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Timeline of modern American conservatism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ronald Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office outlining his plan for tax reductions in July 1981 (excerpt)

This timeline of modern American conservatism lists important events, developments and occurrences which have significantly affected conservatism in the United States. With the decline of the conservative wing of the Democratic Party after 1960, the movement is most closely associated with the Republican Party (GOP). Economic conservatives favor less government regulation, lower taxes and weaker labor unions while social conservatives focus on moral issues and neoconservatives focus on democracy worldwide. Conservatives generally distrust the United Nations and Europe and apart from the libertarian wing favor a strong military and give enthusiastic support to Israel.[1]

Although conservatism has much older roots in American history, the modern movement began to gel in the mid–1930s when intellectuals and politicians collaborated with businessmen to oppose the liberalism of the New Deal led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, newly energized labor unions and big city Democratic machines. After World War II, that coalition gained strength from new philosophers and writers who developed an intellectual rationale for conservatism.[2]

Richard Nixon's victory in the 1968 presidential election is often considered a realigning election in American politics. From 1932 to 1968, the Democratic Party was the majority party as during that time period the Democrats had won seven out of nine presidential elections and their agenda gravely affected that undertaken by the Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, but the election of 1968 reversed the situation completely. The Vietnam War split the Democratic Party. White ethnics in the North and white Southerners felt the national Democratic Party had deserted them. The white South has voted Republican at the presidential level since the 1950s and at the state and local level since the 1990s.

In the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan rejuvenated the conservative Republican ideology, with tax cuts, greatly increased defense spending, deregulation, a policy of rolling back communism, a greatly strengthened military and appeals to family values and conservative Judeo-Christian morality. His impact has led historians to call the 1980s the Reagan Era.[3] The Reagan model remains the conservative standard for social, economic and foreign policy issues. In recent years, social issues such as abortion, gun control and gay marriage have become important. Since 2009, the Tea Party movement has energized conservatives at the local level against the policies made by the presidency of Barack Obama, leading to Republican success in the 2010 and 2014 mid-term elections, and the 2016 election, in which Donald Trump was elected president.

Chronology of events


As the nation plunges into its deepest depression ever, Republicans and conservatives fall into disfavor in 1930, 1932 and 1934, losing more and more of their seats. Liberals (mostly Democrats with a few Republicans and independents) come to power with the landslide 1932 election of liberal Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In his first 100 days Roosevelt pushes through a series of dramatic economic programs known as the New Deal.[4]

The major metropolitan newspapers generally opposed the New Deal, as typified by William Randolph Hearst and his chain (Hearst had supported Roosevelt in 1932, but he parted ways in 1934.[5] Robert R. McCormick, owner of the Chicago Tribune, compared the New Deal to communism. He was also an America First isolationist who strongly opposed entering World War II to rescue the British Empire. McCormick also railed against the League of Nations, the World Court, and socialism.[6]

1937 cartoon by Joseph L. Parrish in the Chicago Tribune warning Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive branch reorganization plan is a power grab
1937 cartoon by Joseph L. Parrish in the Chicago Tribune warning Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive branch reorganization plan is a power grab
  • President Roosevelt calls his opponents "conservatives" as a term of abuse, they reply that they are "true liberals".[11]
  • Most publishers favor Republican moderate Alf Landon for president. In the nation's 15 largest cities the newspapers that editorially endorsed Landon represented 70% of the circulation, while Roosevelt won 69% of the actual voters.[12]
  • Roosevelt carries 46 of the 48 states and liberals gain in both the House and the Senate, thanks to newly energized labor unions, city machines, and the WPA.[13] Since 1928 the GOP has lost 178 House seats, 40 Senate seats, and 19 governorships; it retains a mere 89 seats in the House and 16 in the Senate.[14]
  • As Republican senator from Ohio (1939–53), Robert A. Taft leads the conservative opposition to liberal policies (apart from public housing and aid to education, which he supported). Taft opposed most of the New Deal, entry into World War II, NATO, and sending troops to the Korean War. He was not so much an "isolationist" as a staunch opponent of the ever-expanding powers of the White House. The growth of this power, Taft feared, would lead to dictatorship or at least spoil American democracy, republicanism and civil virtue.[22]


  • Medical missionary Walter Judd (1898–1994) enters Congress (1943–63) and defines the conservative position on China as all-out support for the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek and opposition to the Communists under Mao. Judd redoubled his support after the Nationalists in 1949 fled to Formosa (Taiwan).[23]
  • The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) is founded in Washington "to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism—limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies, political accountability, and open debate."[24]
Party change of House seats in 1946 showcasing GOP landslide
Party change of House seats in 1946 showcasing GOP landslide
  • March: Friedrich Hayek, an Austrian-born British economist, publishes The Road to Serfdom, which is widely read in America and Britain. He warns that well-intentioned government intervention in the economy is a slippery slope that will lead to tight government controls over people's lives, just as medieval serfdom had done.[25]
  • The weekly magazine Human Events is founded by Frank Hanighen and Felix Morley with a significant contribution from ex-New Dealer Henry Regnery.[26][27] Ronald Reagan later says that the magazine "helped me stop being a liberal Democrat."[28]
Cartoon book warning of Communist aggression
Warning against communism, 1947
  • June: Congress passes the Taft-Hartley Act, designed by conservatives to create what they consider a proper balance between the rights of management and the rights of labor. Unions call it a slave labor law; Truman vetoes it and both houses override the veto.[33]


After the war, businessmen opposed to New Deal liberalism read Hayek, fight labor unions, and fund politicized think tanks such as American Enterprise Institute (founded 1943). They promote statewide right-to-work campaigns.[38]

  • The intellectual reputation of conservatism reaches a low ebb; Lionel Trilling observes that "liberalism is not only the dominant but even the sole intellectual tradition" and dismisses conservatism as a series of "irritable mental gestures which seek to resemble ideas."[39]
  • February: Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy gives a speech saying, "While I cannot take the time to name all the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of 205." The speech marks the beginning of McCarthy's anti-communist pursuits.[40]
  • Political philosopher Francis Wilson in The Case for Conservatism (1951) defines conservatism as "a philosophy of social evolution, in which certain lasting values are defended within the framework of the tension of political conflict. And when given values are at stake the conservative can even become a revolutionary."[41][42]
  • President Eisenhower works closely with Senator Taft, the new GOP majority leader, on domestic issues; they differ on foreign policy.[47]
  • Vermont C. Royster (1914–1996) becomes editor of the editorial page of The Wall Street Journal (1958 to 1971). He wins two Pulitzer Prizes for his conservative interpretation of economic and political news.[52]
  • Conservatives try economic populism to appeal to blue collar workers forced to join labor unions. The GOP pushes "right-to-work" laws in California and elsewhere, but the unions counter-organize for the Democrats. Conservatives try again in 2011.[53][54]
  • November: In a deep economic recession the Democrats score a landslide victory, defeating many old-guard conservative Republicans. The new Congress has large Democratic majorities: 282 Democrats to 154 GOP in the House, 64 to 34 in the Senate. Nevertheless, the new Congress fails to pass any major liberal legislation as most committee chairs are Southern Democrats who support the Conservative Coalition.[55] Two Republicans score upsets in the face of the landslide—liberal Nelson Rockefeller as Governor of New York,[56] and Barry Goldwater as Senator from Arizona;[57] both become presidential prospects.
  • December: Businessman Robert W. Welch, Jr. (1899–1985) and twelve others found the John Birch Society, an anti-communist advocacy group with chapters across the country. Welch uses an elaborate control system that enables him to keep a very tight rein on each chapter. Its major activities are circulating petitions and supporting the local police. It becomes a favorite target of attack from the left and is disowned by many of the prominent conservatives of the day.[58]
  • As late as 1959 William Buckley complains that conservatives were "bound together for the most part by negative response to liberalism," and that, philosophically, "there [is] no commonly-acknowledged conservative position."[59]


Liberalism made major gains after the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, as Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) pushed through his liberal Great Society as well as civil rights laws. An unexpected bonanza helped conservatism in the late 1960s as liberalism came under intense attack from the New Left, especially in academe. This new element, says liberal historian Michael Kazin, worked to "topple the corrupted liberal order."[60] For the New Left "liberal" became a nasty epithet. Liberal commentator E. J. Dionne finds that, "If liberal ideology began to crumble intellectually in the 1960s it did so in part because the New Left represented a highly articulate and able wrecking crew."[61]

"A Time for Choosing" Speech
In support of Goldwater in 1964, Reagan delivers the TV address "A Time for Choosing", a speech which made Reagan the leader of movement conservatism
DateOctober 27, 1964 (1964-10-27)
LocationLos Angeles, CA, United States
Also known as"The Speech"
TypeTelevised campaign speech
ParticipantsRonald Reagan
WebsiteVideo clip, audio, transcript

Movement conservatism emerges as grassroots activists react to liberal and New Left agendas. It develops a structure that supports Goldwater in 1964 and Ronald Reagan in 1976–80. By the late 1970s, local evangelical churches join the movement.[62][63] Liberalism faces a racial crisis nationwide. Within weeks of the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights law, "long hot summers" begin, lasting until 1970, with the worst outbreaks coming in the summer of 1967. Nearly 400 racial disorders in 298 cities saw blacks attacking shopkeepers and police, and looting stores.[64] Meanwhile, the urban crime rates shoot up. Demands for "law and order" escalate and the backlash causes disillusionment among working class whites with the liberalism of the Democratic Party.[65]

In the mid-1960s the GOP debates race and civil rights intensely. Republican liberals, led by Nelson Rockefeller, argue for a strong federal role because it was morally right and politically advantageous. Conservatives call for a more limited federal presence and discount the possibility of significant black voter support. Nixon avoids race issues in 1968.[66]

Highlights of the 1960 Republican convention in Chicago, Illinois
Cover of Modern Age
Cover of Modern Age
  • Conservatives are angered when GOP presidential nominee Richard Nixon strikes a deal with liberal leader Nelson Rockefeller. Nixon agrees to put all 14 of Rockefeller's demands in the party platform, including promises that the executive branch be totally reorganized and that Rockefeller's liberal policies on economic growth, medical care for the aged and civil rights be included.[67] Led by Goldwater, conservatives vow to organize at the grass roots and take control of the GOP.[68]
  • Barry Goldwater publishes The Conscience of a Conservative. The book helps the Arizona Senator reignite the conservative movement which rallies behind the charismatic Arizona Senator.[69]
  • Fall: Frank S. Meyer's article, "Freedom, Tradition, Conservatism", is published in Modern Age, argues that traditional conservatism and libertarianism share a common philosophical heritage. The concept comes to be known as "fusionism" and unites the two strands of thought.[70]
  • September: William F. Buckley, Jr., forms a youth group called the Young Americans for Freedom; it helps Goldwater win the 1964 nomination but is otherwise ineffective and collapses in internal bickering.[71]
  • November: Nixon loses a close election to liberal Democrat John F. Kennedy.[72]
  • Buckley and the National Review launch denunciations of the John Birch Society; Goldwater agrees; the attack limits its influence to the conspiracy-minded.[75]
The controversial "Daisy" Johnson TV commercial in 1964 attacks Goldwater foreign policy as inviting nuclear war[76]
In support of Goldwater, Reagan delivers the address, "A Time for Choosing", which speech launches Reagan to national prominence[78]
In the 1964 presidential election, Goldwater only won his home state of Arizona and five states in the Deep South
In the 1964 presidential election, Goldwater only won his home state of Arizona and five states in the Deep South
  • Jul: George Wallace gives a speech condemning the Civil Rights Act of 1964, claiming that it would threaten individual liberty, free enterprise and private property rights and that "The liberal left-wingers have passed it. Now let them employ some pinknik social engineers in Washington, D.C., to figure out what to do with it."[80]
  • July: Goldwater defeats liberal Republicans Rockefeller to win the GOP presidential nomination and launch a conservative crusade.
  • July: Under attack as an "extremist," Goldwater lashes back in his speech accepting the GOP nomination:

    I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice! And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue![81]

  • November: In the presidential election, Goldwater is defeated in a landslide, and many GOP congressmen are defeated with him.[82]
  • December: The American Conservative Union, the oldest conservative lobbying organization in the United States, is founded by William F. Buckley, Jr.[83]
1968 presidential election results in which red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, blue denotes those won by Humphrey/Muskie and orange denotes states won by Wallace/LeMay
1968 presidential election results in which red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, blue denotes those won by Humphrey/Muskie and orange denotes states won by Wallace/LeMay
  • Liberalism collapses politically as the Democratic Party splits into five factions over issues of Vietnam, race and attacks from New Left.[92] Richard Nixon is elected president over Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace (American Independent Party), emphasizing the need for law and order.[93] The New Left denounced Humphrey as a war criminal, Nixon attacked him as the New Left's enabler—a man with "a personal attitude of indulgence and permissiveness toward the lawless."[94] Beinart observes that "with the country divided against itself, contempt for Hubert Humphrey was the one thing on which left and right could agree."[95]


Historians Meg Jacobs and Julian Zelizer argue that the 1970s were characterized by "a vast shift toward social and political conservatism," as well as a sharp decline in the proportion of voters who identified with liberalism.[99] Neoconservatism emerges as liberals become disenchanted with Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society welfare programs. They increasingly focus on foreign policy, especially anti-communism, and support for Israel and for democracy in the Third World.[100]

While Nixon continues to antagonize and anger liberals, many of his programs upset conservatives. His foreign policy with Henry Kissinger focuses on détente with the USSR and China, and becomes a main target of conservatives. Nixon is uninterested in tax cuts or deregulation, but he does use executive orders and presidential authority to impose price and wage controls, expand the welfare state, require Affirmative Action, grow the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Arts, and create the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[101]

Number of Conservative Political Action Conference attendees over time
William F. Buckley Jr. (left) and Ronald Reagan. two of the most visible conservatives of the 1970s and 1980s
William F. Buckley Jr. (left) and Ronald Reagan. two of the most visible conservatives of the 1970s and 1980s
  • Commentary, a monthly Jewish magazine on politics, foreign policy, society and cultural issues that began as a liberal voice in the 1940s moves sharply to the right in the 1970s under editor Norman Podhoretz. It becomes an influential voice for Israel, anti-communism and neoconservatism by 1976, and supports Reagan in the 1980s.[116]
  • George H. Nash publishes The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945, arguing that Buckley's National Review fused together the traditional, libertarian and anti-Communist traditions to forge a conservative intellectual movement.[117]
  • In reaction against liberal and presidential support for the UN's International Women's Year, conservative women meet in Houston to coordinate their grass roots work. Led by Phyllis Schlafly, they block passage of the ERA and work to nominate Ronald Reagan as the Republican candidate for president.[124]
  • Beverly LaHaye and eight other women found Concerned Women for America (CWA) to oppose the Equal Rights Amendment. It later expands its scope to address socially conservative issues.[125] CWA has been described as "a key player in conservative evangelical politics" and according to CWA it is the largest women's organization in the United States.[126]
  • February: Irving Kristol is featured on the cover of Esquire under the caption, "the godfather of the most powerful new political force in America – neoconservatism."[127]
  • June: Jerry Falwell founds Moral Majority, marking the reentry of Fundamentalists into partisan politics.[128]
Washington for Jesus, 1980
Washington for Jesus, 1980


The decade is marked by the rise of the Christian right and the Reagan Revolution.[129] A priority of Reagan's administration is the rollback of Soviet communism in Latin America, Africa and worldwide.[130] Reagan bases his economic policy, dubbed "Reaganomics", on supply-side economics.[131]

  • Reagan promotes "supply side economics", arguing that tax cuts will stimulate the economy, which suffers high unemployment and high inflation (called "stagflation").[135]
  • Reagan forms a coalition in Congress with conservative Democrats and passes his major tax cuts and increases in defense spending. He fails to cut welfare spending.[136]
  • The Cold War heats up as Reagan pursues a rollback strategy in Latin America and Africa. He supports the anti-Communist "Contra" rebels who attempt to overthrow the pro-Communist Sandinista regime in Nicaragua.[137] Liberal Democrats in Congress try to block his moves and undercut the Contras, leading to a series of battles in the halls of Congress in which Reagan (mostly) prevails.[138] The Sandinistas are forced to hold fair elections in 1990, which they lose by 41%–55%.[139]
  • June: President Reagan tells the British Parliament that "the march of freedom and democracy will leave Marxism and Leninism on the ash heap of history"[140] and calls for a "crusade for freedom."[141]
  • September: Associate Justice William Rehnquist is confirmed as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.[145] Reagan chooses Rehnquist in a deliberate effort to move the Court to the right, knowing he has the conservative constitutional agenda firmly in mind.[146]
  • Replacing Rehnquist as Associate Justice, Antonin Scalia is confirmed by the Senate 90–0. He has been called "the creative, brilliant, and outspoken intellectual leader of the Court's conservative majority."[147]
  • October: Congress enacts the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the second of the "Reagan Tax Cuts". The act simplifies the tax code, reduces the marginal income tax rate on the wealthiest Americans from 50% to 28%, and increases the marginal tax rate on the lowest-earning taxpayers from 10% to 15%.[148]
  • November: the Iran Contra scandal draws national attention and threatened to derail Reagan's progress. Working with the CIA Reagan had authorized National Security Council officials to engage in a complicated sale of missiles to Iran with the goal of funding the Contras fighting Nicaragua. Blame increasingly centered on the key operative, Oliver North. However, in week-long dramatic testimony North emerges a conservative hero. North is convicted on minor counts but the conviction is reversed on appeal because he did not receive a fair trial. Reagan's reputation survives and he leaves office more popular than he began.[149]
  • November: the Berlin Wall falls as the satellite states free themselves from Soviet control. West Germany absorbs East Germany in 1990, and in late 1991 Communism collapses in Russia as the red flag is lowered for the last time. Reagan becomes a hero in Eastern Europe.[155]


Conservative think tanks 1990–97 mobilize to challenge the legitimacy of global warming as a social problem. They challenge the scientific evidence, argue that global warming will have benefits, and warn that proposed solutions would do more harm than good.[156]

  • September: The Contract with America is released on the steps of the Capitol.[159] Designed by GOP House Whip Newt Gingrich, it had the effect of "nationalizing" the off-year election, as most Republican candidates endorsed it and used it as a template to promote a conservative agenda in economic policy. The Contract avoided divisive social issues.[160]
  • November: in the Republican Revolution, Republicans take control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years. The Democrats lose 52 seats in the House and 8 in the Senate, giving the GOP margins of 230 to 204 and 53 to 47.[161]
Legislation Result
Welfare reform Passed (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996)
Term limits for Congressmen Did not pass (U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton)
Balanced budget amendment Did not pass
Increase rights of victims of crime Passed (Taking Back Our Streets Act)
Pro-family tax credits Passed (American Dream Restoration Act)
Decrease United States role in the United Nations Did not pass
Capital gains tax cut Passed (Job Creation and Wage Enhancement Act)
Limit punitive damages on product liability Passed, but vetoed (Product Liability Fairness Act)
Fox News building on 48th Street
Fox News building on 48th Street


The terror attack on September 11, 2001 reorients the administration towards foreign policy and terrorism issues, providing an opportunity for neoconservatives to have a greater influence on foreign policy. The Bush Doctrine leads to long-term interventions in Afghanistan (2001-2021) and Iraq (2003–2011).[170]

On the domestic front Bush promises compassionate conservatism and works to improve education, address poverty nationwide, increase financial aid to poor countries and help alleviate AIDS in Africa.[171]

At a joint session of Congress, President Bush pledges to defend America's freedom against the fear of terrorism, a policy known as the Bush Doctrine, September 20, 2001 (audio only)
  • June: President Bush signed his 10-year tax cut into law; in 2000 he had promised to return the federal budget surplus through an across-the-board reduction in federal income taxes.[173]
  • September: 9-11 terrorists attacks redefine the conservative role in foreign policy.[174]
photograph of a throng of people holding signs
Yes on 8 rally in Fresno, California
  • August: Little-known Alaska Governor Sarah Palin becomes the first woman on a national GOP ticket as nominee for Vice President.[184]
  • November: Democrat Barack Obama defeated Republican John McCain by 53% to 46%. Barack Obama was elected and officially inaugurated as president of the United States of America on January 20, 2009. He was re-elected president in November 2012 and was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. The national exit poll shows self-identified conservatives comprise 34% of the voters and support McCain 78% to 20%. Liberals comprise 22% of the voters and support Obama 89% to 10%. Moderates comprise 44% of the voters and support Obama 60% to 39%.[185]
  • November: Proposition 8 which prescribes that marriage is between a man and a woman in California is passed with 52.2% of the vote.[186]


Numerous historians after 1990 re-examined the role of conservatism in recent American history, according it much greater importance than before.[192] One school of thought rejects the older consensus that liberalism was the dominant ethos. Instead it argues conservatism dominated American politics since the 1920s, with the brief exceptions of the New Deal era (1933–36) and the Great Society (1963–66).[193] However Historian Julian Zelizer argues that "liberalism survived the rise of conservatism."[194]

  • Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC holds that the free speech clause of the First Amendment applies to political speech during elections, making spending limits unconstitutional in certain cases. The Court majority upheld the libertarian approach to free speech, while the dissenters took an egalitarian approach.[195]
2010 House election results:dark blue denotes Democratic hold, blue denotes Democratic gain, dark red denotes Republican hold and red denotes Republican gain
2010 House election results:dark blue denotes Democratic hold, blue denotes Democratic gain, dark red denotes Republican hold and red denotes Republican gain
  • November: in the largest GOP gain since 1938, 2010 became one of the most important elections in conservative history[196] as GOP candidates make major gains in midterm elections across the country for Congress, governorships and state legislatures. Conservative voters (self-identified) comprise 42% of the voters and support GOP House candidates 84% to 13%. Liberals comprise 20% of the voters and support Democrats 90% to 8%. Moderates comprise 38% of the voters and support the GOP 55% to 42%.[197] Republicans gain 63 seats in the House of Representatives and six seats in the U.S. Senate.
  • November: Republicans win majorities in both houses of Congress, and flip several governorships in the 2014 midterm elections.


  • April: Neil Gorsuch, nominated by Donald Trump, is confirmed as associate justice to the Supreme Court.


  • October: Brett Kavanaugh, nominated by Donald Trump, is confirmed as associate justice to the Supreme Court.


  • October: Amy Coney Barrett, nominated by Donald Trump, is confirmed as associate justice to the Supreme Court.

See also



  1. ^ Michael T. Thomas (2007). American policy toward Israel: the power and limits of beliefs. Routledge. pp. 42–43.
  2. ^ Patrick Allitt (2009). The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities Throughout American History. Yale University Press. ch 1–6 covers the story down to 1945.
  3. ^ Sean Wilentz The Age of Reagan: A History, 1974–2008. (2009); John Ehrman The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan. (2008) pp. 3–8.
  4. ^ Anthony J. Badger (2009). FDR: the first hundred days. Hilland Wang. pp. 3–22, 74.
  5. ^ Graham J. White (1979). FDR and the Press. University of Chicago Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0226895123.
  6. ^ Richard Norton Smith (2003). The Colonel: The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick, 1880–1955. Northwestern University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0810120396.
  7. ^ Rudolph Frederick (1950). "The American Liberty League, 1934–1940". American Historical Review. 56 (1): 19–33. doi:10.2307/1840619. JSTOR 1840619.
  8. ^ George Wolfskill (1962). The Revolt of the Conservatives: A History of the American Liberty League, 1934–1940. Houghton Mifflin. p. 249.
  9. ^ Kim Phillips-Fein (2010). Invisible Hands: The Businessmen's Crusade Against the New Deal. W. W. Norton. p. 15. ISBN 978-0393337662.
  10. ^ Gordon Lloyd and David Davenport, The New Deal and Modern American Conservatism: A Defining Rivalry (2013) excerpt and text search
  11. ^ Brendon O'Connor (2004). A Political History of the American Welfare System: When Ideas Have Consequences. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 38. ISBN 978-0742526686.
  12. ^ Charles W. Smith Jr. (1939). Public Opinion in a Democracy. Prentice-Hall. pp. 85–86.
  13. ^ Sternsher, Bernard (1984). "The New Deal Party System: A Reappraisal". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 15 (1): 53–81. doi:10.2307/203594. JSTOR 203594.
  14. ^ Michael Kazin, eta al, eds. (2011). The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0691152073. {{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Jeff Shesol (2011). Supreme Power: Franklin Roosevelt Vs. The Supreme Court. W. W. Norton. pp. 299, 301–303. ISBN 978-0393338812.
  16. ^ Patterson, James T. (1966). "A Conservative Coalition Forms in Congress, 1933–1939". Journal of American History. 52 (4): 757–772. doi:10.2307/1894345. JSTOR 1894345.
  17. ^ John Robert, Moore (1965). "Senator Josiah W. Bailey and the "Conservative Manifesto" of 1937". Journal of Southern History. 31 (1): 21–39. doi:10.2307/2205008. JSTOR 2205008.
  18. ^ Walter Galenson (1960). The CIO challenge to the AFL. Harvard University Press. p. 542.
  19. ^ William E. Leuchtenburg (1963). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal: 1932–1940. HarperCollins. pp. 231–274.
  20. ^ Milton Plesur, "The Republican Congressional Comeback of 1938," Review of Politics, Oct 1962, Vol. 24 Issue 4, pp. 525–562 in JSTOR
  21. ^ John P. East, "Leo Strauss and American Conservatism," Modern Age, (1977) 21:1 pp. 2–19 online
  22. ^ Geoffrey Matthews, "Robert A. Taft, the Constitution and American Foreign Policy, 1939–53," Journal of Contemporary History, July 1982, Vol. 17 Issue 3, pp. 507–522
  23. ^ Lee Edwards (1990). Missionary for Freedom: The Life and Times of Walter Judd. Paragon House. p. 210.
  24. ^ Murray L. Weidenbaum (2009). The competition of ideas: the world of the Washington think tanks. Transaction Publishers. p. 23.
  25. ^ F. A. Hayek (1944; 2nd ed. 2010). The Road to Serfdom. University of Chicago Press. 2nd ed. by Bruce Caldwell with prepublication reports on Hayek's manuscript, and forewords to earlier editions by John Chamberlain, Milton Friedman, and Hayek himself.
  26. ^ Robert McG. Thomas, Jr. (June 23, 1996). "Henry Regnery, 84, Ground-Breaking Conservative Publisher". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  27. ^ Richard V. Allen (June 2, 2008). "Turning the Tide". National Review Online. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  28. ^ Lee Edwards (February 5, 2011). "Reagan's Newspaper". Human Events. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  29. ^ Israel M. Kirzner (2001). Ludwig von Mises: the man and his economics. ISI Books. p. 25.
  30. ^ He retired in 1977 and moved to the Hoover Institution at Stanford. Milton and Rose Friedman (1999). Two Lucky People: Memoirs. University of Chicago Press. p. 559.
  31. ^ Alan O. Ebenstein (2009). Milton Friedman: A Biography Palgrave Macmillan. p. 259.
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