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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tonian
1000 – ~720 Ma
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitPeriod
Stratigraphic unitSystem
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionDefined chronometrically
Lower boundary GSSPN/A
GSSP ratifiedN/A
Upper boundary definitionDefined chronometrically with an interim calibrated age of c. 720 Ma. GSSP is in progress.
Upper boundary definition candidatesThe first appearance of widespread glaciation.[3]
Upper boundary GSSP candidate section(s)To be determined

The Tonian (from Ancient Greek: τόνος, romanizedtónos, meaning "stretch") is the first geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era. It lasted from 1000 to 720 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined by the ICS based on radiometric chronometry. The Tonian is preceded by the Stenian Period of the Mesoproterozoic era and followed by the Cryogenian.

Rifting leading to the breakup of supercontinent Rodinia, which had formed in the mid-Stenian, occurred during this period, starting from 900 to 850 Mya.

Biology

The first large evolutionary radiation of acritarchs occurred during the Tonian.

The first putative metazoans (animal) fossils dated to the late Tonian (c. 800 Mya). A notable example of this is the Otavia antiqua, which has been described as a sponge by its discoverers and numerous other scholars. This dating is consistent with molecular data recovered through genetic studies on modern metazoan species; more recent studies have concluded that the base of the animal phylogenetic tree is in the Tonian.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Brain, C. K.; Prave, A. R.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Fallik, A. E.; Herd D. A.; Sturrock, C.; Young, I.; Condon, D. J.; Allison, S. G. (2012). "The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia".  S. Afr. J. Sci. 108 (8): 1–8. doi:10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.658.
  2. ^ Bernhard, Joan (11 June 2013). "Insights into foraminiferal influences on microfabrics of microbialites at Highborne Cay, Bahamas". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (24): 5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221721110. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  3. ^ Shields-Zhou, Graham A.; Porter, Susannah; Halverson, Galen P. (2016). "A new rock-based definition for the Cryogenian Period (circa 720 – 635 Ma)". Episodes. 39 (1): 3–8. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2016/v39i1/89231. ISSN 0705-3797.
  4. ^ Kliman, Richard M. (Apr 14, 2016). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press. p. 251. ISBN 9780128004265.


This page was last edited on 15 July 2021, at 08:23
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