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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pinus torreyana
Torrey pine
Torrey Pine at Santa Rosa Island.jpg
A Torrey pine on the northeast coast of Santa Rosa Island, California
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: P. subg. Pinus
Section: P. sect. Trifoliae
Subsection: P. subsect. Ponderosae
Species:
P. torreyana
Binomial name
Pinus torreyana
Pinus torreyana range map 2.png
Natural range of Pinus torreyana

The Torrey pine, Pinus torreyana, is a rare pine species in the United States. It is an critically endangered species growing only in the Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, coastal northern San Diego county, and on Santa Rosa Island.[2] This species is endemic to the coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion in the U.S. state of California.[3][4]

Taxonomy

The species epithet torreyana is named for John Torrey, an American botanist, after whom the coniferous genus Torreya is also named.[5]

Description

Pinus torreyana is a broad, open-crowned pine tree growing to 8–17 meters (26–56 ft) tall in the wild, with 25–30 centimeters (9.8–11.8 in) long leaves ('needles') in groups of five. The cones are stout and heavy, typically 8–15 cm (3.1–5.9 in) long and broad, and contain large, hard-shelled, but edible, pine nuts.[3] Like all pines, it has its needles clustered into what is known as a 'fascicle' – this fascicle generally always has a fixed number of needles for each pine species; in the Torrey pine there are five needles in each fascicle.[6][7] Like all pines, it has strobili (singular: strobilus), structures that function as a flower but looks like a small cone, which for the Torrey pine looks like a yellow bud in a male strobilus and looks like a small red cone in a female strobilus.[8][9]

This species is sometimes afflicted with witch's broom – an unusually dense cluster of needles, which looks somewhat like a bird's nest, which can be caused by disease or some other cause,[10][11] also called "gorilla's nest"[12]

There are two subspecies or varieties. These are said to be distinguished by the following characteristics, as well as possibly differing in the terpenoid (beta-phellandrene, limonene, cineole, etc.) profile.[13]

  • Pinus torreyana var. torreyana - There is much space between the branches. The leaf color is said to be generally gray-yellow-green. The cones are generally smaller than 13.5 cm in width. The sharp tips at the end of the scales are generally less than 6 mm in length. The seed is generally generally less than 11 mm wide, and light to dark brown in color.[14]
  • Pinus torreyana var. insularis - The branches are crowded together. The leaf color is gray-blue-green. The cones are generally larger than 13.5 cm in width. The sharp tips at the end of the scales are generally larger than 6 mm in length. The seed is larger than 11mm wide, medium brown to more-or-less black.[15]

Distribution

The extant population of Pinus torreyana is restricted to trees growing in a narrow strip along the Southern California coast in San Diego.[16] There is also a population of the variety Pinus torreyana var. insularis in two groves on Santa Rosa Island, a California Channel Island off the coast of Santa Barbara.[17][18] The presence of Torrey pines along the semi-arid coast of San Diego and Santa Rosa Island (rainfall less than 15 inches per year) is probably a relict population of a much more extensive Ice Age distribution. Coastal fog during spring and summer along the San Diego and Santa Rosa Island coast provides just enough moisture to supplement the fairly low winter rainfall, allowing for survival of the species in the wild habitat zone.[19]

Ecology

The native habitat of Pinus torreyana is coastal sage scrub, a plant community, growing slowly in dry, sandy soil. The root system is extensive. A tiny seedling may quickly send a taproot down 60 centimeters (24 in) seeking moisture and nutrients. A mature tree may have roots extending 75 meters (246 ft). Exposed trees battered by coastal winds are often twisted into beautiful sculptural shapes resembling large bonsai, and rarely exceed 12 m (39 ft) tall.

The seeds are eaten by birds and rodents.[20] Like most pine tree species, the seeds have a wing attached to them, but in this species it is papery, breaks off easily, and is entirely non-functional, so this tree is entirely reliant upon animals to disperse its seeds. The scrub jay (Aphelocoma californica) is the most important species when it comes to dispersal of the seeds (on the mainland). Scrub jays and perhaps also squirrels are thought to be spreading the species into adjacent parklands from gardens around San Diego.[21][22]

The caterpillars of the moth Gloveria arizonensis have been confirmed to feed on this tree in the wild.[22]

Stratification, which is the process of subjecting seeds to (moist) cold, encourages germination in Torrey pine seeds[23][24]

Uses

Food

The pine nuts were once eaten by the Kumeyaay tribe of Native American people.[20][21]

Cultivation

Although considered endangered in the wild, Torrey pine is often planted as an ornamental tree around San Diego, coastal and inland southern California, and even the Central Valley.[21] A single tree planted in a suburb of San Diego in the 1940s or 1950s has grown tall and straight, and to a large size, 108 feet (33 m).[25] Shipley Nature Center states it can grow to 148 ft (45 m) in height in cultivation.[26][27] It is sold by at least ten different plant nurseries in California as of 2020.[22]

Forestry

Pinus torreyana has been considered as a plantation tree for forestry use in Australia, New Zealand and Kenya.[28]

Culture

In San Diego County it is considered a local icon, where it lends its name to Torrey Pines State Reserve, Torrey Pines State Beach, Torrey Pines Golf Course, Torrey Pines High School, and Torrey Pines Gliderport, as well as numerous local roads and businesses (e.g., Torrey Pines Bank,[29] Torrey Pines Property Management Company,[30] Torrey Pines Landscape Company,[31] and Torrey Pines Law Group.[32])

Conservation

There is some disagreement about the total population of Pinus torreyana. In general, only the populations in Torrey Pines State Reserve (TPSR) and on Santa Rosa Island are deemed to count as the wild population, not the trees planted around San Diego and wider California. In the 1970s it was estimated that the population in the TPSR and on Santa Rosa Island was about 9,000 individuals, but many of these trees have since died due to forest fires, drought and a series of infestations of a bark beetle, as well as being stressed by air pollution. There were only a hundred trees surviving in the early 20th century. As of 2016 it is thought by the California Native Plant Society that of this species is some 3,000 individuals.[21] In 2011, Aljos Farjon, assessing the conservation status of this species for the IUCN, estimated that the total population of P. torreyana was now 4,500 individuals. He states that there is a slow decline of the numbers, especially of the trees not found within the TPSR on the mainland.[1]

The Torrey pine is protected by a city tree ordinance in Del Mar, near the native habitat, and construction projects and citizens require a permit for its removal.[33]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b Farjon, A. (April 13, 2011). "Pinus torreyana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42424A2979186. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42424A2979186.en. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  2. ^ "Santa Rosa Island". Channel Islands. National Park Service. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière". Ucjeps.berkeley.edu. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan (September 11, 2008). "Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana)". GlobalTwitcher.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  5. ^ Lisa (September 22, 2010). "Tree Identification: Pinus torreyana - Torrey Pine". Lh2treeid.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  6. ^ Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). "Pinus torreyana". The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  7. ^ "Chaparral and Riparian Plants". Sci.sdsu.edu. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  8. ^ "Natural Treasure: The One and Only Torrey Pine". Naturaltreasureucsd.blogspot.com. February 7, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  9. ^ "Life Cycle - torreypinedo2". Sites.google.com. July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  10. ^ "Welcome to My Garden!: Torrey Pines State Reserve". Loresgardens.blogspot.com. August 17, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  11. ^ "Torrey Pine". Project Noah. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  12. ^ jiobrien. "Torrey Pine with witch's broom". Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2014. The witch's broom or gorrila's nest is an abnormal area of growth on the tree of uncertain origin.
  13. ^ Haller, J. Robert; Vivrette, Nancy J. (2012). "Pinus torreyana in Jepson Flora Project (eds.)". Jepson eFlora. Regents of the University of California. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  14. ^ Haller, J. Robert; Vivrette, Nancy J. (2012). "Pinus torreyana subsp. torreyana in Jepson Flora Project (eds.)". Jepson eFlora. Regents of the University of California. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  15. ^ Haller, J. Robert; Vivrette, Nancy J. (2012). "Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis in Jepson Flora Project (eds.)". Jepson eFlora. Regents of the University of California. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  16. ^ Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Craig Tufts; Daniel Mathews; Gil Nelson; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Terry Purinton; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-4027-3875-3.
  17. ^ "Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière subsp. insularis J. R. Haller". Ucjeps.berkeley.edu. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  18. ^ Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). "Pinus torreyana". The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Williams, A. Park; Still, Christopher J.; Fischer, Douglas T.; Leavitt, Steven W. (2008). "The influence of summertime fog and overcast clouds on the growth of a coastal Californian pine: A tree-ring study". Oecologia. 156 (3): 601–611. Bibcode:2008Oecol.156..601W. doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1025-y. PMID 18368424. S2CID 11172462.
  20. ^ a b Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. pp. 96–97.
  21. ^ a b c d "Torrey Pine". Nature Collective. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  22. ^ a b c "Torrey Pine Pinus torreyana". Calscape. California Native Plant Society. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  23. ^ Esser, Lora L. (1993). "Pinus torreyana". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved August 6, 2013 – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
  24. ^ Santiago (January 25, 2005). "germination of Torrey pines". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  25. ^ Anne Krueger (February 6, 2007). "Residents say tree too big, too old for neighborhood". Union-Tribune Publishing Co. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2016. Houses replaced avocado groves on the East County land that surrounds the Torrey pine. Torrey pines are widely planted as an ornamental species
  26. ^ "TORREY PINE HABITAT". Shipley Nature Center. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  27. ^ "Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana". redOrbit. Conifers Reference Library. Retrieved May 31, 2014. The Torrey pine is planted as ornamental trees, with better soil and with controlled watering, it lends to being a fast growing tree to heights of 148 feet. This pine is drought tolerant as the tap roots can go as deep as 200 feet to find moisture. The tree is also shade tolerant.
  28. ^ McMaster, Gregory Scott (1980). Patterns of reproduction in Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) (Thesis). San Diego, California: San Diego State University.
  29. ^ "Torrey Pines Bank". December 17, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  30. ^ "Torrey Pines Property Management Company, San Diego Property Management, Apartments for Rent in San Diego, CA". Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  31. ^ "San Diego Landscape Designers Contractors Torrey Pines Landscaping". Tplandscape.com. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  32. ^ "Torrey Pines Law Group". June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  33. ^ "How can I cut my tree down?". City of Del Mar. Retrieved May 11, 2014.

External links


This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 10:38
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