, Hightstown and East Windsor Town Center Plaza.[247]


Trenton is served by two daily newspapers: The Times and The Trentonian, as well as a monthly advertising magazine: "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW and Top 40 WPST are also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the Trenton area.[248]

Trenton is officially part of the Philadelphia television market but some local pay TV operators also carry stations serving the New York market. While it is its own radio market, many Philadelphia and New York stations are easily receivable.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Trenton. There are scant few unfamiliar with the huge neon sign installed in 1935 that sits on the Lower Trenton Bridge, declaring 'Trenton Makes, The World Takes.' Lumber company owner S. Roy Heath came up with the slogan, originally 'The World Takes, Trenton Makes,' for a chamber of commerce contest in 1910."
  2. ^ a b c d e 2019 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 1, 2020.
  3. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Trenton City Council Chambers, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed May 3, 2022.
  5. ^ 2022 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed March 1, 2022.
  6. ^ Administration & Finance Department, City of Trenton. Accessed March 20, 2022.
  7. ^ City Clerk, City of Trenton. Accessed March 20, 2022.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 73.
  9. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  10. ^ "City of Trenton". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c QuickFacts Trenton city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 24, 2022.
  12. ^ Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 1, 2020. Note that townships (including Edison, Lakewood and Woodbridge, all of which have larger populations) are excluded from these rankings.
  13. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State – County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 11, 2013.
  14. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Trenton, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  15. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  16. ^ Area Code Lookup – NPA NXX for Trenton, NJ, Accessed September 7, 2013.
  17. ^ a b U.S. Census website, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  18. ^ Geographic Codes Lookup for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed April 1, 2022.
  19. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  20. ^ New Jersey County Map, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed July 10, 2017.
  21. ^ a b Parker, L.A. "City celebrating role as U.S. capital in 1784" Archived September 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Trentonian, November 6, 2009. Accessed January 10, 2012. "City and state leaders kicked off a two-month celebration yesterday with a news conference highlighting Trenton's brief role as the capital of the United States in 1784."
  22. ^ New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 28, 2014.
  23. ^ "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas.", Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 13-01, February 28, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2019.
  24. ^ Table 1. New Jersey Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships: 2020 and 2010 Censuses, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 24, 2022.
  25. ^ a b c d The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606–1968, John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. pp. 164–165. Accessed August 21, 2012,
  26. ^ County History, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed April 18, 2011.
  27. ^ a b National Archives: Post Office Commissions to Abraham Hunt, 10 January 1764
  28. ^ a b Schuyler, 1929, p. 132
  29. ^ Honeyman, Abraham Van Doren. Index-analysis of the Statutes of New Jersey, 1896–1909: Together with References to All Acts, and Parts of Acts, in the 'General Statutes' and Pamphlet Laws Expressly Repealed: and the Statutory Crimes of New Jersey During the Same Period, p. 302. New Jersey Law Journal Publishing Company, 1910. Accessed October 12, 2015.
  30. ^ "Before There Was Trenton: A 350th Anniversary Look at the 17th Century Display of Early New Netherland Colonial Artifacts June 22 – October 19, 2014", Trenton City Museum, October 12, 2014. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  31. ^ Hunter, Richard. "Chapter 4: Land Use History", from Abbott Farm National Historic Landmark Interpretive Plan, Mercer County, New Jersey. Accessed May 5, 2016.
  32. ^ Krystal, Becky. "Trenton, N.J.: One for the history buffs", The Washington Post, February 10, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "Back in the early 18th century, at least, the area was remote enough for Trent, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, to build his summer home there near the banks of the Delaware River. And though it's dwarfed by its modern-day neighbors, at the time the home reflected its owner's 'ostentatious nature,' Nedoresow said. Further stroking his ego, he named the settlement he laid out 'Trent-towne,' which eventually evolved into the current moniker."
  33. ^ Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed October 12, 2015.
  34. ^ Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 304. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed October 12, 2015.
  35. ^ "This Day in History – Dec 26, 1776: Washington wins first major U.S. victory at Trenton", History, November 13, 2009, updated July 27, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  36. ^ Fischer, David Hackett (2006). "The Bridge. Assunpink, The Most Awful Moment". Washington's Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 290–307. ISBN 0-19-518159-X.
  37. ^ Messler, Mary J. "Chapter IV: Some Notable Events of Post-Revolutionary Times" from A History of Trenton: 1679–1929, Trenton Historical Society. Accessed May 5, 2016. "The question now resolved itself into a quarrel between the North and the South. New England favored Trenton, whereas the Southern States felt that in the selection of any site north of Mason and Dixon's line their claims for recognition were being slighted, and their interests sacrificed to New England's commercialism."
  38. ^ Stryker, William S. (1882). Washington's reception by the people of New Jersey in 1789. Trenton, New Jersey. p. 4.
  39. ^ A Short History of New Jersey, New Jersey. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  40. ^ Messler, Mary. "Some Notable Events of Post-Revolutionary Times". Trenton Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  41. ^ Some of Trenton's History Archived October 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed October 12, 2015. "During the 1812 War, the primary hospital facility for the U.S. Army was at a temporary location on Broad Street."
  42. ^ Richman, Steven M. Reconsidering Trenton: The Small City in the Post-Industrial Age, p. 49. McFarland & Company, 2010. ISBN 9780786462230. Accessed November 15, 2015.
  43. ^ Blackwell, John|. "1948: A cry for justice", The Trentonian. Accessed June 4, 2018.
  44. ^ Schlegel, Sharon. "Harrowing case of the 'Trenton Six'", The Times, January 28, 2012. Accessed June 4, 2018. "The recently published story of the 'Trenton Six,' dramatically told in Cathy Knepper's newest book, Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, is so filled with proven instances of injustice that it is almost hard to believe.... Reading how the men were arrested randomly and haphazardly (despite a partial witness claiming they were not the perpetrators) is horrifying. Equally upsetting is that they were held incommunicado for days without warrants, abused and drugged into confessing."
  45. ^ Cumbler, John T. A Social History of Economic Decline: Business, Politics and Work in Trenton, p. 283. Rutgers University Press, 1989. ISBN 9780813513744. Accessed February 12, 2014.
  46. ^ Listokin, David; and Listokin, Barbara. Barriers to the Rehabilitation of Afordable Housing Volume II Case Studies, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, May 2001. Accessed December 1, 2019. "Socioeconomic and housing challenges are especially severe in some of Trenton’s oldest neighborhoods. In the Old Trenton area, abandonment went unchecked for decades, and when abandoned houses were demolished by the city, the empty lots remaining would fill with garbage and vermin. Another hard-hit location was the 'Battle Monument' area: 'Time has not been kind to the Battle Monument section of this city. The five-block area, the hub of the Battle of Trenton in 1775 and of transportation in the 1950s, has in the last four decades suffered from abandonment and neglect.'"
  47. ^ Discover Our Bridges, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  48. ^ Trenton-Morrisville (Rt. 1) Toll Bridge, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge carries U.S. Route 1 over the Delaware River between Trenton, New Jersey and Morrisville, Pennsylvania.... The bridge is a twelve-span, simply supported composite steel girder and concrete deck structure with an overall length of 1,324 feet."
  49. ^ Lower Trenton Toll-Supported Bridge, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Lower Trenton Toll-Supported Bridge, also known as the 'Trenton Makes The World Takes Bridge,' connects Warren Street in Trenton, N.J. with East Bridge Street in Morrisville, Pa. -- one of three bridges connecting the two communities.... The current 1,022-foot bridge is a five-span Warren Truss built in 1928."
  50. ^ Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge is the oldest bridge structure owned and operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. It turned 125 years old on October 20, 2009.... Of the 20 bridges in the DRJTBC system, the Calhoun Street Toll-Supported Bridge is the only one made of wrought iron. A Phoenix Pratt truss with a total length of 1,274 feet, it also holds the distinction as the Commission’s longest through-truss bridge and the Commission’s only seven-span truss bridge."
  51. ^ Science In Your Backyard: New Jersey Archived August 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, United States Geological Survey. Accessed October 28, 2014.
  52. ^ Stirling, Stephen. "U.S. Census shows East Brunswick as statistical center of N.J.", NJ Advance Media for, March 31, 2011. Accessed May 21, 2017. "The state's geographic center remains Hamilton Township in Mercer County, just southeast of Trenton."
  53. ^ Weiss, Daniel. "North/South Skirmishes; A film tries to draw the line between North and South Jersey.", New Jersey Monthly, April 30, 2008. Accessed June 12, 2018.
  54. ^ Metropolitan Statistical Areas And Components, December 2003, With Codes, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 7, 2011.
  55. ^ Howe, Randy. Nifty 50 States Brainiac, p. 1159. Kaplan Publishing, 2008. ISBN 9781427797117. Accessed February 12, 2014. "Carson City is one of just two capital cities in the United States that borders another state; the other is Trenton, New Jersey."
  56. ^ Areas touching Trenton, MapIt. Accessed March 15, 2020.
  57. ^ Municipalities within Mercer County, NJ, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  58. ^ New Jersey Municipal Boundaries, New Jersey Department of Transportation. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  59. ^ Di Ionno, Mark. "Chambersburg", The Star-Ledger, July 17, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2012. "The difference between Chambersburg, the traditional Italian section of Trenton, and other city neighborhoods that have undergone 'natural progression' is that Chambersburg hung on so long."
  60. ^ Richard Grubb & Associates. Three Centuries of African-American History in Trenton: A Preliminary Inventory of Historic Sites, Trenton Historic Society, September 2011. Accessed December 1, 2019. "Shiloh Baptist Church is the city’s oldest African-American Baptist congregation. The first groups of Black Baptists were formed in the city around 1880, with Shiloh formally organized in 1896."
  61. ^ a b Trenton Battle Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  62. ^ "In their own words, South Ward candidates explain why they should win City Council seat", The Trentonian, October 18, 2009. Accessed June 12, 2018.
  63. ^ Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  64. ^ "Interactive United States Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  65. ^ a b c d "Station: Trenton Mercer CO AP, NJ". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  66. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  67. ^ USDA Interactive Plant Hardiness Map Archived July 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed November 26, 2019.
  68. ^ Staff. "Heat sets new record high in Trenton at 106 degrees", The Trentonian, July 22, 2011. Accessed February 12, 2014. "The thermometer reached a record-setting 106 degrees here in the City of Trenton, easily smashing July 22nd's previous high mark from 1926, when the temp reached 101 degrees."
  69. ^ "City of Trenton, New Jersey Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan" Archived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton. Accessed February 12, 2014.
  70. ^ City of Trenton, New Jersey Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan Archived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, City of Trenton, adopted June 19, 2008. Accessed June 12, 2018. "The average snowfall is 24.9 inches, but has ranged from as low as 2 inches (in the winter of 1918–1919) to as high as 76.5 inches (in 1995–1996). The heaviest snowstorm on record was the Blizzard of 1996 on January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches buried the city."
  71. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  72. ^ "Station: Trenton Mercer CO AP, NJ". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  73. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for Trenton/WSO City, NJ 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  74. ^ "PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University". Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  75. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726–1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 15, 2013.
  76. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed July 15, 2013. Population of 4,021 is listed for 1840, 14 less than shown in table.
  77. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, pp. 276–7. J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 15, 2013. "Trenton the capitol of the State, as well as the seat of justice of the county of Mercer, is beautifully located on the east bank of the Delaware, at the head of tide navigation. Here is located the State Capitol, built in 1793, enlarged in 1845 and 1865, and again in 1871. The State Prison, State Arsenal, State Normal and Model schools are also located here. The city has 7 wards. Its population in 1850, was 6,461; in 1860, 17,228; and in 1870, 22,874"
  78. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 139. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed July 15, 2013.
  79. ^ United States Census Bureau (1872). A compendium of the ninth census, 1870. p. 260.
  80. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III – 51 to 75, p. 98. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed November 20, 2012.
  81. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 – Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 712. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  82. ^ Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 – 1990 Archived May 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
  83. ^ a b c d e f Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Trenton city Archived January 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  84. ^ a b c d e f DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 – Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Trenton city, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 12, 2012.
  85. ^ a b c d DP-1 – Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Trenton city, Mercer County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  86. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Trenton city, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau.
  87. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Trenton city, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau.
  88. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Trenton city, Mercer County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  89. ^ Bruder, Jessica. "Jerseyana; Trenton's Fighting Words", The New York Times, May 2, 2004. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Trenton Makes, the World Takes, reads the famous red neon sign that spans a bridge between the state Capitol and Morrisville, Pa., affectionately known by locals as the Trenton Makes bridge.... In its heyday, Trenton was a world-class producer of rubber, steel, wire rope, and pottery. The cables for three famous suspension bridges – the Brooklyn, George Washington and Golden Gate – were produced here at John A. Roebling's factory."
  90. ^ Blackwell, Jon. "1911: 'Trenton Makes' history", The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
  91. ^ Mickle, Paul. "1984: A whole new skyline", The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
  92. ^ Raboteau, Albert. "Diversifying city's economy a major goal for Trenton", The Times, January 30, 2003. Accessed October 28, 2014. "Another large goal is to lure private companies whose employees, officials say, are likely to work later in the evening and have more money to spend than the 20,000 or so state workers who swell downtown during business hours, then commute home to other municipalities."
  93. ^ History, Italian Peoples Bakery. Accessed May 13, 2016. "The origin of Italian Peoples Bakery goes back to 1936 when Pasquale Gervasio, the patriarch of the family, opened a bakery on Hamilton Avenue in Trenton, New Jersey."
  94. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Tax Questions and Answers, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, May 2009. Accessed October 28, 2019. "The Urban Enterprise Zone Program (UEZ) was enacted in 1983. It authorized the designation of ten zones by the New Jersey Urban Enterprise Zone Authority: Camden, Newark, Bridgeton, Trenton, Plainfield, Elizabeth, Jersey City, Kearny, Orange and Millville/Vineland (joint zone)."
  95. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Program, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed October 27, 2019. "Businesses participating in the UEZ Program can charge half the standard sales tax rate on certain purchases, currently 3.3125% effective 1/1/2018"
  96. ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Effective and Expiration Dates, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed January 8, 2018.
  97. ^ Racioppi, Dustin. "Christie vetoes urban enterprise zone extension", The record, February 10, 2017. Accessed November 19, 2019. "Gov. Chris Christie on Friday conditionally vetoed the Legislature's attempt to extend the Urban Enterprise Zone status for its five charter communities, calling the economic revitalization program an 'abject failure' with a 'devastating impact' on state revenue.... The Legislature returned with what it called a compromise bill, A-4189, to extend the designation for two years instead of 10 for the first five UEZs -- Bridgeton, Camden, Newark, Plainfield and Trenton -- which expired on Jan. 1."
  98. ^ "Notice: Law Reinstates Five Urban Enterprise Zones And Also Extends The Expiration Date Of 12 Other UEZs", New Jersey Department of the Treasury Division of Taxation, May 30, 2018. Accessed November 19, 2019. "On May 30, 2018, Governor Murphy signed Senate Bill 846 (A3549). The law reinstated five expired Urban Enterprise Zones (UEZs). If your business is located in one of these zones, you may file an application to establish qualified business status. (Past certifications are no longer valid in these five zones). The five UEZs are in: *Bridgeton *Camden *Newark *Plainfield *Trenton. The UEZs in the five locations listed above expire on December 31, 2023."
  99. ^ 2018 Property Tax Information, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, updated January 16, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  100. ^ Marcus, Samantha. "These are the towns with the lowest property taxes in each of N.J.’s 21 counties", NJ Advance Media for, April 30, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019. "New Jersey’s average property tax bill may have hit $8,767 last year — a new record — but taxpayers in some parts of the state pay just a fraction of that.... The average property tax bill in Trenton was $3,274 in 2018, the lowest in Mercer County."
  101. ^ "Here are the 30 N.J. towns with the highest property tax rates", NJ Advance Media for, March 15, 2021. Accessed January 19, 2022. "The average equalized tax rate in New Jersey was 2.279 in 2020, according to data from the Department of Community Affairs. Here is the list of 30 New Jersey towns with the highest property tax rates.... 6. Trenton Equalized tax rate in Trenton, Mercer County, was 5.264 in 2020 Average equalized tax rate in Mercer County: 2.760"
  102. ^ "New Statistical Area Information based on Census 2000" Archived August 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, December 14, 2004. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  103. ^ 4 Museums in One, New Jersey State Museum. Accessed January 5, 2015.
  104. ^ State House History Archived September 17, 2002, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 5, 2015.
  105. ^ About the NJ State Library, New Jersey State Library. Accessed January 5, 2015.
  106. ^ Welcome to the Trenton City Museum, Trenton City Museum. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The museum is located in Ellarslie Mansion, an Italianate villa built in 1848. The mansion is the centerpiece of Cadwalader Park, which was designed by the famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, whose most famous work is New York City’s Central Park."
  107. ^ Frequently Asked Questions about the War Memorial, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  108. ^ About the Building, Old Barracks Museum. Accessed December 1, 2019. "In 1758, during the French and Indian War, the building now referred to as the Old Barracks was constructed by the colony of New Jersey in direct response to petitions from residents who were protesting compulsory quartering of soldiers in their own homes. It was one of five such buildings throughout New Jersey constructed for the purpose of housing British soldiers during the winter months of the war, and it is the only one still standing."
  109. ^ Designing the Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  110. ^ Trenton City Hall, Library of Congress. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  111. ^ About the 1719 Trent House, William Trent House. Accessed December 1, 2019. "William Trent built his country estate north of Philadelphia, in New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware River about 1719.... In 1720 Trent laid out a settlement, which he incorporated and named 'Trenton.'"
  112. ^ Lamar, Martha L.; Powell, L. Matthew; Davies, David S. "Adams and Sickles Building" (PDF), National Register of Historic Places National Park Service, June 5, 1979. Accessed May 13, 2016.
  113. ^ Trenton Society of Friends Meeting House, Destination Trenton. Accessed May 13, 2016. "In the burying-ground adjoining the Meeting House are buried many citizens who played prominent parts in the early history of the city."
  114. ^ Trenton Friends Meeting House (PDF), National Register of Historic Places National Park Service. Accessed May 13, 2016.
  115. ^ Leynes, Jennifer B.; Lane, Sally (March 2021). National Register of Historic Places Registration: Carver Center (Draft) (PDF). National Park Service.
  116. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank. "Jersey's split sports personality Great Divide: Eagles and Giants fans", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 11, 2009. Accessed October 12, 2015.
  117. ^ Huneke, Bill. "Trenton Speedway lives on at Pocono", The Times, July 6, 2013. Accessed October 12, 2015. "As Indy Car racing returns to Pocono this weekend after a 24-year absence, only a few of the drivers competing were even alive when Trenton's last event was run in 1979."
  118. ^ History of State Fairgrounds Archived February 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Grounds for Sculpture. Accessed March 16, 2012. As horses were replaced by automobiles for transportation, cars became the main attraction on the fairground's racetrack. 'Lucky' Teter and his Hell Drivers made the headlines in the 1930s; in the sixties it was midget car races and a 200-mile race for Indianapolis cars and drivers."
  119. ^ McGeehan, Patrick. "Private Sector; A Wall St. Son at Nasdaq's Table ", The New York Times, December 17, 2000. Accessed January 5, 2015. "Mr. Plumeri, who owns a minor league team affiliated with the Red Sox, the Trenton Thunder, has even drawn Mr. Simmons to the team's stadium, Samuel J. Plumeri Field, to watch his beloved team play exhibition games."
  120. ^ Arm & Hammer Park Trenton, New Jersey, Ball Parks of the Minor Leagues. Accessed January 5, 2015. "The playing field was named in 1999 in honor of Samuel Plumeri Sr., one of the driving forces in bring baseball back to New Jersey's state capital."
  121. ^ Pahigian, Josh. The Ultimate Minor League Baseball Road Trip: A Fan's Guide to AAA, AA, A, and Independent League Stadiums, p. 45. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781599216270. Accessed January 5, 2015.
  122. ^ "Trenton Thunder Continue Affiliation with Major League Baseball in New MLB Draft League". Trenton Thunder. Minor League Baseball. November 30, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  123. ^ Foster, David. "Sacked: Trenton Freedom indoor football team folds", The Trentonian, August 26, 2015. Accessed October 12, 2015. "The Trenton Freedom is the latest professional sports team to shutter operations in the capital city, following the same doomed path of several other organizations at the Sun National Bank Center.... The Trenton Freedom, a member of the Professional Indoor Football League (PIFL), became the third indoor football team to fail at the Sun National Bank Center, lasting one year longer than the previous two. The Trenton Steel called the 8,000-seat arena home for six games in 2011. A decade earlier, the Trenton Lightning lasted just one season."
  124. ^ Cadwalader Park Archived October 20, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton City Museum. Accessed December 1, 2019. "Cadwalader Park is the largest urban park in the City of Trenton (109.5 acres). It is crossed by the Delaware & Raritan (D&R) Canal State Park.... Discussions among Hill and other Trenton civic leaders led to the engagement of Frederick Law Olmsted’s firm to design a park in 1890."
  125. ^ Inventory of Municipal Forms of Government in New Jersey, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, July 1, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2019.
  126. ^ City Council Overview, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed December 1, 2019. "The City of Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formerly known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law. Under this act, the Mayor-Council system was developed in 1792."
  127. ^ Avilucea, Issac. "Trenton council overrides mayor’s Election Day veto", The Trentonian, October 1, 2020. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Council had the last say in this one. The governing body overrode Mayor Reed Gusciora’s veto of an ordinance that moves the municipal election from May to November. The change also moves runoffs to December rather than June and gives the mayor and council members another six months in office.... Vaughn suggested the city would see increased voter turnout and savings as much as $181,000 by aligning Trenton with other municipalities in Mercer County that conduct elections with the general election."
  128. ^ Biryukov, Nikita. "Another town poised to join others moving local elections to November Nonpartisan spring races dwindle as towns seek to boost turnout, cut election costs", New Jersey Monitor, August 11, 2021. Accessed May 3, 2022. "He added the city would likely have to foot the bill for a December runoff election in case no candidate won a majority during the nonpartisan November vote, though that’s nothing new. Trenton already paid for runoff elections held in June before."
  129. ^ Office of the Mayor, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Reed Gusciora (born March 27, 1960) was sworn in as the 48th mayor of the City of Trenton on July 1st, 2018. Prior to becoming Mayor, he served in the New Jersey General Assembly since 1996, representing the 15th Legislative District, which includes portions of Mercer and Hunterdon Counties."
  130. ^ 2022 Municipal Data Sheet, Trenton, New Jersey. Accessed November 25, 2022.
  131. ^ Mercer County Elected Officials, Mercer County, New Jersey, as of November 12, 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  132. ^ May 8, 2018 Trenton Municipal Election Official Results, Mercer County, New Jersey, last updated May 14, 2018. Accessed July 5, 2018.
  133. ^ June 12, 2018 Trenton Municipal Runoff Election Results, Mercer County, New Jersey, last updated June 15, 2018. Accessed July 5, 2018.
  134. ^ Avilucea, Isaac. "Sonya Wilkins nominated to fill Trenton at-large seat vacated by Blakeley", The Trentonian, February 2, 2022. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Sonya Wilkins is in. The former aide to council president Kathy McBride and Trenton Housing Authority commissioner will fill the unexpired term of former councilman Jerell Blakeley, who resigned last month to take an out-of-state job."
  135. ^ Zdan, Alex; and Pizzi, Jenna. "Acting Mayor George Muschal assumes office and vows to put Trenton 'on the right track'", The Times, February 26, 2014. Accessed May 21, 2017.
  136. ^ a b Pizzi, Jenna. "Trenton council to vote to install George Muschal as interim mayor", The Star-Ledger, March 4, 2014. Accessed October 12, 2015. "Council members decided to amend the agenda for their regularly scheduled meeting to include the action of appointing Muschal to the interim post. He will serve until a new mayor – elected in May – takes over July 1."
  137. ^ via Associated Press."Mayor Tony Mack of Trenton Is Found Guilty of Taking Bribes", The New York Times, February 7, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014.
  138. ^ "NJ calls for convicted Trenton mayor Tony Mack to be removed" Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, WPVI-TV, February 10, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014. "The state Attorney General's Office filed a request Monday with a state Superior Court judge, asking that Tony Mack be kicked out of office, stripped of his pension and be barred from holding elected office again.... Under state law, people convicted of corruption cannot continue to hold public office. But since Mack has not resigned, the state is asking a judge to enforce the law."
  139. ^ via Associated Press. "A year of turmoil, stumbles for Trenton's mayor", The Star-Ledger, July 9, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012.
  140. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2020.
  141. ^ Municipalities Sorted by 2011-2020 Legislative District, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed February 1, 2020.
  142. ^ 2019 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed October 30, 2019.
  143. ^ Districts by Number for 2011–2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  144. ^ 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government Archived June 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, p. 65, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
  145. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 3, 2019.
  146. ^ Biography, Congresswoman Bonnie Watson Coleman. Accessed January 3, 2019. "Watson Coleman and her husband William reside in Ewing Township and are blessed to have three sons; William, Troy, and Jared and three grandchildren; William, Kamryn and Ashanee."
  147. ^ U.S. Sen. Cory Booker cruises past Republican challenger Rik Mehta in New Jersey, PhillyVoice. Accessed April 30, 2021. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
  148. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
  149. ^ Home, sweet home: Bob Menendez back in Hudson County. Accessed April 30, 2021. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
  150. ^ Legislative Roster for District 15, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 11, 2022.
  151. ^ Government, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022. "Mercer County is governed by an elected County Executive and a seven-member Freeholder Board."
  152. ^ Meet the County Executive, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022. "Brian M. Hughes continues to build upon a family legacy of public service as the fourth person to serve as Mercer County Executive. The voters have reaffirmed their support for Brian's leadership by re-electing him three times since they first placed him in office in November 2003."
  153. ^ Nina D. Melker, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  154. ^ Lucylle R. S. Walter, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  155. ^ John A. Cimino, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  156. ^ Samuel T. Frisby Sr., Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  157. ^ Andrew Koontz, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  158. ^ Kristin L. McLaughlin, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  159. ^ Terrance Stokes, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  160. ^ Meet the Commissioners, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  161. ^ 2022 County Data Sheet, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  162. ^ Meet the Clerk, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  163. ^ Meet the Sheriff, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  164. ^ Meet the Surrogate, Mercer County. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  165. ^ Elected Officials for Mercer County, Mercer County, updated January 6, 2021. Accessed May 1, 2022.
  166. ^ Voter Registration Summary – Mercer, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 21, 2012.
  167. ^ (PDF) {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  168. ^ "Presidential General Election Results – November 8, 2016 – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. Retrieved December 31, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  169. ^ a b "Presidential General Election Results – November 6, 2012 – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  170. ^ a b 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Mercer County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 21, 2012.
  171. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Mercer County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 21, 2012.
  172. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 6, 2012 – General Election Results – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  173. ^ (PDF) {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  174. ^ "Governor – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  175. ^ a b "Governor – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  176. ^ a b 2009 Governor: Mercer County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 21, 2012.
  177. ^ 2005 Governor: Mercer County Archived July 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed December 31, 2017.
  178. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 5, 2013 – General Election Results – Mercer County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 31, 2014. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  179. ^ Fire Department, City of Trenton. Accessed March 15, 2020. "The Trenton Fire Department traces its roots back to a blacksmith shop at Broad and Front Streets where, on February 7, 1747, a group of volunteers formed the Union Fire Company. The volunteers served the city well for the next 145 years until, on April 4, 1892, the paid department was established."
  180. ^ Fire Department Facilities, City of Trenton. Accessed March 15, 2020.
  181. ^ Fire & Emergency Services Apparatus, City of Trenton. Accessed March 15, 2020.
  182. ^ Fast Facts, Thomas Edison State College. Accessed August 11, 2013.
  183. ^ The James Kerney Campus, Mercer County Community College. Accessed August 11, 2013.
  184. ^ Historic Rider, Rider University. Accessed February 12, 2014. "Gradually growing in size and scope through the first half of the 20th century, Rider began its move to a more spacious, suburban campus in 1959, when the first offices and classes moved to a 280-acre tract of land on Route 206 in Lawrence Township, N.J."
  185. ^ Trenton Board of Education District Policy 0110 - Identification, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed March 15, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-Kindergarten through twelve in the Trenton School District. Composition: The Trenton School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of the City of Trenton."
  186. ^ What We Do: History, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022. "In 1998, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in the Abbott v. Burke case that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. According to the Court, aging, unsafe and overcrowded buildings prevented children from receiving the "thorough and efficient" education required under the New Jersey Constitution.... Full funding for approved projects was authorized for the 31 special-needs districts, known as 'Abbott Districts'."
  187. ^ What We Do, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022.
  188. ^ SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022.
  189. ^ New Jersey Boards of Education by District Election Types - 2018 School Election, New Jersey Department of Education, updated February 16, 2018. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  190. ^ Board of Education Archived March 25, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed March 15, 2020.
  191. ^ District information for Trenton Public School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
  192. ^ School Data for the Trenton Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
  193. ^ Columbus Elementary School Archived January 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  194. ^ Franklin Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  195. ^ Grant Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  196. ^ Gregory Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  197. ^ Harrison Elementary School Archived December 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools, Accessed May 10, 2020.
  198. ^ P.J. Hill Elementary School Archived December 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  199. ^ Jefferson Elementary School Archived January 30, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  200. ^ Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, Elementary School Archived December 16, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  201. ^ Mott Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  202. ^ Parker Elementary School Archived January 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  203. ^ Robbins Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  204. ^ Washington Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  205. ^ Wilson Elementary School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  206. ^ Grace A. Dunn Middle School Archived December 8, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  207. ^ Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School Archived January 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  208. ^ Joyce Kilmer Middle School Archived January 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  209. ^ Luis Munoz Rivera Middle School Archived January 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  210. ^ Trenton Ninth Grade Academy Archived August 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  211. ^ Daylight-Twilight Alternative High School Archived January 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  212. ^ Trenton Central High School Chambers Campus Archived November 21, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  213. ^ Schools Archived May 3, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Trenton Public Schools. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  214. ^ 2017-2018 Charter and Public School Directory, Mercer County, New Jersey. Accessed May 10, 2020.
  215. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Trenton Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
  216. ^ Heyboer, Kelly. "How to get your kid a seat in one of N.J.'s hardest-to-get-into high schools", NJ Advance Media for, May 2017. Accessed November 18, 2019. "Mercer County has a stand-alone specialized high school for top students: a Health Sciences Academy at the district's Assunpink Center campus. The district also offers a STEM Academy at Mercer County Community College. How to apply: Students can apply online in the fall of their 8th grade year."
  217. ^ High School Programs, Mercer County Technical Schools. Accessed November 18, 2019.
  218. ^ Kull, Helen. "Ewing Then and Now: The first school for the deaf in N.J.", Community News, February 27, 2017, updated January 11, 2022. Accessed January 19, 2022. "By 1882, an act of the legislature founded the N.J. State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. The school was housed in a two-story, brick building at Chestnut and Hamilton avenues in Trenton, which had formerly been the Soldiers’ Children’s Home of N.J., housing orphans of Civil War soldiers."
  219. ^ Approved Charter Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed February 12, 2014.
  220. ^ Foster, David. "Trenton charter school officially announces closure as 9th Grade Academy readies move-in", The Trentonian, June 1, 2018. Accessed July 11, 2018. "In a statement sent to The Trentonian on Friday, International Academy of Trenton (IAT) Charter School Board President Larry Chenault 'regretfully' accepted the doomed fate of the school, which spent $17 million to renovate the former Times of Trenton building into a state-of-the-art learning center.... IAT was informed in January by the New Jersey Department of Education (DOE) that the school, which educated 650 students, would be losing its charter at the end of this month for poor student performance and classroom mismanagement."
  221. ^ School Finder, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton. Accessed May 21, 2017.
  222. ^ About Us, Islamic School of Trenton. Accessed February 12, 2014.
  223. ^ Jersey, Trenton Police Department, Trenton, New. "Welcome to Trenton Police Department Trenton, New Jersey". Trenton Police Department, Trenton, New Jersey. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  224. ^ "Trenton murders hit all-time high", The Signal, January 25, 2006. Accessed June 7, 2015. "With 31 murders, 2005 was the deadliest year in Trenton's history, up from 18 in 2004."
  225. ^ 12th Annual Safest/Most Dangerous Cities Survey: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall. Accessed June 23, 2006.
  226. ^ 13th Annual Safest (and Most Dangerous) Cities: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall Archived June 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Morgan Quitno. Accessed October 30, 2006.
  227. ^ Zdan, Alex. "Trenton police layoff plan to go into effect today", The Times, September 16, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "The 108 police officers slated to be terminated represent one-third of the force. Demotions affecting nearly 30 members will send current lieutenants and sergeants back to the street, depleting supervisor levels and the detective bureaus in an effort to keep patrols close to their current strength."
  228. ^ Queally, James. "N.J. homicides soared to seven-year high in 2013 after surges in Newark, Trenton", The Star-Ledger, January 1, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014. "In Trenton, the number of homicides soared to 37, the most in the state capital's recorded history."
  229. ^ Brown, Keith. "Trenton homicides down, but not by much, in 2014", The Star-Ledger, January 1, 2015. Accessed May 16, 2016. "There were 34 homicides in Trenton in 2014 – a year following an inglorious record-setting 37 homicides in 2013."
  230. ^ McEvoy, James. "Authorities ID Trenton homicide victim, investigate separate shooting", The Times, October 19, 2014. Accessed May 16, 2016. "Sutphin's slaying was the first homicide in Trenton since July 30 when Tyshawn Goodman, 25, of Trenton, and George Jamison, 44, of Pennington, were shot to death in what police believed were separate robberies. The nearly three months of relative peace followed a bloody start in which the city saw 23 homicides in the first seven months of the year."
  231. ^ "Man Shot in Front of Trenton Bar Dies of Wounds". November 3, 2021. Retrieved November 4, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  232. ^ A Short History of Trenton State Prison, InsideOut: Fifty Years Behind the Walls of New Jersey's Trenton State Prison. Accessed March 16, 2012.
  233. ^ Lundy, F. L.; et al. Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, Volume 139, p. 97. J.A. Fitzgerald, 1915. Accessed June 12, 2018.
  234. ^ Mercer County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, March 2019. Accessed January 26, 2021.
  235. ^ U.S. Route 1 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated May 2018. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  236. ^ Route 29 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated July 2014. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  237. ^ Route 129 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated March 2018. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  238. ^ U.S. Route 206 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated June 2017. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  239. ^ Route 31 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated May 2017. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  240. ^ Route 33 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated March 2017. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  241. ^ Trenton Station Renovation Archived July 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Transit. Accessed March 16, 2012.
  242. ^ River Line System Map, NJ Transit. Accessed November 24, 2022.
  243. ^ Trenton, New Jersey, Amtrak. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  244. ^ McEvoy, James. "Frontier Airlines cancels service from Trenton-Mercer to 5 destinations because of lack of demand", Times of Trenton, January 5, 2015. Accessed January 5, 2015. "As of Tuesday, Frontier Airlines will discontinue service to Nashville, Tenn., St. Louis, Indianapolis, Milwaukee and Cleveland because of lack of demand, Frontier spokesman Todd Lehmacher said in an email. Service to Cleveland ended last month."
  245. ^ "Mercer County Bus / Rail Connections". Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed November 20, 2012.
  246. ^ Mercer County Rider Guide Archived November 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Transit. Accessed November 27, 2019.
  247. ^ Mercer County Bus Service, Greater Mercer Transportation Management Association. Accessed December 1, 2019.
  248. ^ Home page Archived December 22, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, WZBN. Accessed December 7, 2011.


External links

Preceded by Capital of the United States
of America

Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 24 November 2022, at 18:33
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.