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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tiriyó (Trio)
Ape&Joonare.jpg
A Tiriyó man and woman from Brazil
Total population
~2000 (in 2005)
Regions with significant populations
Brazil, Suriname
Languages
Tiriyó language
Religion
Traditional, Christian (Catholic in Brazil, Protestant in Suriname)

The Tiriyó (also known as Trio) are an Amerindian ethnic group native to parts of northern Brazil and Suriname. In 2005, there were approximately 2,000 Tiriyó in the two countries. They live in several major villages and a number of minor villages in the border zone between Brazil and Suriname. They speak the Tiriyó language, a member of the Cariban language family and refer to themselves as tarëno, etymologically 'people from here' or 'local people'.

About 30% are Christians, while 70% follow indigenous religions.[1]

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Transcription

Contents

History

The modern Tiriyó are formed from various different indigenous communities; some of these, such as the Aramixó, are mentioned in European writings as early as 1609-1610.[2] Many of the now-Tiriyó groups lived between Brazil and French Guiana until they were driven out by the Oyampi, a Tupi-Guaranian group allied with the Portuguese. Together, the Portuguese and Oyampi drove these groups westward, and they mingled with the groups that were in the area to form the modern Tiriyó group.[2]

As such, the Tiriyó established contact relatively early with runaway slave groups that settled in the area around the end of the 18th century. They maintained regular commercial relations with one group, the Ndyuka, and for many years they were the only contact the Tiriyó had with foreign populations.[2] The first recorded contact between the Tiriyó and a European took place in 1843 between a ‘Drio’ village and Robert Schomburgk; this and the meeting between French explorer Jules Crevaux and a few ‘Trio’ were the only two points of contact between Tiriyó and Europeans in the 19th century.[2]

Subsequent contact between Europeans and Tiriyó in the first half of the twentieth century produced ethnographic and linguistic studies of the region and Tiriyó subgroups in particular. After the ‘exploratory phase’ of contact came the ‘missionary phase,’ wherein newly-built airstrips facilitated contact between missionaries and the Tiriyó.[2] These missions tried to concentrate the Tiriyó population in larger villages to more easily convert them to Christianity, and over time, other Indigenous groups such as the Akuriyó joined them here.[2]

Today, the Tiriyó have a high degree of independence because their settlements are difficult to access. However, they are interested in reinforcing relationships with the foreign world.[2]

Communities

Tiriyó settlements
Kasuela
Kasuela
Kuruni
Kuruni
Kamani
Kamani
Sakuru
Sakuru
Cachoeirinha
Cachoeirinha
Mataware
Mataware
Iyaherai
Iyaherai
Manau
Manau
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Kuxaré
Kuxaré
Urunai
Urunai
Yawa
Yawa
Pedra da Onça
Pedra da Onça
The southernmost villages of Marithepu, Boca do Marapí and Santo Antonio are not indicated on the map. In the densely populated area around Missão Tiriyó and Kuxaré, the villages are not labeled.
Place Coordinates Inhabitants River Country
Sandlanding 5°9′47″N 57°10′12″W / 5.16306°N 57.17000°W / 5.16306; -57.17000 (Sandlanding) 33[3] Courentyne
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Wanapan (Arapahtë pata) 4°22′55″N 57°57′28″W / 4.38194°N 57.95778°W / 4.38194; -57.95778 (Wanapan) 34[3] Courentyne
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Lucie 3°34′48″N 57°41′6″W / 3.58000°N 57.68500°W / 3.58000; -57.68500 (Lucie) 18[3] Lucie
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Amotopo 3°32′50″N 57°38′35″W / 3.54722°N 57.64306°W / 3.54722; -57.64306 (Amotopo) 15[3] Courentyne
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Kasuela 3°16′39″N 57°35′58″W / 3.27750°N 57.59944°W / 3.27750; -57.59944 (Kasuela) New River
Flag of Guyana.svg
Guyana
Kuruni 3°22′12″N 57°20′40″W / 3.37000°N 57.34444°W / 3.37000; -57.34444 (Kuruni) 35[3] Coeroeni
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Kwamalasamutu 2°21′23″N 56°47′12″W / 2.35639°N 56.78667°W / 2.35639; -56.78667 (Kwamalasamutu) 685[3] Sipaliwini
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Kamani 2°34′5″N 57°0′30″W / 2.56806°N 57.00833°W / 2.56806; -57.00833 (Kamani) 6[4] Kamani
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Sipaliwini 2°1′33″N 56°7′29″W / 2.02583°N 56.12472°W / 2.02583; -56.12472 (Sipaliwini) 214[3] Sipaliwini
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Alalapadu 2°31′14″N 56°19′41″W / 2.52056°N 56.32806°W / 2.52056; -56.32806 (Alalapadu) 65[3] Alalapadu
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Sakuru 2°4′21″N 56°53′21″W / 2.07250°N 56.88917°W / 2.07250; -56.88917 (Sakuru) Aramatau
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Pelelu Tepu 3°9′35″N 55°43′7″W / 3.15972°N 55.71861°W / 3.15972; -55.71861 (Pelelu Tepu) 393[3] Tapanahony
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Palumeu 3°20′43″N 55°26′35″W / 3.34528°N 55.44306°W / 3.34528; -55.44306 (Palumeu) 96[5] Tapanahony
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Kasikasima 2°58′33″N 55°23′0″W / 2.97583°N 55.38333°W / 2.97583; -55.38333 (Kasikasima) Paloemeu
Flag of Suriname.svg
Suriname
Cachoeirinha 1°59′45″N 55°10′55″W / 1.99583°N 55.18194°W / 1.99583; -55.18194 (Cachoeirinha) 47[6] Paru d'Este
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Mataware 1°57′4″N 55°7′10″W / 1.95111°N 55.11944°W / 1.95111; -55.11944 (Mataware) 92[6] Paru d'Este
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Iyaherai 1°42′23″N 54°59′22″W / 1.70639°N 54.98944°W / 1.70639; -54.98944 (Iyaherai) 52[6] Paru d'Este
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Manau 1°35′11″N 54°55′14″W / 1.58639°N 54.92056°W / 1.58639; -54.92056 (Manau) 21[6] Paru d'Este
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Orokofö Velha 2°18′3″N 55°56′51″W / 2.30083°N 55.94750°W / 2.30083; -55.94750 (Orokofö Velha) 38[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Orokofö Nova 2°18′19″N 55°56′17″W / 2.30528°N 55.93806°W / 2.30528; -55.93806 (Orokofö Nova) 44[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Paruaka 2°17′32″N 55°51′23″W / 2.29222°N 55.85639°W / 2.29222; -55.85639 (Paruaka) 55[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Taratarafö 2°16′46″N 55°57′13″W / 2.27944°N 55.95361°W / 2.27944; -55.95361 (Taratarafö) 37[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Tuha-entu 2°17′10″N 55°56′33″W / 2.28611°N 55.94250°W / 2.28611; -55.94250 (Tuha-entu) 45[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Oroi-entu 2°15′58″N 55°52′55″W / 2.26611°N 55.88194°W / 2.26611; -55.88194 (Oroi-entu) 55[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Acahé 2°14′42″N 56°0′23″W / 2.24500°N 56.00639°W / 2.24500; -56.00639 (Acahé) Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Notüpö 2°14′56″N 55°57′26″W / 2.24889°N 55.95722°W / 2.24889; -55.95722 (Notüpö) 56[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Betânia 2°14′12″N 55°57′50″W / 2.23667°N 55.96389°W / 2.23667; -55.96389 (Betânia) 202[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Amana 2°13′58″N 55°57′55″W / 2.23278°N 55.96528°W / 2.23278; -55.96528 (Amana) 42[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Kuritaraimö 2°13′49″N 55°57′51″W / 2.23028°N 55.96417°W / 2.23028; -55.96417 (Kuritaraimö) 33[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Missão Tiriyó 2°13′54″N 55°57′39″W / 2.23167°N 55.96083°W / 2.23167; -55.96083 (Missão Tiriyó) 495[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Missão Velha 2°13′17″N 55°57′34″W / 2.22139°N 55.95944°W / 2.22139; -55.95944 (Missão Velha) 97[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Muneny 2°13′15″N 55°54′31″W / 2.22083°N 55.90861°W / 2.22083; -55.90861 (Muneny) 4[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Ponoto 2°12′37″N 55°49′47″W / 2.21028°N 55.82972°W / 2.21028; -55.82972 (Ponoto) 22[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Kumuimi 2°11′43″N 55°57′0″W / 2.19528°N 55.95000°W / 2.19528; -55.95000 (Kumuimi) 6[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Arawatá 2°10′53″N 55°56′36″W / 2.18139°N 55.94333°W / 2.18139; -55.94333 (Arawatá) 24[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Waypa 2°9′16″N 55°55′1″W / 2.15444°N 55.91694°W / 2.15444; -55.91694 (Waypa) 20[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Ömetanömpo 2°8′28″N 55°54′54″W / 2.14111°N 55.91500°W / 2.14111; -55.91500 (Ömetanömpo) 26[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Pedra da Onça 1°26′9″N 55°39′46″W / 1.43583°N 55.66278°W / 1.43583; -55.66278 (Pedra da Onça) 86[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Santo Antonio 0°55′18″N 55°45′33″W / 0.92167°N 55.75917°W / 0.92167; -55.75917 (Santo Antonio) 87[6] Paru de Oeste
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Aiki 1°48′39″N 56°4′20″W / 1.81083°N 56.07222°W / 1.81083; -56.07222 (Aiki) 5[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Castanhal 1°48′1″N 55°57′44″W / 1.80028°N 55.96222°W / 1.80028; -55.96222 (Castanhal) 11[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Marihpa 1°44′26″N 56°4′16″W / 1.74056°N 56.07111°W / 1.74056; -56.07111 (Marihpa) 20[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Kuxaré 1°42′0″N 56°4′10″W / 1.70000°N 56.06944°W / 1.70000; -56.06944 (Kuxaré) 178[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Urunai 1°31′3″N 56°5′4″W / 1.51750°N 56.08444°W / 1.51750; -56.08444 (Urunai) 32[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Yawa 1°21′13″N 56°7′52″W / 1.35361°N 56.13111°W / 1.35361; -56.13111 (Yawa) 56[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Marithepu 1°5′23″N 56°11′35″W / 1.08972°N 56.19306°W / 1.08972; -56.19306 (Marithepu) 56[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Boca do Marapí 0°36′37″N 55°58′34″W / 0.61028°N 55.97611°W / 0.61028; -55.97611 (Boca do Marapí) 31[6] Marapí
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil

Notes

  1. ^ Joshua Project http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=15581&rog3=NS
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Meira 1999.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Heemskerk & Delvoye 2007, p. 22.
  4. ^ Carlin & Van Goethem 2009, p. 17.
  5. ^ Heemskerk et al. 2007, p. 21.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Caracterização do DSEI Amapá e Norte do Pará, conforme Edital de Chamada Pública n. 2/2017 (item 3.1)" (PDF). portalarquivos.saude.gov.br. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2018.

References


This page was last edited on 8 December 2019, at 04:24
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