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Tarkhan of the Second Turkic Khaganate681-716 or 717
Full name
Bilge Tuñuquq Boyla Baγa Tarqan
Native name𐱃𐰆𐰪𐰸𐰸 (in Old Turkic)
Titles and styles
Boyla Baga Tarkan
Apa Tarkan
BornAshide Yuanzhen

c. 646
Yulin, Tang dynasty (modern day Inner Mongolia)[1]
Diedc. 726 (aged 79-80)
Noble familyAshide
OccupationAdvisor to the Göktürk Qaghans
Grand vizier and Commander-in-chief of Second Turkic Khaganate
MemorialsBain Tsokto inscriptions

Tonyukuk (Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀:𐱃𐰆𐰪𐰸𐰸‎, romanized: Bilgä Tuňuquq, lit. 'Tunyuquq the Wise',[2], Chinese: 暾欲谷; pinyin: Tunyugu, Chinese: 阿史德元珍; pinyin: Āshǐdé Yuánzhēn, born c. 646, died c. 726) was the baga-tarkhan (supreme commander) and adviser of four successive Göktürk khagans - Elteriš Qaγan, Qapγan Qaγan, İnäl Qaγan and Bilgä Qaγan. He conducted victorious campaigns against various Turkic and non-Turkic steppe peoples, such as Tôlis, Xueyantuo, Toquz Oguz, Yenisei Kyrgyz, Kurykans, Thirty Tatar, Khitan and Tatabi as well as China.[3]

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  • ✪ ''Türklerde'' Bilgili ve Erdemli Olmak|BİLGE KAĞAN ve TONYUKUK Bilgeliği
  • ✪ Tonyukuk Neden Bilge İdi?
  • ✪ Yasin Korkut'tan MESAJ VAR! - Tonyukuk Serisinde neler var?
  • ✪ Asya'ya Diz Çöktüren Büyük Türk, Bilge Kağan Kimdir?
  • ✪ "Tonyukuk Yazıtının Sil Baştan Okuması" basımı




The name is spelled as t-o-ň-uq-uq (𐱃𐰆𐰪𐰸𐰸‎) in the Old Turkic script, variously interpreted as Tunuquq, Tonuquq, Tuj-uquq, Tony Yuguq, Tujun-oq, Tojuquq, with a number of suggestions for its etymology. In Old Turkic he is written as Tunuq-uq or Tuniq-Oq. Tunuk means "clear, pure, abyss, who reached the depth" or "pure, penetrative", and uq or oq means "idea, wise, well-informed". Thus, Tonuquq is the owner of deep and pure idea.[4][5] His title "Bilge" means wise or master.[6] According to Klyashtorny, "tonyuquq" is derived from the verb "yoq/yuq" meaning "to hide, to protect" and it was used in Uyghur legal documents. Thus, the name means "hidden, protected thing, value, treasure, jewelry".[7] Jean-Paul Roux suggested a rather bizarre idea and explains the word as "with oiled dress", discussing the culinary culture of the Mongols and suggesting that they had dirty and stained clothes.[8]

Early years

He was born around 646, near Tuul River in Ashide tribe. He fled Tang in 679 and joined Elteriš in 681.

I myself, wise Tonyukuk, born in Tabgach country. (As the whole) Turkic people was under Tabgach subjection.[9][10]

Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀:𐱃𐰆𐰪𐰸𐰸:𐰋𐰤:𐰇𐰕𐰢:𐱃𐰉𐰍𐰲:𐰃𐰠𐰭𐰀:𐰶𐰠𐰦𐰢:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰚:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣:𐱃𐰉𐰍𐰲𐰴𐰀:𐰝𐰇𐰼𐰼:𐰼𐱅𐰃‎, romanized: Bilgä Toñuquq bän özüm Tabγač eliŋä qılıntım Türk bodun Tabγačqa körür ärti.

Chinese sources state that Tonyuquq's name was Yuanzhen, and he learned all Chinese traditions and was aware of the gaps in the borders and the Chinese wall. While he was supervising the surrendered clans in Chanyü military governorship, he was dismissed and jailed by the military governor Changshih.[11]

During Elteriš's reign

Although he lost early wars against Xue Rengui, he was formidable force in establishing Turkic Khaganate. In 687, another invasion of Tang by Elteriš and Ashide Yuanzhen began. Empress Dowager Wu commissioned the ethnically Baekje general Heichi Changzhi, assisted by Li Duozuo, to defend against Turkic attack and they were able to defeat Turk forces at Huanghuadui (modern day Shuozhou, Shanxi) causing Turk forces to flee.

During Qapγan's reign

In 703, he was sent by qaγan for marriage proposal to China. Wu Zetian accepted the proposal, in exchange Wu Yanxiu was released on khagan's order. However, Emperor Zhongzhong's accession changed political climate. Marriage was cancelled.

In 712, he commanded Tujue army during Battle of Bolchu which proved disastrous for Turgesh army.

During Inäl's reign

He was not in active politics during Inäl's reign. Although Mihaly Dobrovits believes he accepted him as legitimate ruler.[12]

During Bilgä's reign

In 716 he was appointed to be Master Strategist (Bagha Tarkhan) by his son-in-law Bilgä Qaγan.

Chinese sources state, Bilgä Qaγan wanted to convert to Buddhism, establish cities and temples. However, Tonyukuk discouraged him from this by pointing out that their nomadic lifestyle was what made them a greater military power when compared to Tang dynasty.[13] While Turks' power rested on their mobility, conversion to Buddhism would bring pacifism among population. Therefore sticking to Tengriism was necessary to survive.[14][15][16][17]

In 720 Tang chancellor Wang Jun proposed a plan to attack Bilgä Qaγan along with the Baximi, Xi, and Khitan.[18] Emperor Xuanzong also recruited Qapγan Qaγan's sons Bilgä Tegin and Mo Tegin, Yenisei Kyrgyz Qaγan Qutluğ Bilgä Qaγan and Huoba Guiren to fight against Tujue. Tonyukuk cunningly launched first attack on Baximi in 721 autumn, completely crushing them. Meanwhile Bilgä raided Gansu, taking much of the livestock. Later that year Khitans, next year Xi were also crushed.

He died around 726.


He was father to Eletmiš Bilgä Qatun and a father-in-law to Bilgä Qaγan, thus a grandfather to Yollïg and Teŋrï Qaγans.


His biography, achievements and advice for state administration were carved in the so-called Orkhon-Turkic script on two stele erected around 716 (before his death) at a site known as Bayn Tsokto, in Ulaanbataar's Nalaikh district.[19] He was mentioned and remembered in some Uyghur Manichaean texts later in Qocho.[20] Yuan era Uyghur official Xie Wenzhi (楔文質), as well as Korean Gyeongju Seol clan claimed descent from Tonyukuk.[21]

In popular culture


  1. ^ Schlegel, 1892, p. 13
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Peter B. Golden, (1992), An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People, p. 137
  4. ^ O. F. Sertkaya (2003, p. 33)
  5. ^ Nadelyaev V.M. “Orhon–Eniseisk mark’s reading” and “Etymology of the name of Tonuquq”. // Turkology researches M.L. 1963 pp. 197–213; Amanzholov A.C. “Talas, Enisey and Orhon inscriptions’ graphics” /Kazakh language and literature, KAz SU, Almaty, 1973. Amanzholov A.C. “Old Turkic inscriptions History and Theory”, Almaty, 2003; pp. 56–57.
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ S. G. Klyashtorny 1966, pp. 202-205
  8. ^ Erdal (2004, p. 41)
  9. ^ Atalay Besim (2006). Divanü Lügati't Türk. Turkish Language Association, ISBN 975-16-0405-2, p. 28, 453, 454
  10. ^ Aydın 2017, p. 104
  11. ^ Taşağıl 2004, p. 63
  12. ^ Dobrovits,M.:“Textological Structure and Political Message of  the Old Turkic Runic Inscriptions”, Talât Tekin Armağanı, Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları 18 (2008), 149-153.
  13. ^ Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, vol.1, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9, 312–313.
  14. ^ Wenxian Tongkao, 2693a
  15. ^ New Book of Tang, vol 215-II
  16. ^ Golden 2002, p. 9
  17. ^ Ercilasun 2016, pp. 295-296
  18. ^ Old Book of Tang, Vol. 194-I
  19. ^ For the site see Sören Stark Die Alttürkenzeit in Mittel- und Zentralasien. Archäologische und historische Studien (Nomaden und Sesshafte, Band 6), Reichert: Wiesbaden 2008, pp. 75–76. Ross (1930): "About 48° N. and a little more 107° W. [sic] of Greenwich, near a place said to have the name of Bain Chokto, between the Nalaikha post-station and the right bank of the upper waters of the Tola."
  20. ^ Marcel Erdal; Chen Hao 陳浩 (2017). "The Khocho Toñukuk Tradition in Runiform, Uyghur and Chinese Sources // 探討高昌突厥石碑和維吾爾語、中文文獻上的暾欲谷記". Central Asiatic Journal. 60 (1–2): 109. doi:10.13173/centasiaj.60.1-2.0109. JSTOR 10.13173/centasiaj.60.1-2.0109.
  21. ^ Brose, Michael C. (2007). Subjects and masters : Uyghurs in the Mongol Empire. Bellingham, WA, USA. pp. 169, 183–185. ISBN 9780914584292. OCLC 235941570.
  • E. Denison Ross, The Tonyukuk Inscription, Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's final Danish Rendering, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 1930.
  • Nathan Light. An 8th Century Turkic Narrative: Pragmatics, Reported Speech and Managing Information. Turkic languages. 10.2, 2006. pp 155–186.

External links

This page was last edited on 20 January 2020, at 07:20
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