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Timeline of World War I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a summary of the events of World War One in chronological order.

1914

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
Jun 28 Politics Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, who was killed in Sarajevo along with his wife Duchess Sophie by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb.[1] (Details) Starting WW1
Jul 5 Politics Austria-Hungary seeks German support for a war against Serbia in case of Russian militarism. Germany gives assurances of support.[2]
Jul 23 Politics Beginning of the "Black Week". Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia responds that night, agreeing to most but not all terms of the ultimatum.

The Serbian response is seen as satisfactory by the Kaiser but German diplomats do not pressure Austria to make peace.[3] (Details)

Jul 24 Balkan Serbia mobilizes, expected Austria to declare war after the refusal of the ultimatum.
Jul 25 Eastern Austria mobilizes. Russia enters the period preparatory to war (partial mobilization).
Jul 28 Politics Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.[4] (Details)
Jul 29 Politics Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and Czar Nicholas II of Russia communicate via telegram.[5]
Jul 30 Politics Germany sends Russia an ultimatum.[5]
Jul 31 Politics Russia mobilizes for war.
Aug 1 Politics Germany declares war on Russia and mobilizes.[6][7][8]
Western France mobilizes.[6]
Politics Italy declares its neutrality.[9]
Politics Denmark, Sweden and Norway unitedly declare their neutrality.[10]
Politics Germany and the Ottoman Empire sign a secret alliance treaty.[11] (Details)
Aug 2 Western Germany invades Luxembourg.[12] (Details)
Western Skirmish at Joncherey, first military action on the Western Front.[13] (Details)
Aug 2–26 Western Germany besieges and captures fortified Longwy, "the Iron Gate to Paris", near the Luxembourg border, opening France to mass German invasion.
Aug 3 Politics Germany declares war on France.[14] Belgium denies permission for German forces to pass through to the French border.[15][16]
Politics Switzerland declares its neutrality and mobilizes for purposes of defense.[17][18]
Aug 4 Western Germany invades Belgium[19] to outflank the French army. (Details)
Politics Britain protests against the violation of Belgian neutrality, guaranteed by the Treaty of London, The German Chancellor replies that the treaty is just a chiffon de papier (a scrap of paper). The United Kingdom declares war on Germany.[20] (Details)
Politics The United States declares neutrality.
Aug 4–16 Western Siege of Liège. The Germans besiege and then capture the fortresses of Liège, Belgium.
Aug 5 Asian and Pacific The first weapon fired in Melbourne, Australia it was shot from Australian Troops
Asian and Pacific German Steamer SS Pfalz surrenders after being fired on by Fort Nepean, south of Melbourne, Australia[21] (Details)
Politics Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.[22]
Middle Eastern The Ottoman Empire closes the Dardanelles.
Aug 6 Politics Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.[23]
Politics Serbia declares war on Germany.[23]
Aug 7
Politics Spain declares "the strictest neutrality."[24][25] (Details)
Aug 7 – Sep 13 Western Battle of the Frontiers. The Germans obtain a victory against the British Expeditionary Force and France's Fifth Army. (Details)
Aug
7–10
Western Battle of Mulhouse, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 8 Politics Montenegro declares war on Germany.[23][26]
Aug 9 African, Togoland The Togoland Campaign begins. (Details)
Aug 11 Politics France declares war on Austria-Hungary.
Aug 12 Politics The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary.[23][27]
Western Battle of Halen, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 14–25 Western Battle of Lorraine, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 15 African, East African German troops cross into British East Africa and occupy Taveta. (Details)
Aug 16–20 Balkan, Serbian The Serbs defeat the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer.[28] (Details)
Aug 17 Eastern The Russian army enters East Prussia. (Details)
Aug 20 Eastern The Germans attack the Russians in East Prussia at the Battle of Gumbinnen. The attack is a failure in addition to being a deviation from the Schlieffen Plan.[29] (Details)
Western The Germans occupy Brussels.
Western Battle of Morhange, a phase of the Battle of Lorraine. (Details)
Western Battle of Sarrebourg, a phase of the Battle of Lorraine. (Details)
Aug 21 Western Battle of Charleroi, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 21–23 Western Battle of the Ardennes, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 23 Politics Japan declares war on Germany.[23] (Details)
Western Battle of Mons, a phase of the Battle of the Frontiers. (Details)
Aug 23–30 Eastern Battle of Tannenberg: the Russian army undergoes a heavy defeat by the Germans.[30]
Aug 23 – Sep 11 Eastern Battle of Lemberg. The Russians capture Lviv. (Details)
Aug 23–25 Eastern Battle of Kraśnik, a phase of the Battle of Lemberg. The Austro-Hungarian First Army defeats the Russian Fourth Army.[31] (Details)
Aug 24 Western Action of Elouges
Western Battle of the Mortagne, a phase of the Battle of Lorraine.
Aug 24 – Sep 7 Western The Germans besiege and capture the Maubeuge Fortress. (Details)
Aug 24 – Sep 28 Western The Allied Great Retreat to the River Marne.
Aug 25 Politics Japan declares war on Austria-Hungary.[23]
African, Kamerun Battle of Tepe: The Kamerun Campaign begins.
Aug 26 African, Togoland British and French forces conquer Togoland, a German protectorate in West Africa.[32] (Details)
Western Battle of Le Grand Fayt
Aug 26–27 Western Battle of Le Cateau results in an Allied retreat.
Aug 26–30 Eastern Battle of Gnila Lipa, a phase of the Battle of Lemberg.
Aug 26 – Sep 2 Eastern Battle of Komarow, part of the Battle of Lemberg. (Details)
Aug 26 – Feb 18, 1916 African, Kamerun Siege of Mora
Aug 27 Western Battle of Étreux
Aug 27 – Nov 7 Asian and Pacific Battle of Tsingtao: British and Japanese forces capture the German-controlled port of Tsingtao in China.
Aug 28 Naval The Royal Navy wins the First Battle of Heligoland Bight in the North Sea.
Politics Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium.[23][33]
Aug 29–30 Western Battle of Saint Quentin, also known as Battle of Guise. Orderly Allied retreat.
Aug 29–31 African, Kamerun First Battle of Garua
Aug 30 Asian and Pacific New Zealand occupies German Samoa (later Western Samoa). (Details)
Sep 1 Western Action at Néry
Politics Saint Petersburg renamed Petrograd, removing German words "Burg" and "Sankt".[34]
Sep 2–11 Eastern Austro-Hungarian defeat at the Battle of Rava Russka, a phase of the Battle of Lemberg.
Sep 5 Naval, Atlantic British scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder is sunk by U-boat SM U-21 off Scotland.
Sep 5–12 Western First Battle of the Marne. The German advance on Paris is halted, marking the failure of the Schlieffen Plan.[35]
Western Battle of the Ourcq, a phase of the First Battle of the Marne.
Western Battle of the Two Morins
Sep 6 African, Kamerun Battle of Nsanakong
Sep 6–12 Western Battle of the Marshes of Saint-Gond, a phase of the First Battle of the Marne.
Western Battle of Vitry, a phase of the First Battle of the Marne.
Western Battle of Revigny, a phase of the First Battle of the Marne.
Sep 6 – Oct 4 Balkan, Serbian Battle of Drina
Sep 7 Asian and Pacific Fanning Raid
Sep 7–14 Eastern First Battle of the Masurian Lakes: The Russian Army of the Neman withdraws from East Prussia with heavy casualties.
Sep 9 Politics Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg lays out Germany's war aims. (Details)
Sep 11 Asian and Pacific Battle of Bita Paka
Sep 13 African, South West Africa Troops from South Africa begin invading German South-West Africa. (Details)
Sep 13–28 Western The First Battle of the Aisne ends in a substantial draw. The Race to the Sea begins.
Sep 14 Politics Erich von Falkenhayn replaces Helmuth von Moltke the Younger as German Chief of Staff.
Sep 14–17 Asian and Pacific Siege of Toma. Most German forces in New Guinea surrender to the Australians then or over the following year.
Sep 15 African, South West Africa Boer leader Manie Maritz revolts in South Africa. (Details)
Sep 19 – Oct 11 Western Battle of Flirey
Sep 20 Naval, African, East African Battle of Zanzibar, German naval victory.
Sep 22 Asian and Pacific Bombardment of Papeete
Asian and Pacific German light cruiser Emden attacks Madras. (Details)
Sep 22–26 Western First Battle of Picardy
Sep 24 Eastern The Siege of Przemyśl begins.
Sep 26 African, South West Africa Battle of Sandfontein
Sep 25–29 Western First Battle of Albert
Sep 28 – Oct 10 Western The Germans besiege and capture Antwerp, Belgium. (Details)
Sep 29–30 Asian and Pacific Japan occupies the Marshall Islands.
Sep 29 – Oct 31 Eastern Battle of the Vistula River, also known as Battle of Warsaw.
Oct–Jul 11, 1915 Naval, African, East African Battle of Rufiji Delta, German cruiser Königsberg destroyed.
Oct 1–4 Western First Battle of Arras
Oct 9 – Nov 1 Balkan, Serbian Central powers control Belgrade. (Details)
Oct 10 – Nov 2 Western Battle of La Bassee
Oct 12 – Nov 2 Western First Battle of Messines
Oct 13 – Nov 2 Western Battle of Armentieres
Oct 16–31 Western Battle of the Yser. French and Belgian forces secure the coastline of Belgium.[36]
Oct 19 – Nov 22 Western The First Battle of Ypres ends the Race to the Sea. The Germans are prevented from reaching Calais and Dunkirk.
Oct 19 – Jul 7, 1915 African, South West Africa Clashes between German and Portuguese forces in the Angola-Namibia border, without declaration of war. (Details)
Oct 28 Naval, Asian and Pacific Battle of Penang. The German cruiser Emden sinks two British warships in the Strait of Malacca.
Oct 29 Naval, Eastern Black Sea Raid. Ottoman warships bombard the Russian ports of Odessa and Sevastopol.
Nov 1 Politics Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
Naval Battle of Coronel. Von Spee's German cruiser squadron defeats a Royal Navy squadron under Christopher Cradock off Chile.[37]
Nov 2 Naval, Atlantic The United Kingdom begins the naval blockade of Germany. (Details)
Politics Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.[23]
Nov 2–16 Middle Eastern, Caucasian Bergmann Offensive, first military engagement in the Caucasus of the First World War.
Nov 3 Politics Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
African, East African Battle of Kilimanjaro
Nov 3–5 African, East African Von Lettow-Vorbeck's German colonial forces defeat the British at the Battle of Tanga, German East Africa.
Nov 5 Politics France and the United Kingdom[38] declare war on the Ottoman Empire.[23]
Nov 6 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Fao Landing, British and Indians besiege the fortress at Fao.
Nov 7 Asian and Pacific Japanese Forces capture the Naval Base at Tsingtao. (Details)
Nov 11 Politics Sultan Mehmed V declares Jihad on the Allies.[39][40] (Details)
Nov 11–21 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Battle of Basra
Nov 11 – Dec 6 Eastern Battle of Łódź (also known as Silesian Offensive).
Nov 13 African, East African Battle of El Herri: Worst French defeat in Morocco at the hands of the Zayanes.
Nov 16 – Dec 15 Balkan, Serbian Battle of Kolubara, Austro-Hungarians withdraw from Serbia.
Nov 19 Politics Bolshevik representatives at the State Duma arrested and exiled to Siberia.
Nov 23 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Basra is occupied by the British.
Dec 1–13 Eastern Battle of Limanowa
Dec 3–9 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Battle of Qurna
Dec 8 Naval Battle of the Falkland Islands. Von Spee's German cruiser squadron is defeated by the Royal Navy.[41]
Dec 10 Western Hill 60 captured by the Germans.
Dec 14 Middle Eastern, Persian Ottomans occupy the Persian border town of Qotur as a bridgehead to the Caucasus, but withdraw after their defeat at Sarikamish. (Details)
Dec 16 Naval, Atlantic The German fleet shells Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby England.[42] (Details)
Dec 18–22 Western Battle of Givenchy
Dec 17 – January 13, 1915 Western First Battle of Artois
Dec 20 Western Fighting begins at Perthes.
Dec 20 – 17 Mar 1915 Western First Battle of Champagne
Dec 22 Western Fighting begins at Noyon. (Details)
Dec 22 – Jan 2, 1915 Middle Eastern, Caucasian The Russians win the Battle of Sarikamish, Caucasia.[43]
Dec 24–25 Western In some sectors of the Western Front, an unofficial Christmas truce is observed between German and British forces.[44]
Dec 25 – Jan 18, 1915 Middle Eastern, Caucasian Battle of Ardahan

1915

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
January 2 Eastern The Russian offensive in the Carpathians begins. It will continue until April 12.
January 4–11 Middle Eastern, Persian Ottomans occupy Urmia and Tabriz by surprise.
January 8 Politics Japan attempts to impose its Twenty-One Demands on neutral China.
January 18–19 African, East African Battle of Jassin.
January 19 – December 22 Western Battle of Hartmannswillerkopf, series of battles fought to control the peak.
January 24 Naval Battle of Dogger Bank between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German Hochseeflotte.
January 24–26 African, East African Chilembwe uprising led by John Chilembwe in Nyasaland.
January 28 – February 3 Middle Eastern, Sinai and Palestine The Ottomans fail to capture the Suez Canal in the First Suez Offensive.
January 30 Middle Eastern, Persian The Russians take Tabriz.
January 31 Eastern Battle of Bolimov. First German use of chemical weapons.[45]
February 4 Naval, Atlantic Germany begins unrestricted submarine warfare against merchant vessels.
African, South West Africa Jan Kemp surrenders. End of the Maritz Rebellion.
African, South West Africa Battle of Kakamas: German invasion of South Africa repelled.
February 7–22 Eastern Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Russian X Army is defeated.
February 15 Asian and Pacific Troops in Singapore mutiny against the British
February 19 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli British and French naval attack on the Dardanelles. The Gallipoli Campaign begins.[46]
March 5 Politics Great Britain and France promise Russia Constantinople.
March 7 Middle Eastern, Persian Ottomans retreat to Qotur, pushed by a Russian counteroffensive.
March 10 – March 13 Western Battle of Neuve Chapelle. After an initial success, a British offensive is halted.
March 14 Naval Battle of Más a Tierra. The last remnant of the German East Asia Squadron is sunk and its crew interned in neutral Chile.
March 18 Naval, Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of 18 March. The British and French unsuccessfully try to force the Dardanelles, losing 3 Pre-Dreadnought Battleships
March 22 Eastern The Siege of Przemyśl ends. The Russians capture the fortress.
April 5 – May 5 Western First Battle of Woevre.
April 12–14 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Battle of Shaiba.
April 15 Middle Eastern, Persian Battle of Dilman
April 19 – May 17 Middle Eastern, Caucasian The Ottomans besiege the Armenian city of Van.
April 22 – May 25 Western The Second Battle of Ypres, which ends in a stalemate. Germany first uses poison gas.
April 22–23 Western Battle of Gravenstafel, First stage of the Second Battle of Ypres.
April 24 Politics Deportation of Armenian intellectuals to Ankara, first act of the Armenian genocide.
April 24 – May 5 Western Battle of St Julien, part of the Second Battle of Ypres.
April 25 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Allied forces land on Gallipoli, landing at Ari Burnu, soon renamed Anzac Cove, and Cape Helles.[47] (Details)
April 26 Politics Treaty of London between the Entente and Italy.[48]
African, South West Africa Battle of Trekkopjes.
April 28 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli First Battle of Krithia. The Allied advance is repelled.[49]
April 29 African, Kamerun Battle of Gurin.
May 1 Eastern The Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive begins: the German troops under General Mackensen break through the Russian lines in Galicia.
Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Eski Hissarlik.
May 3 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Troops withdraw from Anzac Cove.
Politics Italy revokes its commitment to a defensive alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
May 6–8 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Second Battle of Krithia. The Allied attempts at advancing are thwarted again.[50]
May 7 Naval, Atlantic The British liner Lusitania is sunk by a German U-boat.[51]
May 8–13 Western Battle of Frezenberg Ridge, Part of the Second Battle of Ypres.
May 9 – June 18 Western Second Battle of Artois.
May 9 Western Battle of Aubers Ridge, a phase of the Second Battle of Artois.
May 10 Eastern Troops from Hungary rout the Russians at Jarosław. Lviv is again in Austrian hands.
May 11 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Armistice called at Gallipoli to bury the dead. (Details)
May 12 African, South West Africa Windhoek, capital of German South-West Africa, is occupied by South African troops.[52]
May 5–25 Western Battle of Festubert.
May 16 – June 23 Eastern Battle of Konary.
May 23 Politics Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.[23] (Details)
May 24–25 Western Battle of Bellewaarde, final phase of the Second Battle of Ypres.
May 31 – June 10 African, Kamerun Second Battle of Garua.
June–September Eastern The Russian Great Retreat from Poland and Galicia.
June 4 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Third Battle of Krithia. Yet another Allied failure.[50]
Eastern The Russians leave Przemyśl. (Details)
June 21–23 African, East African Battle of Bukoba.
June 22 Eastern Mackensen breaks again through the Russian lines in the Lviv area. (Details)
June 23 – July 7 Italian First Battle of the Isonzo.
June 27 Eastern The Austro-Hungarians re-enter Lviv. (Details)
June 28 – July 5 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli The British win the Battle of Gully Ravine.
June 29 African, Kamerun Battle of Ngaundere
July 1 Air First aerial victory by a synchronized gun-armed fighter aircraft (Details)
African, South West Africa Battle of Otavi.
July 9 African, South West Africa The German forces in South-West Africa surrender.
July 10–26 Middle Eastern, Caucasian Battle of Manzikert.
July 18 – August 3 Italian Second Battle of the Isonzo.
July 25 Italian Italians capture Cappuccio Wood. (Details)
Air First Victoria Cross awarded to a British combat pilot (Details)
July 27–31 Middle Eastern, Caucasian Battle of Kara Killisse.
August 5 Eastern The Germans occupy Warsaw. (Details)
August 6–10 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Lone Pine, part of the August Offensive.
August 6–13 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Krithia Vineyard, part of the August Offensive.
August 6–15 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Allies land at Suvla Bay, a phase of the August Offensive.
August 6–21 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Sari Bair, part of the August Offensive. Last and unsuccessful attempt by the British to seize the Gallipoli peninsula.[53]
August 7 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of the Nek, a phase of the August Offensive.
August 7–19 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Chunuk Bair, a phase of the August Offensive.
August 19 Naval, Atlantic A German U-Boat sinks the liner SS Arabic (1902). 44 died including 3 Americans
August 21 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Scimitar Hill, a phase of the August Offensive.
Politics Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.[23]
August 21–29 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Battle of Hill 60, part of the August Offensive.
August 26 – September 19 Eastern Sventiany Offensive, a phase of the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive.
September 1 Naval, Atlantic Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare. (Details)
September 5–8 Politics The Zimmerwald Conference of anti-militarist European socialist parties is held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland.
September 5 Eastern Nicholas II removes Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich as Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, personally taking that position.
September 15 – November 4 Western Third Battle of Artois.
September 19 Eastern The Germans occupy Vilnius. The Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive ends.
September 25–28 Western Battle of Loos, a major British offensive, fails.
September 25 – October 15 Western Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt, a phase of the Battle of Loos.
September 25 – November 6 Western Second Battle of Champagne.
September 28 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Battle of Es Sinn.
October 3 Balkan, Macedonian Allies land troops at Salonika in Greece to aid Serbia.
October 7 – December 4 Balkan, Serbian Serbia is invaded by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria.
October 12 Politics Edith Cavell executed.
October 14 Politics Bulgaria declares war on Serbia[23] (Details)
October 14 – November 9 Balkan, Serbian Morava Offensive, a phase of the Central Powers Invasion of Serbia, Bulgarians break through Serbian lines.
October 14 – November 15 Balkan, Serbian Ovche Pole Offensive, a phase of the Central Powers invasion of Serbia, Bulgarians break through Serbian lines.
October 15 Politics The United Kingdom declares war on Bulgaria.[23][54]
Politics Montenegro declares war on Bulgaria.[23]
October 16 Politics France declares war on Bulgaria.[23]
October 17 – November 21 Balkan, Macedonian Battle of Krivolak, first of the Salonika Front.
October 18 – November 4 Italian Third Battle of the Isonzo
October 19 Politics Italy and Russia declare war on Bulgaria.[23]
October 27 Politics Andrew Fisher resigns as Prime Minister of Australia; he is replaced by Billy Hughes.
October 29 Politics René Viviani resigns as Prime Minister of France; he is replaced by Aristide Briand.
November 4–6 African, Kamerun Battle of Banjo.
November 10 Middle Eastern, Persian Pro-Central Powers Iranians seize Shiraz from pro-Entente forces and arrest all British citizens in the city.
November 10 – December 2 Italian Fourth Battle of the Isonzo
November 10 – December 4 Balkan, Serbian Kosovo Offensive, a phase of the Central Powers invasion of Serbia, Serbians pushed into Albania.
November 14–30 Middle Eastern, Persian Russian forces from the Caucasus occupy Tehran.
November 17 African, North African Armed by Ottomans and Germans, the Libyan Senussi cross the border and attack Egypt from the west. (Details)
November 22–25 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian Battle of Ctesiphon, in present-day Iraq.[55]
November 27 Balkan, Serbian The Serbian army collapses. It will retreat to the Adriatic Sea and be evacuated by the Italian and French Navies. (Details)
December – July, 1916 Naval, African, East African Battle of Lake Tanganyika.
December 6–12 Balkan, Macedonian Battle of Kosturino
December 7 Middle Eastern, Mesopotamian The First Siege of Kut, Mesopotamia, by the Ottomans begins.[56]
December 15 Middle Eastern, Persian Russians occupy Hamadan.
December 18 Middle Eastern, Gallipoli Gallipoli evacuations, a major Ottoman victory and a "disaster for the Allies."
December 19 Western Douglas Haig replaces John French as commander of the British Expeditionary Force.
December 23 African, Kamerun Carl Zimmermann orders the retreat of all German forces and civilians in Kamerun to the Spanish colony of Río Muni.

1916

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
January 5–17 Balkan Austro-Hungarian offensive against Montenegro, which capitulates. (Details)
January 6–7 Balkan Battle of Mojkovac
January 6–8 Middle Eastern Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad, a phase of the First Siege of Kut.
January 9 Gallipoli The Gallipoli Campaign ends in an Allied defeat and an Ottoman victory.[57] (Details)
January 10 – February 16 Caucasian Battle of Erzurum.
January 11 Balkan Corfu occupied by the Allies. (Details)
January 13 Middle Eastern Battle of Wadi, a phase of the First Siege of Kut. (Details)
January 21 Middle Eastern Battle of Hanna, a phase of the First Siege of Kut.
January 24 Naval Reinhard Scheer is appointed commander of Germany's Hochseeflotte.[58] (Details)
January 27 Politics Conscription introduced in the United Kingdom by the Military Service Act 1916.[59] (Details)
February 5 – April 15 Caucasian Trebizond Campaign.
February 12 African Battle of Salaita Hill.
February 21 Western The Battle of Verdun begins.[60]
February 26 African Battle of Agagia: Senussi rebellion suppressed by the British.
February 28 African German Kamerun (Cameroon) surrenders. (Details)
March 1 Naval Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare. (Details)
March 1–15 Italian Fifth Battle of the Isonzo.
March 2 – August 4 Caucasian Battle of Bitlis.
March 8 Middle Eastern Battle of Dujaila: a British attempt to relieve Kut failed. (Details)
March 9 Politics Germany declares war on Portugal.[23] Portugal officially enters the war. (Details)
March 11–12 African Battle of Latema Nek.
March 14 Politics The Manifesto of the Sixteen, declaring Kropotkinist-anarchist support of the Allied war effort, is published. (Details)
March 15 Politics Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal.[23]
March 16 – November 6 African British preemptively occupy the Sultanate of Darfur and annex it to the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. (Details)
March 18 African Battle of Kahe.
March 18 – April Eastern Lake Naroch Offensive.
April 24–29 Politics Easter Rising by Irish rebels for independence from the United Kingdom. (Details)
April 24–30 Politics The Kienthal Conference, the second meeting of the anti-war socialist Zimmerwald Movement, is held in Kienthal, Switzerland. (Details)
April 27–29 Western Gas attacks at Hulluch.
April 29 Middle Eastern The British forces under siege at Kut surrender to the Ottomans, first siege of Kut ends. (Details)
May 7–10 African Battle of Kondoa Irangi.
May 10 Naval Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare. (Details)
May 15 – June 10 Italian Austro-Hungarian Strafexpedition in Trentino. (Details)
May 16 Politics Signing of the Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France defining their proposed spheres in the Middle East. (Details)
May 18 Middle Eastern Russian forces in Persia link up with the British in Mesopotamia, but it is too late. (Details)
May 31 – June 1 Naval Battle of Jutland between Britain's Grand Fleet and Germany's Hochseeflotte. (Details)
June 2–14 Western Battle of Mont Sorrel.
June 3 Middle Eastern Russians fail to encircle Ottoman forces in Persia. (Details)
June 4 Eastern The Brusilov Offensive begins.
June 5 Middle Eastern The Arab Revolt in Hejaz begins. (Details)
Naval HMS Hampshire is sunk off the Orkney Islands; Lord Kitchener dies. (Details)
June 8 Naval In the Adriatic Sea the Italian troopship SS Principe Umberto is sunk by an Austro-Hungarian submarine. It is the deadliest sinking of the war, with 1,900 lives lost.
June 10 Politics Italy: Paolo Boselli succeeds Antonio Salandra as Prime Minister. (Details)
Middle Eastern The Siege of Medina begins.
June 10 – July 4 Middle Eastern Battle of Mecca, Arabs capture the city. (Details)
June 12 Middle Eastern Percy Sykes marches on Kerman to link up with the Russian forces in central-northern Persia.
June 30 Western Battle of the Boar's Head, diversion from the Battle of the Somme which began the next day.
July Middle Eastern Battle of Taif. (Details)
July 1 Western The Battle of the Somme begins. (Details)
July 1–3 Politics The Social Democratic Party wins a majority in the parliament of the Russian-ruled Grand Duchy of Finland. (Details)
July 1–13 Western Second Battle of Albert (Opening phase of the Battle of the Somme). (Details)
July 1–2 Western British capture Fricourt during the Second Battle of Albert. (Details)
July 2 Middle Eastern Ottoman counter-attack into Persia reaches Kermanshah. (Details)
July 2–25 Caucasian Battle of Erzincan.
July 3–7 Western British capture La Boisselle during the Second Battle of Albert. (Details)
July 3–12 Western British capture Mametz Wood during the Second Battle of Albert. (Details)
July 3–17 Western British capture Ovillers during the Second Battle of Albert and Battle of Bazentin Ridge. (Details)
July 4–6 Eastern Battle of Kostiuchnowka.
July 7–11 Western British capture Contalmaison during the Second Battle of Albert. (Details)
July 8–14 Western British capture Trônes Wood during the Second Battle of Albert. (Details)
July 14–17 Western Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
July 14 – September 15 Western Battles for Longueval and Delville Wood (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
July 19–20 Western Battle of Fromelles (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme).
July 23 – August 7 Western Battle of Pozières (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
July 24 – August 8 Eastern Battle of Kowel.
July 30 German agents sabotage munition factories in Jersey City that supply the Allies, causing the Black Tom explosion.
August 3–5 Middle Eastern Battle of Romani. Ottoman attack on the British in the Sinai peninsula fails. (Details)
August 6–17 Italian Sixth Battle of the Isonzo. The Italians capture Gorizia (August 9). (Details)
August 6 Italian Battle of Doberdo, part of the Sixth Battle of Isonzo.
August 9–18 Balkan First battle of Doiran. (Details)
August 10 Middle Eastern Ottomans take Hamadan. (Details)
August 24 African Battle of Mlali.
August 27 Balkan Romania enters the war on the Entente's side. Her army is defeated in a few weeks.
August 27 – December Balkan Conquest of Romania by Central Powers. (Details)
August 27 – November 26 Balkan Battle of Transylvania, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
August 28 Politics Italy declares war on Germany.[23][48]
August 29 Politics Paul von Hindenburg replaces Erich von Falkenhayn as German Chief of Staff. (Details)
August 30 Politics The Ottoman Empire declares war on Romania.[23]
September 1 Politics Bulgaria declares war on Romania.[23]
September 2–6 Balkan Battle of Turtucaia, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
September 3–6 Western Battle of Guillemont (intermediate phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
September 5–7 Balkan Battle of Dobrich, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
September 6 Politics The Central Powers create a unified command.
September 7–11 African Battle of Kisaki.
September 8–19 African Battle of Tabora.
September 9 Western Battle of Ginchy (intermediate phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
September 9–11 African Battle of Dutumi.
September 12 – December 11 Balkan Monastir Offensive, set up of the Salonika Front.
September 12–14 Balkan Battle of Malka Nidzhe, a phase of the Monastir Offensive.
September 12–30 Balkan Battle of Kaymakchalan, a phase of the Monastir Offensive.
September 14–17 Italian Seventh Battle of the Isonzo
September 15–22 Western Battle of Flers-Courcelette; the British use armored tanks for the first time in history. (Details)
September 17–19 Balkan First Battle of Cobadin, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
September 20 Eastern The Brusilov Offensive ends with a substantial Russian success. (Details)
September 25–28 Western Battle of Morval (part of the final stages of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
September 26–28 Western Battle of Thiepval Ridge (part of the final stages of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
September 29 – October 5 Balkan Flamanda Offensive, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
October–November Balkan First Battle of the Cerna Bend, a phase of the Monastir Offensive. (Details)
October 1 – November 5 Western Battle of Le Transloy (last stage of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
October 1 – November 11 Western Battle of Ancre Heights (last stage of the Battle of the Somme).
October 9–12 Italian Eighth Battle of the Isonzo.
October 14 – January 6, 1917 African Battle of Kibata.
October 19–25 Balkan Second Battle of Cobadin, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
October 24 Western The French recapture Fort Douaumont near Verdun. (Details)
November 1–4 Italian Ninth Battle of the Isonzo.
November 11 African Battle of Matamondo.
November 13–18 Western Battle of the Ancre (closing phase of the Battle of the Somme) (Details)
November 18 Western The Battle of the Somme ends with enormous casualties and an Anglo-French advantage. (Details)
November 21 Naval HMHS Britannic sinks after hitting a German mine (Details)
Politics Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, dies and is succeeded by Charles I. (Details)
November 25 Naval David Beatty replaces John Jellicoe as commander of the Grand Fleet. Jellicoe becomes First Lord of the Sea. (Details)
November 25 – December 3 Balkan Battle of Bucharest, a phase of the conquest of Romania.
November 28 Balkan Prunaru Charge, a phase of the Battle of Bucharest, Romanian cavalry desperately charge into enemy lines.
December 1 Balkan Battle of the Arges, a phase of the Battle of Bucharest.
December 1 – January 18, 1917 Middle Eastern Allies capture Yanbu. (Details)
December 3–6 Politics In a four-day crisis December 3–6, 1916, H. H. Asquith is unaware how fast he is losing support. David Lloyd George now has growing Unionist support, the backing of Labour and (thanks to Christopher Addison) a majority of Liberal MPs. Asquith falls. (Details)
December 7–31 Politics The new Prime Minister Lloyd George answers the loud demands for a much more decisive government. He energetically sets up a new small war cabinet, a cabinet secretariat under Maurice Hankey, a secretariat of private advisors in the 'Garden Suburb' and moved towards prime ministerial control.[61] (Details)
December 6 Balkan The Germans occupy Bucharest. The capital of Romania moved to Iaşi. (Details)
December 13 Western Robert Nivelle replaces Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army. (Details)
December 17 African Kaocen Revolt: The Tuareg besiege the French garrison at Agadez.
December 18 Western Battle of Verdun ends with enormous casualties on both sides.
December 23 Middle Eastern Battle of Magdhaba in the Sinai peninsula.[62] (Details)
December 23–29 Eastern Christmas Battles.
December 27 African Togoland is divided into British and French administrative zones. (Details)
December 30 Politics Grigori Rasputin, Russia's éminence grise, is assassinated. (Details)

1917

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
January 3–4 African Battle of Behobeho.
January 9 Middle Eastern Battle of Rafa. The British drive the Ottomans out of Sinai. (Details)
January 11 – March 13 Western British raid the Ancre. (Details)
January 16 Politics The German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sends a telegram to his ambassador in Mexico, instructing him to propose to the Mexican government an alliance against the United States. (Details)
February 1 Naval Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare. (Details)
February 3 Naval SS Housatonic an American steamer carrying wheat from Galveston, Texas to England is sunk by a U-boat.
February 13 Politics Mata Hari is arrested in Paris on charges of spying for the Germans.
February 23 Middle Eastern Second Battle of Kut. The British recapture the city. (Details)
February 23 – April 5 Western The Germans withdraw to the Hindenburg Line.
March 1 Politics Arz von Straussenberg replaces Conrad von Hötzendorf as Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff. (Details)
March 3 African The French relieve Agadez.
March 8–11 Middle Eastern The British capture Baghdad. (Details)
March 8 Politics The celebrations of the International Women's Day in Petrograd spawn severe protests that will evolve into the February Revolution.
March 12 Politics Russian troops refuse to fire on demonstrators after 50 are killed in Petrograd's Znamenskaya Square the day before. Numerous attacks against prisons, courts, police stations and Okhrana offices.
Provisional Committee of the Duma formed.
Petrograd Soviet formed.
March 13 African Battle of Nambanje.
March 13 – April 23 Middle Eastern Samarrah Offensive, British capture much of Mesopotamia.
March 14 Politics China severs relations with Germany.[23]
March 15 Politics Nicholas II abdicates. A provisional government is formed.
March 16 Politics Lenin arrives in Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland and publishes his April Thesis.
March 17 Politics Aristide Briand resigns as Prime Minister of France; he is replaced by Alexandre Ribot.
March 26 Middle Eastern First Battle of Gaza. The British attempt to capture the city fails.[63] (Details)
April–October Middle Eastern Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
April 2–3 Western Australians attack Noreuil. (Details.)
April 6 Politics The United States declares war on Germany.[64] (Details)
April 7 Politics Cuba declares war on Germany.[23]
Politics Panama declares war on Germany.[23]
Asian and Pacific Scuttling of SMS Cormoran in Guam, the only hostile action between American and German forces in the Pacific.
April 9 – May 17 Western Second Battle of Arras. The British attack a heavily fortified German line without obtaining any strategic breakthrough.[65] (Details)
April 9–12 Western The Canadians obtain a significant victory in the Battle of Vimy Ridge, part of the first phase of the Second Battle of Arras.[66] (Details)
April 9–14 Western First Battle of the Scarpe, part of the first phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
April 10–11 Western First Battle of Bullecourt,part of the first phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
April 11 Politics Brazil severs relations with Germany.[23]
April 13 Politics Bolivia severs relations with Germany.[23]
April 15 Western Battle of Lagnicourt, part of the Second phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
April 16 – May 9 Western The Second Battle of the Aisne (also known as Nivelle Offensive) ends in disaster for both the French army and its commander Robert Nivelle.[67] (Details)
April 17–20 Western Battle of the Hills (also known as Third battle of Champagne), a diversion to the Second Battle of the Aisne.
April 19 Middle Eastern Second Battle of Gaza. The Ottoman lines resist a British attack. (Details)
April 22 – May 8 Balkan Second Battle of Doiran. (Details)
April 23 Politics The Ottoman Empire severs relations with the United States.[23]
April 23–24 Western Second Battle of Scarpe, part of the second phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
April 28–29 Western Battle of Arleux, part of the Second phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
April 29 – May 20 Western Series of mutinies in the French army.[68] (Details)
May 3–4 Western Third battle of the Scarpe, part of the second phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
Politics Mass demonstrations in Petrograd and Moscow to protest Pavel Milyukov's note affirming Russia's commitment to the Entente war effort. (Details)
May 3–17 Western Second Battle of Bullecourt, part of the second phase of the Second Battle of Arras. (Details)
May 5 Politics Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes wins an enlarged majority in federal elections with the pro-conscription Nationalist Party. (Details)
May 5–15 Balkan Allied Spring offensive on the Salonika Front.
May 5–9 Balkan Second Battle of the Cerna Bend, a phase of the Allied Spring Offensive. (Details)
May 12 – June 6 Italian Tenth Battle of the Isonzo. (Details)
May 15 Western Philippe Pétain replaces Robert Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.[69] (Details)
May 23 Italian Battle of Mount Hermada in the Karst.
Politics Salonika Trial ends: Dragutin Dimitrijevic, chief conspirator of the Sarajevo Assassination, is sentenced to death by Serbia on trumped up charges, as part of negotiations for a peace treaty with Austria-Hungary.
June–October Western Operation Hush, Abortive British plan to capture coast of Belgium.
June 7–14 Western Second Battle of Messines, the British blow 19 deep mines and recapture Messines Ridge. (Details)
June 10–29 Italian Battle of Mount Ortigara. (Details)
June 12 Politics Constantine I of Greece abdicates.[70]
June 13 Air First successful heavy bomber raid on London done by the Gotha G.IV.
June 25 Western First American troops land in France. (Details)
June 27 Western Batterie Pommern aka. 'Lange Max', world's largest gun fires for the first time from Koekelare to Dunkirk (±50 km).
June 30 Politics Greece declares war on the Central powers. (Details)
July 1–2 Eastern Battle of Zborov, a phase of the Kerensky Offensive. (Details)
July 1–12 Politics Brief monarchist coup and restoration in China, allegedly promoted by Germany to distance China from the Entente. (Details)
July 1–19 Eastern The Kerensky Offensive fails. It is the last Russian initiative in the war.[71] (Details)
July 6 Middle Eastern Arab rebels led by Lawrence of Arabia seize the Jordanian port of Aqaba.[72] (Details)
July 11 Western The Open Letter to Albert I is published by Flemish Movement sympathisers within the Belgian Army on the Yser Front, complaining about official discrimination against Dutch language (Details)
July 16–17 Politics Petrograd July Days.
July 19 Politics The Reichstag passes a Peace Resolution.
July 20 Politics Corfu Declaration about the future Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[73] (Details)
July 21 Politics Alexander Kerensky replaces Georgy Lvov as Minister-President of the Russian Provisional Government.
July 22 Politics Siam declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.[23]
July 22 – August 1 Balkan Battle of Mărăști
July 29 African Battle of Kiawe Bridge.
July 31 Western The Third Battle of Ypres (also known as Battle of Passchendaele) begins. (Details)
July 31 – August 2 Western Battle of Pilckem Ridge (Opening phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
August 2 Asian and Pacific The German raider SMS Seeadler is wrecked at Mopelia in French Polynesia.
August 2–10 African Battle of Rumbo.
August 4 Politics Liberia declares war on Germany.
August 6–20 Balkan Battle of Mărăşeşti. (Details)
August 8–22 Balkan Third Battle of Oituz.
August 14 Politics China declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.[74][23]
August 15–25 Western Battle of Hill 70 (Continuation of British operations near Lens).
August 16–18 Western Second Battle of Langemarck (Initial phase of the Third Battle of Ypres). (Details)
August 17 Asian and Pacific China terminates the German and Austro-Hungarian concessions in Tianjin and occupies them.
August 18–28 Italian Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo. (Details)
August 20–26 Western Second Offensive Battle of Verdun.
September – October Eastern Operation Albion. German capture of Oesel, Dago and Moon Islands.
September 1–3 Eastern Battle of Jugla.
September 5 Asian and Pacific The SMS Seeadler's crew sail to Fiji in a lifeboat and capture the French schooner Lutece, allowing their escape. They rename it Fortuna.
September 5–12 Politics The Third Zimmerwald Conference of the anti-war socialist Zimmerwald Movement, is held in Stockholm. (Details)
September 8–12 Politics Russia: General Kornilov's coup attempt fails. (Details)
September 12 Politics Alexandre Ribot resigns as Prime Minister of France; he is replaced by Paul Painlevé.
September 14 Politics Russia declared a republic.
September 20–26 Western Battle of the Menin Road Ridge (Second phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
September 21 Politics Costa Rica severs relations with Germany.[23]
September 26–27 Western Battle of Polygon Wood (Second phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
September 28–29 Middle Eastern Battle of Ramadi, Mesopotamia. (Details)
October 4 Western Battle of Broodseinde (Second phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
October 5 Asian and Pacific The Fortuna wrecks at Easter Island and its crew is interned by the Chileans.
October 6 Politics Peru severs relations with Germany.[23]
October 7 Politics Uruguay severs relations with Germany.[23]
October 9 Western Battle of Poelcappelle (Last phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
October 12 Western First Battle of Passchendaele (Last phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
October 15 Politics Mata Hari executed.
October 15–18 African Battle of Mahiwa.
October 23 Middle Eastern Battle of Wadi Musa.
October 23 – November 10 Western Battle of La Malmaison, much-postponed French attack on the Chemin des Dames. (Details)
October 24 – November 4 Italian Battle of Caporetto. The Austro-Hungarians and Germans break through the Italian lines. The Italian army is defeated and falls back on the Piave River. (Details)
October 26 Politics Brazil declares war on Germany.[23]
October 26 – November 10 Western Second Battle of Passchendaele (Last phase of the Third Battle of Ypres).
October 27 Middle Eastern Battle of Buqqar Ridge.
October 30 Politics Italy: Vittorio Emanuele Orlando succeeds Paolo Boselli as Prime Minister. (Details)
October 31 – November 7 Middle Eastern Third Battle of Gaza. The British break through the Ottoman lines. (Details)
October 31 Middle Eastern Battle of Beersheba (opening phase of the Third Battle of Gaza). (Details)
November 1–6 Middle Eastern Battle of Tel el Khuweilfe.
November 2 Politics Balfour Declaration: the British government supports plans for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. (Details)
November 5 Politics The Allies agree to establish a Supreme War Council at Versailles.
November 7 Politics October Revolution: Kerensky flees Petrograd just before the Petrograd Soviet seizes the Winter Palace.
Middle Eastern Charge at Sheria.
November 8 Italian Armando Diaz replaces Luigi Cadorna as Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army. (Details)
Middle Eastern Charge at Huj.
November 9 – December 28 Italian First Battle of the Piave: the Austro-Hungarians and Germans try unsuccessfully to cross the river. (Details)
November 10 Western The Third Battle of Ypres (also known as Battle of Passchendaele) ends. (Details)
November 11 – December 23 Italian First Battle of Monte Grappa, Austro-Hungarian offensive halted.
November 13 Politics France: Paul Painlevé is replaced by Georges Clemenceau as Prime Minister. (Details)
Middle Eastern Battle of Mughar Ridge.
November 14 Middle Eastern Battle of Ayun Kara.
November 17 Naval Second Battle of Heligoland Bight, North Sea. (Details)
November 17 – December 30 Middle Eastern Battle of Jerusalem. The British enter the city (December 11). (Details)
November 18–24 Middle Eastern Battle of Nebi Samwil, a phase of the Battle of Jerusalem.
November 19 Italian Battle of Caporetto ends. Central Powers take a quarter of a million prisoners. (Details)
November 20 – December 3 Western First Battle of Cambrai. A British attack and the biggest German attack against the British since 1915 succeed and the battle is a stalemate.[75] (Details)
November 25 African Battle of Ngomano, the Germans invade Portuguese East Africa to gain supplies.
December 1 Middle Eastern Battle of El Burj, a phase of the Battle of Jerusalem.
December 6 Naval Halifax Explosion: An accidental collision between the Norwegian supply ship SS Imo and the French cargo ship SS Mont-Blanc, laden with high explosives for the Western Front, leaves 2,000 dead and 9,000 injured in Richmond, Nova Scotia. It is the largest man-made explosion before the invention of atomic weapons.
December 6 Politics Finland declares independence from Russia.
December 7 Politics The United States declares war on Austria-Hungary.[23]
December 8 Politics Ecuador severs relations with Germany.[23]
December 9 Politics Romania signs an armistice with the Central Powers.
December 10 Politics Panama declares war on Austria-Hungary.[23]
December 11 Middle Eastern General Allenby leads British and Indian troops into Jerusalem, ending 400 years of Ottoman rule.
December 15 Politics Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, to take effect on December 17.
December 16 Politics Armistice of Erzincan between the Ottomans and the Russian Special Transcaucasian Committee.
December 17 Politics Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden wins an enlarged majority in federal elections with the pro-conscription Unionist Party. (Details)
December 20–21 Middle Eastern Battle of Jaffa, a phase of the Battle of Jerusalem. (Details)

1918

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
January 8 Politics Woodrow Wilson outlines his Fourteen Points. (Details)
February to September Middle Eastern Allied forces occupy the Jordan Rift Valley. (Details)
February 9 Politics The Central Powers sign an exclusive protectorate treaty with the Ukrainian People's Republic as part of the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. (Details)
February 15–16 Eastern Battle of Rarancza.
February 18 – March 3 Eastern Operation Faustschlag, last offensive on Eastern Front.
February 19 Middle Eastern British begin their assault on Jericho. (Details)
February 21 Middle Eastern The British capture Jericho. (Details)
Eastern Germans capture Minsk. (Details)
February 24 Eastern Germans capture Zhytomyr. (Details)
February 25 Eastern German troops capture Tallinn. (Details)
February 28 Eastern Germans capture Pskov and Narva. (Details)
March 2 Eastern Germans capture Kiev. (Details)
March 3 Politics At Brest-Litovsk, Leon Trotsky signs the peace treaty with Germany.[76] (Details)
March 4 First known case of what will later be called Spanish flu: Private Albert Gitchell at Camp Funston, Fort Riley, Kansas.
March 7 Western German artillery bombard the Americans at Rouge Bouquet. (Details)
March 8–12 Middle Eastern Battle of Tell 'Asur.
March 8–13 Eastern Battle of Bakhmach.
March 11 Over 100 sick from Spanish flu in Fort Riley; first known case outside in Queens, New York.
March 21 – April 5 Western First phase of the German spring offensive, Operation Michael (also known as Second Battle of the Somme). The Germans obtain a Pyrrhic victory. (Details)
March 21–23 Western The Battle of St. Quentin, first phase of Operation Michael and of the Spring Offensive. (Details)
March 21 – April 2 Middle Eastern First Transjordan attack on Amman.
March 23 – August 7 Western Artillery bombardment of Paris. (Details)
March 24–25 Western First Battle of Bapaume, a phase of Operation Michael. (Details)
March 25 Western First Battle of Noyon, a phase of Operation Michael. (Details)
March 26 Politics French Marshal Ferdinand Foch is appointed Supreme Commander of all Allied forces. (Details)
March 26–27 Western Battle of Rosieres, a phase of Operation Michael. (Details)
Middle Eastern Action of Khan Baghdadi.
March 25 Politics Penza Agreement: The Czechoslovak Legion is given free passage to Vladivostok to join the Entente in return for surrendering most weapons to the Bolsheviks.
March 27–31 Middle Eastern First Battle of Amman, a phase Of The First Transjordan Attack.
March 28 Western Third Battle of Arras (also known as First Battle of Arras (1918)), a phase of Operation Michael. (Details)
March 30 – April 5 Western First Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, a phase of Operation Michael.
March 30 Western Battle of Moreuil Wood.
April 1 Air Royal Air Force founded by combining the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
April 4–5 Western Battle of the Avre, final phase of Operation Michael.
April 7–29 Western Second phase of the Spring Offensive, Operation Georgette (also known as Battle of the Lys). The results are disappointing for the Germans. (Details)
April 7–9 Western Battle of Estaires, first phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 10–11 Western Third Battle of Messines, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 12–13 Western Battle of Hazebrouck, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 13–15 Western Battle of Bailleul, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 14 Politics Ottokar Czernin resigns as Austria-Hungary's Foreign Minister over the Sixtus Affair.
April 17–19 Western First Battle of Kemmelberg, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 18 Western Battle of Bethune, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 21 Air The Red Baron is shot down over Vaux-sur-Somme.
April 23 Politics Guatemala declares war on Germany.[23]
April 24–27 Western Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, a phase of Operation Georgette.
April 25–26 Western Second Battle of Kemmelberg, a phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 28 Politics Gavrilo Princip dies in Terezín prison, from tuberculosis.
April 29 Western Battle of Scherpenberg, final phase of Operation Georgette. (Details)
April 30 – May 4 Middle Eastern Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt.
May 7 Politics Treaty of Bucharest between Romania and the Central Powers. It will never be ratified. (Details)
May 8 Politics Nicaragua declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.[23]
May 10–11 Eastern Battle of Kaniow.
May 14 Politics Clash at Chelyabinsk station between Hungarian POWs heading west to be repatriated and Czechoslovaks going east. Trotsky orders the arrest of the Czechoslovak Legion, but they revolt and seize several towns along the Trans-Siberian Railway. (Details)
May 21 Caucasian Ottomans invade Armenia. (Details)
May 21–29 Caucasian Battle of Sardarabad, a phase of the invasion of Armenia.
Caucasian Battle of Abaran, a phase of the invasion of Armenia.
May 23 Politics Costa Rica declares war on Germany.[23]
May 24–28 Caucasian Battle of Karakilisa, a phase of the invasion of Armenia.
May 27 – June 6 Western Third Battle of the Aisne (also known as Operation Blücher-Yorck, third phase of the Spring Offensive). After initial gains, the German advance is halted. (Details)
May 28 Western Battle of Cantigny.
May 29–31 Balkan Battle of Skra-di-Legen
June 1–26 Western Battle of Belleau Wood, part of the German spring offensive.
June 8 Middle Eastern Action of Arsuf.
Caucasian Ottomans re-enter Tabriz. (Details)
June 8 Politics The Czechoslovak Legion forms the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly in Samara. Stanislav Čeček calls to join forces with anti-Bolshevik Russians to overthrow the Communist government and reignite the Eastern Front. (Details)
June 8 – October Caucasian Germany interferes in the Caucasus. (Details)
June 9–12 Western Fourth phase of the Spring Offensive, Operation Gneisenau (also known as Battle of Matz). Despite substantial territorial gains, the Germans do not achieve their strategic goals (Details)
June 13 Politics Provisional Siberian Government formed in Omsk.
June 15–23 Italian Second Battle of the Piave: the Austro-Hungarian offensive is repelled. (Details)
June 15–31 Caucasian Ottomans occupy Dilman, Khoy and Urmia. (Details.)
June 23 Eastern British and French troops land at Murmansk in Northern Russia. It's the beginning of Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War on the White Army's side. (Details.)
July 4 Western Battle of Hamel.
July 12 Politics Haiti declares war on Germany.[23]
July 14 Middle Eastern Battle of Abu Tellul.
July 15 – August 6 Western Second Battle of the Marne and last German offensive on the Western Front, which fails when the Germans are counterattacked by the French. (Details)
July 15–17 Western Champagne-Marne Offensive (consisting of the Fourth Battle of Champagne and the Battle of the Mountain of Reims), a phase of the Second Battle of the Marne. last phase of the Spring Offensive and last German offensive of World War I. (Details)
July 17 Politics Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks, out of fear that they might be released by Czechoslovak and White troops. (Details)
July 18 Western Battle of Chateau-Thierry, a phase of the Second Battle of the Marne. (Details)
July 18–22 Western Battle of Soissons,a phase of the Second Battle of the Marne. (Details)
July 19 Western Battle of Tardenois, a phase of the Second Battle of the Marne.
Politics Honduras declares war on Germany.[23]
August Spanish flu virus mutates: Simultaneous deadlier outbreaks in Brest, Freetown and Boston.
August 5 Eastern The Czechoslovak People's Army of Komuch takes Kazan from the Bolsheviks and captures the Imperial Russian gold reserve. (Details)
August 8 – November 11 Western Hundred Days Offensive, last offensive on Western Front.
August 8–12 Western Battle of Amiens, first phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
August 9–12 Western Battle of Montdidier.
August 13 – September 3 Italian Battle of San Matteo.
August 17–29 Western Second Battle of Noyon, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
August 21 – September 3 Western Second Battle of the Somme (also known as Third battle of the Somme), a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
August 21–22 Western Third Battle of Albert, opening phase of the Second Battle of the Somme. (Details)
August 21 – September 3 Western Second Battle of Bapaume, a phase of the Second Battle of the Somme.
August 26 – September 3 Western Fourth Battle of Arras (also known as Second Battle of Arras (1918)), a phase of the Second Battle of the Somme (Details)
August 26–30 Western Fourth Battle of the Scarpe (also known as Battle of the Scarpe (1918)), a phase of the Fourth Battle of Arras. (Details)
August 26 – September 14 Caucasian Battle of Baku, last Turkish offensive of the war.
August 30–31 African Battle of Lioma.
August 31 – September 3 Western Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin, a phase of the Second Battle of the Somme.
September 1–2 Western Battle of Peronne, a phase of the Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin. (Details)
September 2–3 Western Battle of Drocourt-Queant Line, final phase of the Second Battle of the Somme. (Details)
September 8–23 Politics Ufa Conference: Formation of the Provisional All-Russian Government with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion.
September 10 Western Battle of Savy-Dallon, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
September 12 Western Battle of Havrincourt, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
September 12–19 Western Battle of Saint-Mihiel, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive.
September 14 Western Battle of Vauxaillon, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
September 14–29 Balkan Vardar Offensive, final offensive on the Balkan Front.
September 15 Balkan The Allies (French and Serbs) break through the Bulgarian lines at Dobro Polje, a phase of the Vardar Offensive. (Details)
September 18 Western Battle of Epehy, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive.
September 18–19 Balkan Third Battle of Doiran, a phase of the Vardar Offensive, The Bulgarians halt the British and Greek advance. (Details)
September 18 – October 17 Western Battle of the Hindenburg Line, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. The Allies break through the German lines. (Details)
September 19–25 Middle Eastern Battle of Megiddo. The British conquer Palestine. (Details)
Middle Eastern Battle of Nablus, a phase of the Battle of Meggido. (Details)
Middle Eastern Third Transjordan attack, a phase of the Battle of Nablus.
Middle Eastern Battle of Sharon, a phase of the Battle of Megiddo.
September 22 Middle Eastern The British capture Jisr ed Damieh in the Battle of Sharon. (Details)
September 25 Middle Eastern The British capture Tiberias during the Battle of Sharon. (Details)
September 19 Middle Eastern Battle of Tulkarm, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
Middle Eastern Battle of Arara, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
September 19–20 Middle Eastern Battle of Tabsor, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
September 20 Middle Eastern Capture of Jenin, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
Middle Eastern British capture both Afulah and Beisan during the Battle of Sharon. (Details)
September 20–21 Middle Eastern Battle of Nazareth, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
September 23 Middle Eastern Battle of Haifa, a phase of the Battle of Sharon. (Details)
September 25 Middle Eastern Battle of Samakh, a phase of the Battle of Sharon.
Middle Eastern Second Battle of Amman, a phase of the Third Transjordan Attack.
September 26 – November 11 Western Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the final phase of the Hundred Days Offensive and of World War I. (Details)
September 26 – October 1 Middle Eastern The British enter Damascus. (Details)
September 26 Western Battle of Somme-Py (Initial phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive). (Details)
Middle Eastern Charge at Irbid, a phase of the Capture of Damascus.
September 26–27 Middle Eastern British capture Deraa during the Capture of Damascus. (Details)
September 27 Middle Eastern Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub, a phase of the Capture of Damascus.
September 27 – October 1 Western Battle of the Canal du Nord, a phase of the Battle of the Hindenburg Line.
September 28 – October 2 Western Fifth Battle of Ypres (also known as Advance on Flanders), a phase of the Battle of the Hindenburg Line.
September 29 – October 10 Western Battle of St. Quentin Canal, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive.
September 30 Politics Bulgaria signs an armistice with the Allies.[77]
Western Battle of Saint-Thierry (Initial phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive). (Details)
Middle Eastern Charge at Kaukab, a phase of the Capture of Damascus.
Middle Eastern Charge at Kiswe, a phase of the Capture of Damascus.
October 3 Politics Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates and Boris III accedes to the throne.
October 3–27 Middle Eastern Pursuit to Haritan.
Western Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge.
October 4 Politics Germany requests an Armistice to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. He demands German withdrawal from all occupied territory, and the Kaiser's abdication.
October 8–10 Western Second Battle of Cambrai (also known as Battle of Cambrai (1918)), a phase of the Battle of the Hindenburg Line. (Details)
October 14–17 Western Battle of Montfaucon (intermediate phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive). (Details)
October 14–19 Western Battle of Courtrai, closing phase of the Hundred Days offensive. (Details)
October 15 Western Battle of Mont-D'Origny, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
October 17–26 Western Battle of the Selle, closing phase of the Hundred Days Offensive.
October 20 Naval Germany suspends submarine warfare. (Details)
Western Battle of Lys and Escaut (Which included the Second Battle of Lys and the Battle of the Escaut), a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
Western Battle of Serre, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
October 23–30 Middle Eastern Battle of Sharqat.
October 24 – November 4 Italian Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The Austro-Hungarian army is routed. The Italians enter Trent and land at Triest. (Details)
October 24–28 Italian Second Battle of Monte Grappa, beginning phase of Vittorio Veneto.
October 25 Middle Eastern Battle of Aleppo. (Details)
October 29 Politics Wilhelm Groener replaces Erich Ludendorff as Hindenburg's deputy. (Details)
Naval Germany's Hochseeflotte mutinies.[78] (Details)
Politics State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs proclaimed. (Details)
October 30 Politics The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros. (Details)
November First Spanish flu cases in Spain, where reports on the disease are published freely due to the lack of wartime censorship.
November 1 Western Battle of Chesne (Closing phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive). (Details)
November 1–2 Western Battle of Valenciennes, closing phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
November 3 Politics Austria-Hungary signs the armistice with Italy, effective November 4.[79]
November 4 Western Battle of the Sambre, closing phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. (Details)
Western Second Battle of Guise, a phase of the Battle of Sambre. (Details)
Western Battle of Thierache, a phase of the Battle of Sambre. (Details)
November 6–11 Western Advance to the Meuse.
November 9 Politics Germany: Kaiser William II abdicates; republic proclaimed.[80] (Details)
November 10 Politics Austria-Hungary: Kaiser Charles I abdicates. (Details)
Balkan Romania renews the war against the Central Powers.[23]
November 11 Politics At 6 am, Germany signs the Armistice of Compiègne. End of fighting at 11 a.m..[81] (Details)
Politics Poland proclaimed.
November 12 Politics Austria proclaimed a republic.
November 14 Politics Czechoslovakia proclaimed a republic. (Details)
Naval German U-boats interned.
African 3 days after the armistice, fighting ends in the East African theater when General von Lettow-Vorbeck agrees a cease-fire on hearing of Germany's surrender. (Details)
November 18 Politics Alexander Kolchak seizes control of the Provisional All-Russian Government in a coup.
November 21 Naval Germany's Hochseeflotte surrendered to the United Kingdom.[78] (Details)
November 22 Western The Germans evacuate Luxembourg.
November 25 African 11 days after agreeing a cease-fire, General von Lettow-Vorbeck formally surrenders his undefeated army at Abercorn in present-day Zambia. (Details)
November 27 Western The Germans evacuate Belgium.
December 1 Politics Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes proclaimed. (Details)

|End of WW1

1919

Dates Theater/Front/Campaign Events
January 5 Asian and Pacific Hermann Detzner surrenders at the Finschhafen District of New Guinea.
January 10 Middle Eastern Fakhri Pasha surrenders at Medina. (Details)
January 18 Politics Treaty of Versailles between the Allies and Germany: the Peace Conference opens in Paris.[82] (Details)
January 25 Politics Proposal to create the League of Nations accepted. (Details)
January 27 Politics The Czechoslovak Legion assumes complete control of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
June 21 Naval German High Seas Fleet (53 ships) scuttled in Scapa Flow with nine deaths, the last casualties of the war.[78] (Details)
June 28 Politics Treaty of Versailles signed.[83] (Details)
July 8 Politics Germany ratifies the Treaty of Versailles.[84] (Details)
July 21 Politics The United Kingdom ratifies the Treaty of Versailles.[85] (Details)
November 10–11 Politics A Banquet in Honour of The President of the French Republic is hosted by King George V and held at Buckingham Palace during the evening hours of November 10. The very first Armistice Day is held on the Grounds of Buckingham Palace on the Morning of November 11. This will set the trend for the later Remembrance Day. (Details)
November 14 Politics The Bolsheviks take Omsk. Kolchak's retreat east is impeded by the Czechoslovaks denying him use of the Trans-Siberian.

1920

Dates Theater/Campaign/Front Events
January 4 Politics A coup in Irkutsk deposes Kolchak. (Details)
January 10 Politics First meeting of the League of Nations held in London. (Details)
Politics Free City of Danzig established.[86] (Details)
January 20 Politics Irkutsk surrenders to the Bolsheviks.
January 21 Politics The Paris Peace Conference ends. (Details)
February 7 Politics Armistice between the Bolsheviks and the Czechoslovak Legion. The Czechoslovaks surrender the Russian gold reserves and Kolchak in return for free passage to Vladivostok. Kolchak and his Prime Minister, Viktor Pepelyayev are executed.
February 10 Politics A plebiscite returns Northern Schleswig to Denmark.[87] (Details)
April 19–26 Politics Conference of Sanremo, Italy, about League of Nations mandates in former Ottoman territories of the Middle East. (Details)
June 4 Politics Treaty of Trianon between the Allies and Hungary. (Details)
August 10 Politics Treaty of Sèvres between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. The treaty is not recognized by the Turkish national movement, which considers the Istanbul government illegitimate.[88] (Details)
September 8 Politics Gabriele D'Annunzio proclaims in Fiume the Italian Regency of Carnaro. (Details)
November 1 Politics League of Nations headquarters moved to Geneva, Switzerland. (Details)
November 12 Politics Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia. Zadar is annexed by Italy and the Free State of Fiume is established. (Details)
November 15 Politics The League of Nations holds its first general assembly. (Details)

Post-1920

Dates Campaign/Front/Theater Events
1921
October 13 Politics Treaty of Kars between Bolshevik Russia and Turkey. (Details)
1922
February 6 Politics Washington Naval Treaty, limiting naval tonnage, signed by France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. (Details)
April 10 – May 19 Politics Genoa Conference. Representatives of 34 countries discuss economics in the wake of the Great War. (Details)
April 16 Politics Treaty of Rapallo between Germany and Bolshevik Russia to normalize diplomatic relations. (Details)
September 11 Politics Treaty of Kars ratified in Yerevan, Armenia. (Details)
1923
June 16 Politics The Russian Civil War ends.
July 24 Politics Treaty of Lausanne between the Allies and Turkey, successor State to the Ottoman Empire. It supersedes the Treaty of Sèvres.[89] (Details)
1924
January 27 Politics Treaty of Rome between Italy and Yugoslavia. Fiume is annexed by Italy and the neighboring town of Sušak is assigned to Yugoslavia. (Details)
2010
October 3 Politics Germany makes final reparations payments. (Details)

Notes

  1. ^ Albertini 1953, p. 38.
  2. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 53.
  3. ^ Lowe 1994, p. 202.
  4. ^ "Kriegserklärung [Declaration of War], Wiener Zeitung [Vienna Newspaper], July 28, 1914, Extraausgabe [Special Edition], Amtlicher Teil [Official Section], 19" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b "Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and Czar Nicholas of Russia exchange telegrams - Jul 29, 1914 - HISTORY.com". Retrieved 2016-10-01.
  6. ^ a b "Historical Events on August 1". OnThisDay.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  7. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 29.
  8. ^ "Telegramm des Reichskanzlers an den Kaiserlichen Botschafter in Petersburg von 1. August 12:52 p.m. Dringend [ Telegram from the Imperial Chancellor to the Imperial Ambassador in Petersburg, August 1, 12:52 p.m. Urgent], in Auswärtiges Amt [Foreign Office], Das Deutsche Weissbuch, über den Ausbruch des Deutsch-Russisch-Französischen Krieges, Nach dem dem Reichstag Vorgelegten Material [The German White Book, on the Outbreak of the German-Russian-French War, According to the Documents Provided to the Reichstag] (Neumünster/Leipzig: Nordische Velagsanstalt, R. Hieronymus, 1914), 46, Anlage [Annex] 26" (PDF).
  9. ^ "The Italian Declaration of Neutrality - World War I Document Archive". wwi.lib.byu.edu. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Denmark | International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)". encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  11. ^ The Treaty of Alliance Between Germany and Turkey 2 August 1914, Yale University
  12. ^ "Occupation of Luxembourg - International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)". 1914-1918-online.net. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Der Reichskanzler an den Botschafter in Paris [The Imperial Chancellor to the Ambassador in Paris], August 3, 1914, in Auswärtiges Amt [Foreign Office], Die Deutschen Dokumente zum Kriegsausbruch [German Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the War], Band [vol.] III, Vom Bekanntwerden der Russischen Allgemeinen Mobilmachung bis Zur Kriegserklärung an Frankreich [From the Publication of the Russian Mobilization to the Declaration of War Against France], (Charlottenburg: Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft für Politik und Geschichte, 1919), 185, No. 734" (PDF).
  15. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 69.
  16. ^ "Note remise par M. [Julien] Davignon, Ministre des Affaires étrangères, à M. de Below Saleske, Ministre d'Allemagne, Bruxelles, le 3 août 1914 (7 heures du matin) [Note Given by M. [Julien] Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. de Below Saleske, Minister of Germany, Brussels, August 3, 1914, 7 in the morning], in Documents Diplomatiques 1914: La Guerre Européenne (Paris: Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, 1914), 202" (PDF).
  17. ^ "August 1914: the outbreak of war". Switzerland and the First World War. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  18. ^ F.A. Kuenzli, Right and Duty, or Citizen and Soldier: Switzerland Prepared and at Peace, A Model for the United States (New York: National Defense Institute, 1916), 94.
  19. ^ "Invasion of Belgium". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-11-18. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  20. ^ "Daily Mirror Headlines: The Declaration of War, Published 4 August 1914". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  21. ^ "Historians attempt to find WWI's first shot deep in Australian waters". ABC. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  22. ^ Neiberg 2005, pp. 54–55.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Duffy, Michael (2009-08-22). "Who Declared War and When". Firstworldwar.com.
  24. ^ "Así se vivió la grerra en España". elmundo.es. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  25. ^ https://ifc.dpz.es/recursos/publicaciones/35/22/10pereira.pdf
  26. ^ "Montenegro Declares War on Germany". World History Project. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  27. ^ "Declaration of War Against Austria-Hungary, Aug. 12, 1914 The war against Austria-Hungary was declared on August 12, 1914, and the Declaration was published in the London Gazette on the following day. Foreign Office, Notice of State of War Between Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, August 12, 1914, Supplement to the London Gazette no. 28868 (August 13, 1914): 6375" (PDF).
  28. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 605.
  29. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 374.
  30. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 445.
  31. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 459.
  32. ^ Farwell 1989, p. 353.
  33. ^ "Austria-Hungary Declares War on Belgium". World History Project. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  34. ^ "Петроград — Энциклопедия "Вокруг света"". www.vokrugsveta.ru. Retrieved 2017-11-13.
  35. ^ Creveld 1977, p. 121.
  36. ^ Tucker 2005, p. xviii.
  37. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 316.
  38. ^ "Foreign Office, Notice of State of War Between Great Britain and Turkey, November 5, 1914, London Gazette no. 28965 (November 6, 1914): 9011".
  39. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 943.
  40. ^ "Rusya Fransa ve İngiltere devletleriyle hal-i harb ilanı hakkında irade-i seniyye [Imperial Decree Concerning the Declaration of a State of War with the States of Russia, France, and the United Kingdom], Nov. 11, 1914 (29 Teşrin-i Evvel 1330), Takvim-i Vekayi, Nov. 12, 1914 (30 Teşrin-i Evvel 1330)" (PDF).
  41. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 407.
  42. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 578.
  43. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1052.
  44. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 299.
  45. ^ Duffy, Michael (2009-08-22). "The Battle of Bolimov, 1915". Firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  46. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 337.
  47. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 564.
  48. ^ a b "Italy Declares War on Germany". World History Project. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  49. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 652.
  50. ^ a b Tucker 2005, p. 653.
  51. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 721.
  52. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 42.
  53. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1139.
  54. ^ "Foreign Office, Notice of State of War Between Great Britain and Bulgaria, October 15, 1915, London Gazette no. 29333 (October 19, 1915): 10257–58".
  55. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 323.
  56. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 660.
  57. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 464.
  58. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1061.
  59. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1431.
  60. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 366.
  61. ^ Kenneth O. Morgan, "7 December 1916: Asquith, Lloyd George and the Crisis of Liberalism." Parliamentary History (2017) 36#3 pp 361-371.
  62. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1092.
  63. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 467.
  64. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1252.
  65. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 344.
  66. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 245.
  67. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 854.
  68. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 855.
  69. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 434.
  70. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 174.
  71. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 632.
  72. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 115.
  73. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1286
  74. ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/china-declares-war-on-germany
  75. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1283.
  76. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 225.
  77. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 242.
  78. ^ a b c Gottschall 2003, p. 265.
  79. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 563.
  80. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 85.
  81. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 84.
  82. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 478.
  83. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 246.
  84. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 414.
  85. ^ Boemeke 1998, p. 566.
  86. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 1223.
  87. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 349.
  88. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 126.
  89. ^ Tucker 2005, p. 674.

See also

References

Further reading

External links

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