To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Timeline of human prehistory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This timeline of human prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 300,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of historiography, after 5,000 years ago. It thus covers the time from the Middle Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) to the very beginnings of the world history.

All dates are approximate subject to revision based on new discoveries or analyses.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    9 757 714
    861 049
    585 699
    40 370
    301 575
  • ✪ What Happened Before History? Human Origins
  • ✪ The First Human (Evolution Documentary) | Timeline
  • ✪ Human Origins 101 | National Geographic
  • ✪ Ancient History Part 1 : Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic Age Fully Explained
  • ✪ Ancient Western Civilizations Timeline 3500BC-476AD

Transcription

The world we live in feels normal, ordinary. It feels like this is just how humans exist and always existed. But, it's not. Never before have we humans lived in a world as sophisticated and engineered to our needs as today. Giving us the luxury to forget about ourselves and not worry about survival. Food, shelter, security – all of this is, more or less, taken for granted. But we're a special few; for more than 99.99% of human history, life was completely different. And there's no such thing as just one human history. Our story begins 6 million years ago, when the tribe of hominini split and our relationship with the apes ended. 2.8 million years ago, the genus of homo, the first humans, emerged. We like to think about ourselves as the only humans, but this is far from the truth. When we, homo sapiens sapiens, came into existence 200,000 years ago, there were at least six other human species around. Cousins of comparable intelligence and ability, which must have been incredibly scary, kind of like living with aliens. Some of them were very successful. Homo erectus, for example, survived for 2 million years. Ten times longer than modern humans have existed. The last of the other humans disappeared around 10,000 years ago. We don't know what caused them to die out. Modern humans have at least a few percent of neanderthal and other human DNA, so there was some mixing, but certainly not enough to be a merger between species. So we don't know if our cousins went away because they lost the battle over resources, or because of a series of minor genocides. Either way, only we remain. Back to the beginnings of humanity. 2.8 million years ago, early humans used tools, but did not make a lot of progress for nearly 2 million years. Until they learned to control fire. Fire meant cooking, which made food more nutritious, which contributed to the development of our brain. It also produced light and warmth, which made days longer and winters less gruesome. On top of that, it not only scared predators away, it could also be used for hunting. A torched wood or grassland provided small animals, nuts and tubers that were pre-roasted. From 300,000 years ago, most of the different human species lived in small hunter-gatherer societies. They had fire, wood and stone tools, planned for the future, buried their dead, and had cultures of their own. But most importantly, they spoke to each other. Probably in a kind of proto-language, less complex than ours. If we had a time machine, how far would we be able to go back, steal a few babies and raise them today without anyone noticing that they're a bit different? There is much debate. Anatomically, modern humans emerged 200,000 years ago, but probably 70,000 years is as far as we could travel back and still snatch a behaviourally modern human. Before that, the babies would probably lack a few crucial gene mutations Necessary to build a brain with modern language and abstract thinking abilities. At some point, around 50,000 years ago, there was an explosion in innovation. Tools and weapons became more sophisticated and culture became more complex, because at this point, humans had a multi-purpose brain, and a more advanced language to communicate information with each other effectively, and down to the last detail. This allowed much closer cooperation, and is what really makes us different from any other creature on Earth. Not our comparatively weak bodies and inferior senses, but the ability to cooperate flexibly in large groups, unlike, for example, rigid beehives or intimate, but tiny wolf packs. As our brain evolved, we became able to do something, life had been unable to do up to this point. One – expand knowledge quickly. Two – preserve the knowledge gained over generations. Three – build on past knowledge, to gain even deeper insight. This seems daft, but until then, information had to be passed on from generation to generation, mostly through genetics, which is not efficient. Still, for the next 40,000 years, human life remained more or less the same. There was little to build upon. Our ancestors were only one animal among many. Building a skyscraper without knowing what a house is… is hard. But while it is easy to be arrogant in our attitude to our ancestors, this would be ignorant. Humans 50,000 years ago were survival specialists. They had a detailed mental map of their territory, their senses were fine-tuned to the environment, they knew and memorized a great amount of information about plants and animals. They could make complicated tools that required years of careful training and very fine motor skills Their bodies compared to our athletes today just because of their daily routines, and they lived a rich social life within their tribe Survival required so many skills that the average brain volume of early modern humans might even have been bigger than it is today As a group we know more today, but as individuals our ancestors were superior to us But then around 12,000 years ago, in multiple locations, humans developed agriculture. Everything changed very quickly. Before, survival as a hunter and forager required superb physical and mental abilities in all fields from everybody With the rise of the agricultural age, individuals could increasingly rely on the skills of others for survival. This meant that some of them could specialize. Maybe they worked on better tools, maybe they took time to breed more resistant crops or better livestock, Maybe they started inventing things. As farming got more and more efficient, what we call civilization began Agriculture gave us a reliable and predictable food source, which allowed humans to hoard food on a large scale for the first time, which is much easier to do with grains than meat, The food stock required protection, which led to communities living together in tighter spaces First, early defense structures were built, the need for organization grew The more organized we got, the faster things became efficient Villages became cities, cities became kingdoms, kingdoms became empires Connections between humans exploded which led to opportunities to exchange knowledge Progress became exponential About 500 years ago the Scientific Revolution began Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Biology, and Chemistry transformed everything we thought we knew The Industrial Revolution followed soon after laying the foundation for the modern world As our overall efficiency grew exponentially, more people could spend their lifetime contributing to the progress of humanity Revolutions kept happening. The invention of the computer, its evolution into a medium we all use on a daily basis, and the rise of the Internet shaped our world It's hard to grasp how fast all of that happened It's been about 125,000 generations since the emergence of the first human species About 7,500 generations since the physiologically modern humans saw the light of day 500 generations ago, what we call civilization began 20 generations ago, we learned how to do science And the Internet became available to most people only one generation ago Today we live in the most prosperous age humanity has ever experienced We have transformed this planet, from the composition of its atmosphere to large-scale changes in its landscape and also in terms of the other animals in existence. We light up the night with artificial stars and put people in a metal box in the sky Some have even walked on our Moon We put robots on other planets We've looked deep into the past of the universe with mechanical eyes Our knowledge and our way of acquiring and storing more of it has exploded The average high school student today knows more about the universe than a scholar a few centuries ago Humans dominate this planet, even if our rule is very fragile We are still not that different from our ancestors 70,000 years ago But your lifestyle has existed for less than 0.001% of human history From here on, there's no saying what the future holds for us We're building a skyscraper, but we're not sure if it's standing on a solid foundation or if we're building it on quicksand Let's leave it with that for now The next time you miss your train, your burger is not hot enough, or someone cuts in line Remember how special this made-up human world is Maybe it's not worth being upset about all those little things. This video was supported by audible.com/nutshell In the making of it, we used the book "Sapiens: a brief history of humankind" as one of the major sources. If you want to get to it, or any other for free and support us, go to audible.com/nutshell and get a free 30-day trial It's so hard to read books when you have the internet, so we can at least listen to them In general, we listen to a lot of audiobooks while designing our videos, so we can highly recommend audible OK, so this was our first take on making a history-related video we'd love to make much more of them, but they take even more time than our average video. So we might do 3 or 4 a year. Your feedback's very welcome here Thank you so much for watching, and if you want to support us directly, you can do so on Patreon. It really helps us out. While you think about it, here are more videos, if you need more distraction.

Contents

Middle Paleolithic

See Timeline of human evolution, Timeline of natural history for earlier evolutionary history.

Upper Paleolithic

"Epipaleolithic" or "Mesolithic" are terms for a transitional period between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution in Old World (Eurasian) cultures.

Lion-man sculpture (Aurignacian, 40,000–35,000 years old)
Lion-man sculpture (Aurignacian, 40,000–35,000 years old)
Cave painting of a battle between archers, Morella la Vella, Spain, the oldest known depiction of combat.
Cave painting of a battle between archers, Morella la Vella, Spain, the oldest known depiction of combat.

Holocene

The terms "Neolithic" and "Bronze Age" are culture-specific and are mostly limited to cultures of the Old World. Many populations of the New World remain in the Mesolithic cultural stage until European contact in the modern period.

See also

References

  1. ^ Erin Wayman (11 January 2012). "Meet the Contenders for Earliest Modern Human". smithsonian.com.
  2. ^ "Lice DNA study shows humans first wore clothes 170,000 years ago". ScienceDaily. 7 January 2011.
  3. ^ a b Rito T, Richards MB, Fernandes V, Alshamali F, Cerny V, Pereira L, Soares P., "The first modern human dispersals across Africa", PLoS One 2013 Nov 13; 8(11):e80031. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080031. "By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 – 60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup L0. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relics of an ancient, much wider distribution."
  4. ^ "Ancient Egypt Online – Lower Paleolithic". Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  5. ^ "World's Oldest Manufactured Beads Are Older Than Previously Thought". Science Daily. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  6. ^ "Mount Toba Eruption – Ancient Humans Unscathed, Study Claims". Retrieved 20 April 2008.
  7. ^ "'Oldest' prehistoric art unearthed". BBC News. 10 January 2002.
  8. ^ "World's oldest needle found in Siberian cave that stitches together human history". Siberian Times. 23 August 2016.
  9. ^ John Noble Wilford (3 November 2011). "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe Earlier Than Thought". The New York Times. p. A4.
  10. ^ a b Tom Higham; Katerina Douka; Rachel Wood; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Fiona Brock; Laura Basell; Marta Camps; Alvaro Arrizabalaga; Javier Baena; Cecillio Barroso-Ruíz; Christopher Bergman; Coralie Boitard; Paolo Boscato; Miguel Caparrós; Nicholas J. Conard; Christelle Draily; Alain Froment; Bertila Galván; Paolo Gambassini; Alejandro Garcia-Moreno; Stefano Grimaldi; Paul Haesaerts; Brigitte Holt; Maria-Jose Iriarte-Chiapusso; Arthur Jelinek; et al. (21 August 2014). "The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance". Nature. 512 (7514): 306–09. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..306H. doi:10.1038/nature13621. PMID 25143113.
  11. ^ Earliest music instruments found, BBC News, 25 May 2012
  12. ^ Corbyn, Zoë (24 November 2011). "Archaeologists land world's oldest fish hook". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2011.9461. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  13. ^ O'Connor, Sue; Ono, Rintaro (25 November 2011). "Pelagic Fishing at 42,000 Years Before the Present and the Maritime Skills of Modern Humans". Science. 334 (6059): 1117–21. Bibcode:2011Sci...334.1117O. doi:10.1126/science.1207703. PMID 22116883.
  14. ^ William E. Banks; Francesco d'Errico; João Zilhão (2013). "Revisiting the chronology of the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian in Europe: A reply to Higham et al.'s comments on Banks et al". Journal of Human Evolution. 65 (6): 810–17. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.08.004. PMID 24095637.
  15. ^ Martin Bailey Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture The Art Newspaper, 31 January 2013, accessed 1 February 2013
  16. ^ Macey, Richard (15 September 2007). "Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  17. ^ "Aboriginal people and place". Sydney Barani. 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  18. ^ Sandra Bowdler. "Human settlement". In D. Denoon (ed.). The Pleistocene Pacific. The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–50. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008 – via University of Western Australia.
  19. ^ Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. ISBN 0-646-33150-7. Presland says on page 1: "There is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago."
  20. ^ Elizabeth Landau (14 November 2013). "Dogs first domesticated in Europe, study says". CNN.
  21. ^ "Ancient domesticated dog skull found in Siberian cave: 33,000 years old". ScienceDaily. 24 January 2012.
  22. ^ "Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka". World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
  23. ^ James Trager, The People's Chronology, 1994, ISBN 0-8050-3134-0
  24. ^ a b Adam Benton (5 July 2012). "The oldest pottery discovered". EvoAnth.
  25. ^ Stuart, Gene S. (1979). "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages". Mysteries of the Ancient World. National Geographic Society. p. 19.
  26. ^ Flood, J. M.; David, B.; Magee, J.; English, B. (1987). "Birrigai: a Pleistocene site in the south eastern highlands". Archaeology in Oceania. 22: 9–22. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.1987.tb00159.x.
  27. ^ Stuart, Gene S. (1979). "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages". Mysteries of the Ancient World. National Geographic Society. pp. 8–10.
  28. ^ "Shift from Savannah to Sahara was Gradual", by Kenneth Chang, The New York Times, 9 May 2008.
  29. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice: a global human history, 20,000–5000 BC (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-674-01999-7.
  30. ^ Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  31. ^ E.J. Peltenburg; Alexander Wasse; Council for British Research in the Levant (2004). Garfinkel, Yosef., "Néolithique" and "Énéolithique" Byblos in Southern Levantine Context* in Neolithic revolution: new perspectives on southwest Asia in light of recent discoveries on Cyprus. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-132-5. Retrieved 18 January 2012.
  32. ^ Vogel, J.C. and Waterbolk, H.T., "Groningen Radiocarbon Dates X", Radiocarbon, 14, 6–110 / 105, 1972.
  33. ^ Kiple, Kenneth F. and Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds., The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 83
  34. ^ "No-Till: The Quiet Revolution", by David Huggins and John Reganold, Scientific American, July 2008, pp. 70–77.
  35. ^ Fagan, Brian M, ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1996 ISBN 978-0-521-40216-3 p 363
  36. ^ https://tedlab.mit.edu/~dr/Papers/Rohde-MRCA-two.pdf On the Common Ancestors of All Living Humans
  37. ^ Scarre, Chris, ed. (2005). The Human Past. Thames & Hudson. p. 222.
  38. ^ "Signs of early settlement in the Nordic region date back to the cradle of civilisation". 8 February 2016.
  39. ^ Blanchon, P. (2011b) Backstepping. In: Hopley, D. (Ed), Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs: Structure, form and process. Springer-Verlag Earth Science Series, pp. 77–84. ISBN 978-90-481-2638-5. Blanchon, P., and Shaw, J. (1995) Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and icesheet collapse. Geology, 23:4–8.
  40. ^ Bryan Nelson (4 August 2015). "12 oldest continuously inhabited cities". Mother Nature Network. (3. Aleppo, Syria.)
  41. ^ Moore, A.M.T. The Neolithic of the Levant. Oxford: Oxford University, 1978. 192–98.
  42. ^ Burns 2005, p. 2
  43. ^ "Zebbug Phase".
  44. ^ "The prehistoric archaeology of the temples of Malta". Bradshaw Foundation.
  45. ^ Thomas K. Harper. "The effect of climatic variability on population dynamics of the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex and the rise of the Western Tripolye giant-settlements" (PDF). Chronikajournal.com. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  46. ^ Müller, Johannes; Rassmann, Knut; Videiko, Mykhailo (22 January 2016). Trypillia Mega-Sites and European Prehistory: 4100–3400 BCE. p. 347. ISBN 978-1317247913. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  47. ^ Müller, Johannes; Rassmann, Knut; Videiko, Mykhailo (22 January 2016). Trypillia Mega-Sites and European Prehistory: 4100–3400 BCE. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317247913. Retrieved 13 November 2016 – via Google Books.
  48. ^ Müller, Johannes. "High precision Tripolye settlement plans, demographic estimations and settlement organization". Academia.edu. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  49. ^ "ДОСЛІДИ З ТРИПІЛЬСЬКОГО ДОМОБУДІВНИЦТВА" (PDF). Inst-ukr.lviv.ua. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  50. ^ Kristiansen & Larsson 2005
  51. ^ Towers, Roy; Card, Nick; Edmonds, Mark (2015). The Ness of Brodgar. Kirkwall, UK: Archaeology Institute, University of the Higlands and Islands. ISBN 978-0-9932757-0-8.
  52. ^ Childe, V. Gordon; Clarke, D. V. (1983). Skara Brae. Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-491755-8.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 7 May 2019, at 18:12
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.