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Timeline of Montreal history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The timeline of the history of Montreal is a chronology of significant events in the history of Montreal, Canada's second-most populated city, with about 3.5 million residents in 2018,[1] and the fourth-largest French-speaking city in the world.[2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ A Brief History of Quebec
  • ✪ Canada. History of Canada in a Nutshell.
  • ✪ A Canadian Slavery Story
  • ✪ Timeline : Trips of Jacques Cartier [English]
  • ✪ Revisiting the garment trade at the Museum of Jewish Montreal

Transcription

Quebec is a unique place. It’s a vast, densely populated French-speaking province within a much larger predominantly English speaking country. The people of the province are amongst the first Europeans to arrive in North America. It’s a province which voted not once but twice on whether it should leave Canada, and both times it narrowly failed. With their national holiday coming up in a few days, let’s talk about Quebec. Hi, I'm Tristan, and this is Step Back. Subscribe and hit the bell notification to get history every week. This region which would become Quebec has been lived upon in some form or another for well over 12,000 years. It’s vast territory occupied by a large variety of societies from several diverse nations banded together in the Haudenosaunee, called by the French the Iroquois Confederacy in the south to Inuit people living in Quebec’s frozen north. At least ten indigenous nations we know about lived in this region. What we know about this period comes from a mix of archaeological evidence, and the oral traditions passed down through the nations that lived here. The first people to arrive in Quebec came around the year 11,000 BCE. The people who entered are still quite a mystery. Only a few pieces of archaeological evidence shows they existed at all. They were palaeolithic people, direct ancestors of some of the first souls to cross the bring strait land bridge from Siberia, give or take a few centuries. The Quebec they called home would be alien to us today. This was still the age of mammoths, giant sloths and all that. Quebec, however, was still mostly covered in glaciers in this period. It was not until they began to retreat about 10,000 years ago that the population would increase in a meaningful way. With the retreating of the glaciers, the climate of Quebec started to become a bit more hospitable. We see this connected to a population increase in the region. The Iroquois and Algonquin speaking peoples began to show up in the province in this era. We find specialised tools such as fishing hooks from this period. It wasn’t for many thousands of years before farming came to Quebec. The first farms seemed to show up around 1,300 years ago, with significant crops made of beans, corn, marrow, and sunflowers. Sometime in the 12th century, legendary figures Hiawatha and Deganawidah along with a partially unknown figure named Jigonsaseh formed an alliance between five tribes, the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. The full story of the founding of th e Haudenosaunee Confederacy will be sidelined for this video, because it’s a bit more of an upstate New York story, but also because I think it should be its own video. Comments if you want that! Now let’s talk about the first Europeans to arrive in Quebec. Sometime shortly after the first voyage of Christopher Columbus down in the Caribbean, a French sailor brought back several captured indigenous people indicating there was land in the northern Atlantic. A French explorer named Jacques Cartier took up this interest. Trust me, this is important, there’s a thousand streets and buildings named after him in Quebec. On June 24 of 1534, he and his crew landed in the modern-day Gaspe peninsula, and in a very European fashion claimed the entirety of other people’s territory as the property of the King of France. The next year, he sailed to locations such as modern-day Quebec City and Montreal, meeting the St Lawrence Iroquoian people living there. Over the next six years, the French government didn’t do much, not seeing colonisation of the region a top priority. For a few years, it was just a place fishermen would go for cod and whale oil. They would trade their metal goods with the indigenous people of St Lawrence for fancy furs, which would renew interest in the region. Smelling profit, King Francois I gave a French noble named *deep breath* Jean-Francois de la Rocque de Roberval the task of setting up a colony in these lands he called New France. He failed at the job, and it wouldn't be until the year 1608 Quebec City would be founded by Samuel de Champlain, another person many things are named after in Quebec. It was the first attempt to make a permanent settlement. Now, this was not your typical colonisation story at first. The juice of this colony would be the trade for furs, especially beaver furs which were becoming all the rage back in Europe. Some of the most common people to operate here were freelance traders and hunters called the coureur des bois. There wasn’t much official exploration, but many of these freelancers did it themselves. That being said, its remote location and lack of local knowledge made the first few years pretty deadly. A lot of the most valuable land taken by the crown was passed on down to the Catholic Church. While many English people crossed the Atlantic to get away from feudalism, in New France the church more or less transplanted it. It was a system of people working their land under something called the seigneurial system. Because of this, for a lot of Quebecois history, the Catholic Church would be extremely powerful. The colony had some… difficulties keeping active. A war with England blocked supplies down the St. Lawrence River, and they even lost the territory to the English for a few years before peace could be restored. By the end of the 1600s, there were under 20,000 French settlers all the way from the Mississippi to Newfoundland. A little over half of them were farmers. Many came only for a few seasons to fish and trade furs and then go back to France. Women rarely crossed, and those who did were mostly nuns. It got so bad the King had to incentivise and pay for around 800 young French women to go over, with hopes they'd get married and convince people to stay in New France. There are a lot of legends about these girls, and claiming lineage to these Filles du Roi or “the king’s daughters” is a small part of having real French Canadian cred. Still, New France existed as a backwater place only good for sending resources back to France. The story was different down south. By the mid-1700s, the British had grown their North American colonies into pretty much its own country. New France had 10 times the size of those 13 colonies, but only about 1/10th the population. This was the situation when France and England went to war in 1754. This global conflict called the Seven Years War (or French and Indian War to Americans) would feature several significant battles in Quebec. With control of the Atlantic, the British were able to overpower the French in North America. It came to ahead with a massive siege of Quebec City. The troops met in a climactic clash known as the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Both the leader of the French, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and the British General James Wolfe died in the battle. The British then proceeded to occupy New France, and the people living there would never be part of the French Empire ever again. The War ended with the Treaty in Paris, which ceded all of Canada to the British, and King George III set out to set up a government there. This is a significant event in Quebecois history, especially to Quebec nationalists. To them, the Planes of Abraham is when they lost everything, and their oppression by the English began. The Planes are also now a park, there’s music festivals there and stuff. Seriously, go to Quebec City if you haven’t, it’s gorgeous. The British would rule over Quebec for the next century. The Quebecois didn’t seem mind a whole lot as long as they were allowed to speak French and practice Catholicism. They also to this day were allowed to keep the French legal system. It was the first time any territory other than Quebec city got the name Quebec. This all formalised in the 1774 Quebec Act. Another reason the Quebecois got so many concessions, is because trouble was brewing down south. In 1775, the American Revolutionary War began, and Quebec was in the crosshairs of the American military. Their goal was to “liberate” the French from British rule. During the campaign in Quebec, the even managed to get a few regiments of Quebecois troops to fight for them. The Americans conquered Montreal but were defeated at Quebec city and forced to retreat. Don’t worry, they would try again in the War of 1812. After the war, Quebec and the rest of Canada became a landing place for many loyalist refugees. Most of them were settled where I am now, in what would become southern Ontario. Since they were a sizeable English community in a French-speaking province, they successfully broke off into what would eventually become Ontario, but in this period called them lower and upper Canada. This also oddly resulted in the only elected government in the colonial government in Lower Canada which would become Quebec. Within it, a nationalist liberal political group called the Parti Canadien led rebellions in 1837 and 1838. The uprising was driven by an extreme group of them known as the Parti Patriote. They didn’t succeed in much but the imposition of martial law until 1840. It resulted in a lot of reforms, and tighter control by the English colonial administration. This was also a period when many new immigrants from the British Isles began to arrive in Quebec, creating a sizeable anglophone minority that exists to this day. To further curb the power of French Canadians, the High Commissioner of Canada Lord Durham united Upper and Lower Canada, with a single governing body in Montreal, which then was moved to Toronto after a mob set that seat of government on fire in 1849. Then we get to the big year 1867. After some negotiation, the colonial provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada joined into a new country called the Dominion of Canada. This was when Quebec finally got the name of Quebec. Canada was now a country... kinda. It took care of its own affairs, but foreign policy was still under the control of the United Kingdom. Quebec the Canadian province was dominated mainly by the church. Most hospitals, charities, and French language schools were run by it. The Quebecois people protested when they detected Anti-French oppression in the execution of Louis Riel in the famous Metis rebellion in Saskatchewan… a future video I'm sure… Quebec politics often was about trying to gain autonomy for the French population and curb the centralisation of Canada. There was a lot of victories, as Canada is a remarkably decentralised country today. Canada’s first French Canadian Prime Minister was Wilfrid Laurier elected in 1896. He fought the influence of the church in Quebec and dealt with French opposition to Canada’s participation in the Boer War. This would be even stronger when Quebec rioted against conscription during the First World War. Hey, folks just wanna duck in for a second to let you know Step Back grows through word of mouth, so if there’s a friend, family member, teacher, or internet community you know who might like a Step Back video, be sure to show them! Canada and Quebec also took a hard hit from the great depression. Quebec saw a massive move to reactionary politics. Quebecois people doubled down on their loyalty to the church, and Quebec nationalism became a traditionalist movement, trying to keep the old ways against a changing world. The people of Quebec elected a man named Maurice Duplessis for fifteen years who deepened church and state relations and fought with unions and intellectuals. Because of his doubling down on traditionalist values, Quebec was insular, abortion was illegal, and divorce would be outlawed until 1968. However, the baby boomer Quebecois would fight this. During the 1960s, Quebec went through something called the Quiet Revolution. During this period of reform, Quebec secularised, liberalised, and tied these changes to a new Quebec identity. The province of Quebec signed an international agreement with Paris, and the Quebecois people protested a visit from the Queen. And of course, with a spike in nationalism, we get a spike in violence. In 1963, the Front de Liberation du Quebec or the FLQ set off bombs in Montreal. This escalated until 1970 when the FLQ kidnapped a cabinet minister and a British diplomat, killing the former. Prime-Minister Trudeau. Not him his dad, I thought we solved this in the last Quebec video. Imposed martial law on Quebec and invoked the war measures act. Nationalism, however, was still on the rise. A new ministry of culture was founded with the goal of preserving French culture. In 1968, the nationalist Parti Quebecois was established and still exists to this day. Support for more nationalism and separatist ideas circulated throughout the late 60s and 70s, resulting in a failed referendum on separation in 1980. In the early 80s, Canada brought home and ratified its own constitution. All 9 provinces except for Quebec signed it. Whenever talks of the Canadian constitution arose, Quebec’s status within Canada would become a central issue. In the 80s and early 90s, the Mulroney Progressive Conservative government in Ottawa tried to bring Quebec into the fold with constitutional accords in Meech Lake and Charlottetown, but these quickly broke down. In 1995, there was a second referendum, and it only failed by the slimmest of margins. I have a whole video about this, so if you want more info, go there. Indigenous people today live in small scattered communities, focused primarily in rural areas around the province. Though this isn’t always the case. The Mohawk reserve of Kahnawake is pretty much a suburb of Montreal. Like the rest of Canada, the treatment of indigenous peoples is a horrific national shame which we should be pointing out at every possible opportunity. For example, let’s talk about the Oka Crisis! In 1990 The city of Oka decided to expand a golf course over a plot of disputed land which belonged to the Mohawk nation. This was done without a single environmental study or attempt at historic preservation. Mohawk community members rallied to defend their territory by blockading access to the land. The Quebec police responded with tear gas and concussion grenades. A firefight broke out, and the Mohawk people managed to drive back the police. The RCMP, our federal police were called in and also overwhelmed. They even called in the military to make sure that golf course on indigenous sovereign land could be built. A peace deal was eventually kinda reached. The golf course was cancelled, and the land purchased by the federal government. This Oka Crisis made news around the country and in a brief and in this country way too few and far between moment, we saw a little bit of the horrible conditions and violations we inflict on our indigenous communities. Hey Justin, how you liking that oil pipeline? In more recent times, Quebec has lost a lot of its support for separation. The federal government passed a motion declaring the Quebecois the status of a nation within Canada. The Liberal government in Quebec tried to raise tuition, which resulted in massive protests under the red square movement. I remember this well because I was IN student government in Quebec at this time. It led to the separatist Parti Quebecois getting elected, with the provinces first female premier Pauline Marois. I gotta put my cards on the table, I wasn’t a fan, what with the trying to choke my small English university out of existence through austerity, and blatantly racist islamophobic laws, but whatever. Her government only lasted a couple years anyway. And so yeah, we come to today. Quebec is having issues dealing with a rise in far-right groups, especially those of the neo-nazi and islamophobic variety. A white supremacist committed a mass shooting of a mosque in 2017, and Quebec goes to the polls this year with an expected wave of right-wing support. But yeah, for all it is, Quebec is a fantastic part of Canada. It’s unique culture and place in the country is core to what Canada is, and so I wanted to tell their story. If there’s another province I should do, just ask in the comments. I wanna thank 12 tone for the theme song as well as patrons Don and Kerry Johnson, Kolbeinn Mani, Scott Smith, Martin King, and Michael Kirschner. Revenez la semaine prochaine pour plus de Step Back.

Contents

Pre-European period

  • The area known today as Montreal had been inhabited by Algonquin, Huron, and Iroquois for some 2,000 years, while the oldest known artifact found in Montreal proper is about 2,000 years old.[3]
  • In the earliest oral history, the Algonquin migrated from the Atlantic coast, arriving, together with other Anicinàpek, at the "First Stopping Place" (Montréal). There, the Nation found a "turtle-shaped island" marked by miigis (cowrie) shells.
  • The Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee, were centred, from at least 1000 CE, in northern New York, and their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montreal area of modern Quebec.[4]
  • 1142 – The Iroquois Confederacy is, from oral tradition, said to have been formed in 1142 CE.[5]
  • In the modern Iroquois language, Montréal is called Tiohtià:ke. Other native languages, such as Algonquin, refer to it as Moniang.[6]
  • The St. Lawrence Iroquoians established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal.[7]

16th century

  • 1535 – Jacques Cartier renames the Saint Lawrence River in honour of Saint Lawrence on August 10, the feast day of the Roman martyr. Prior to this, the Saint Lawrence River had been known by other names, including Hochelaga River and Canada River; Cartier penetrates far into the interior for the first time, via the river.
  • 1535 – September 19, Cartier starts his journey from Quebec City to Montreal, while in search of a passage to Asia.
  • 1535 – Cartier visits Hochelaga on October 2, claiming the St. Lawrence Valley for France.[8] He becomes the first European to reach the area now known as Montréal when he enters the village of Hochelega. Cartier estimates the population to be "over a thousand".
  • 1535 – October 3, Cartier climbs up the mountain on the Île de Montréal and names it Mont Royal; the name Montréal is generally thought to be derived from "Mont Royal", the name given to the mountain by Cartier in 1535.
  • 1556 – On his map of Hochelega, Italian geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio writes "Monte Real" to designate Mont Royal.
  • 1580 – The St. Lawrence Iroquoians appear to have vacated the Saint Lawrence River Valley sometime prior to 1580.

17th century

1610–1629

1609 scene, including self-portrait, reprinted from Deffaite des Yroquois au Lac de Champlain (Defeat of the Iroquois of Lake Champlain), drawn by Samuel de Champlain (1613)
1609 scene, including self-portrait, reprinted from Deffaite des Yroquois au Lac de Champlain (Defeat of the Iroquois of Lake Champlain), drawn by Samuel de Champlain (1613)

1630–1649

Jean de Lauzon
Jean de Lauzon
Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge
Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge
Jeanne Mance, Maisonneuve Monument
Jeanne Mance, Maisonneuve Monument

1650–1669

Louis Prud'homme
Louis Prud'homme

1670–1689

Louis Jolliet statue, Parliament Building (Quebec)
Louis Jolliet statue, Parliament Building (Quebec)
1672 street grid survey of Ville-Marie
1672 street grid survey of Ville-Marie

1690s

  • 1690 – February 8: Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville leads more than 160 French Canadians and 100 Indian warriors to Schenectady, New York which they attack and burn in retaliation for the Lachine Massacre.
  • 1690 – The Citadel, Montreal built.
  • 1694 – Louis Tantouin de la Touche is named subdelegate of the intendant.
  • 1694 – Frères Hospitaliers de la Croix et de Saint-Joseph, known after their founder as the Frères Charon, founded.
  • 1694 – Louis-Hector de Callière is awarded the cross of Saint-Louis. During his years as governor of Montreal, the Iroquois war has enhanced the importance of that position.
  • 1694 – François Vachon de Belmont completes the mission on the slopes of Mount Royal. Its circular stone fortress towers still stand on the grounds of the Grand Seminary on Sherbrooke Street.
  • 1695 – Nicolas Perrot brings the Miami, Sauk, Menominee, Potawatomi and Fox chiefs to Montreal at the governor's request, regarding war with the Iroquois.
  • 1695 – Saint-Charles-Sur-Richelieu is granted to Zacharie-François Hertel, Sieur de la Fresnière (March 1).
  • 1696 – Fire at Fort de la Montagne. The Hurons are transferred to Fort Lorette.
  • 1696 – Jacques Le Ber is ennobled.
  • 1698 – A chapel dedicated to St. Anne is founded at the south end of Murray street. Le Quartier Ste-Anne becomes infamous as a den of licentiousness, and the clergy restricts the sale of liquor around the chapel.
  • 1698 – Bishop Saint-Vallier, returning from France, accompanies two English gentlemen, one of them a Protestant minister, on a visit to Jeanne Le Ber.
  • 1700 – At the turn of the 18th century Montreal's population is about 1,500 souls, which gradually grows to about 7,500 in the year 1760, at the time of the British conquest.
  • 1700 – Gédéon de Catalogne is employed by the Sulpicians in October to dig the Lachine Canal.
  • 1700–31 – François Vachon de Belmont is the fifth superior of the Montreal Sulpicians.

18th century

1701–1719

  • 1701 – August 4, The Great Peace of Montreal : The French and Native Americans from across the continent conclude a historic alliance, at Pointe-à-Callière.
  • 1705 – Montreal is now the official name for the city formerly named Ville-Marie.
  • 1705 – Place Royale is designated as a marketplace.
  • 1706 – After 1706, deforestation along the riverbank is advanced enough that the opening of a road along the lake, from La Présentation to the tip of the Île de Montréal, is decreed.
  • 1709 – Slavery becomes legal in New France.
  • 1711 – The court orders the construction of a stone wall around the city.
  • 1713 – Jurisdiction of the Government of Montreal begins to the west of Maskinongé, Quebec and Yamaska and ends at the extremity of the inhabited area, namely fort Saint-Jean, Châteauguay and Vaudreuil.
  • 1713 – Michel Bégon decides to erect stone fortifications. The wooden walls are replaced with stone due to the threat of British attack.
  • 1713 – Pointe-Claire parish is first established in the name of St. Francis of Sales and dedicated to St. Joachim the following year.
  • 1717–1744 – Stone fortifications were erected according to plans by the architect Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry. The fortifications correspond roughly to the present-day limits of Old Montreal, with Rue Berri to the east, Rue de la Commune to the south, Rue McGill to the west, and Ruelle de la Fortification to the north.
  • 1719 – Pointe-aux-Trembles windmill is built at the corner of Notre-Dame Street and Third Avenue. Its three storeys make it the tallest windmill in Quebec that still stands.

1720–1739

1740–1759

Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand
Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand

1760–1779

1780–1800

  • 1783 – The North West Company of Montreal is officially created.
  • 1783 – A lottery is started in Montreal to defray the cost of a new jail.
  • 1783 – Fleury Mesplet gets out of prison in September.
  • 1785 – Fleury Mesplet founds the newspaper The Montreal Gazette / Gazette de Montréal on August 28.
  • 1785 – In February, the Beaver Club is formed by members of the North West Company.
  • 1785 – A dark day on October 10. Candles are lighted at noon.
  • 1785 – Maison Papineau (or Maison John-Campbell) is built at 440 Bonsecours Street. It will be modified in 1831 and 1965.
  • 1786 – John Molson founds the Molson Brewery.
  • 1786 – Allen's Company of Comedians is the first professional theatre company to perform in the city.
  • 1787 – Prince William Henry, later William IV, arrives at Montreal on September 8.
  • 1787–1811 – John Reid is justice of the peace for the district of Montreal, which governs Montreal's affairs.
  • 1788 – The Gazette, formerly a French journal, appears in English.
  • 1789 – Lord Grenville proposes that land in Upper Canada be held in free and common soccage, and that the tenure of Lower Canadian lands be optional with the inhabitants.
  • 1789 – May 4 – The justices of the peace, who govern Montreal's affairs, order "the price and assize of bread, for this month" to be: "the white loaf of 4lbs. at 13d., or 30 sous", etc., and that bakers of the city and suburbs do conform thereto, and mark their bread with their initials.
  • 1789 – Christ Church opens for service on December 20.
  • 1791 – Edmund Burke supports the proposed constitution for Canada, saying that "To attempt to amalgamate two populations, composed of races of men diverse in language, laws and habitudes, is complete absurdity. Let the proposed constitution be founded on man's nature, the only solid basis for an enduring government."
  • 1792 – December 20 – a fortnightly mail is established between Canada and the United States.
  • 1792 – Opening of the first post office in Montreal on 20 December.
  • 1793 – Importation of slaves into Canada is prohibited on July 9.
  • 1799 – Mary Griffin obtains the lease to Griffintown from a business associate of Thomas McCord.
  • 1799 – The census of 1799 lists 9,000 inhabitants while that of 1761 lists 5,500.
  • 1799 – Citizens of Montreal petition to secure master's rights over slaves
  • 1799 – A measure respecting slavery in Lower Canada does not pass.
  • 1799 – Of twenty-one members of Council, in Lower Canada, six are French Canadians.
  • 1799 – The Court House is completed.
  • 1799 – January 3 – Parliament appropriates $5,000 for a new Montreal Court House.
  • 1800 – Alexander Skakel moves from Quebec City to Montreal and establishes the Classical and Mathematical School. This was the principal educational institution for the English-speaking population.
  • 1800 – Thomas Walker is elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada for Montreal County.
  • 1800 – Thomas Porteous (merchant) purchases the seigneury of Terrebonne.

19th century

1801–1819

  • 1802 The first unofficial cavalry corps is formed in Montreal.
  • 1803–15 – With the Napoleonic Wars comes a demand for large amounts of squared timber for shipbuilding. Montreal is able to fulfil the demand, and this expansion of the city's economic base is reflected in a rise in population to 26,154 by the year 1825.
  • 1804–17 – The demolition of Montreal's fortifications takes 13 years, from 1804 to 1817.
  • 1805 – Thomas McCord returns to Montreal and recovers his land, which has been divided by Mary Griffin into streets and lots. The name Griffintown sticks.
  • 1805 – Thomas Porteous (merchant) opens a store at Sainte-Thérèse-de-Blainville, where he also produces potash.
  • 1807 – May – The Canadian Courant and Montreal Advertiser are first issued; owner and editor: Nahum Mower.
  • 1807 – The brothers James and Charles Brown begin publishing the Canadian Gazette/Gazette canadienne in July.
  • 1807 – An Act provides for a new market house in Montreal.
  • 1808 – In early 1808, sick and in debt, Edward Edwards sells the Montreal Gazette to the Browns, who the following month announce their plan to revive it.
  • 1808 – Importation of slaves is banned.
  • 1808 – July 12 – 5 privates of the 100th Regiment, Montreal, are charged with desertion and are transported as felons to New South Wales for 7 years, afterwards to serve as soldiers in that colony.
  • 1808-11 – A new prison is built.
  • 1809 – August 17 – The foundation of Nelson's Column is laid in Montreal. Installed on Place Jacques-Cartier, this is the second monument to be erected in Montreal.
  • 1809 – November 3 – John Molson's steamboat PS Accommodation sails from Montreal to Quebec. It is 85 feet over all, has a 6 horse-power engine, makes the distance in 36 hours, but stops at night and reaches Quebec on the 6th. The PS Accommodation is the second steamboat in America and probably in the world. The fare for an adult is £2.10s.od =$10.
  • 1810 – John Jacob Astor founds the Pacific Fur Company. (His great-grandson, John Jacob Astor IV died on the RMS Titanic).
  • 1811 – Founding of the newspaper the Montreal Herald by William Grey and Mungo Kay, founders, owners and publishers.
  • 1812 – June 18 – The United States declares war against Great Britain over territorial disputes in Canada (War of 1812).
  • 1812 – July 11 – U.S. troops invade Canada.
  • 1814 – The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain.
  • 1815 - John Molson builds the luxurious Mansion House Hotel on Rue St. Paul.
  • 1815 – March – Parliament votes $25,000 for Lachine Canal.
  • 1816 – Population of Montreal is about 16,000.
  • 1816 – The National School is opened.
  • 1816 – May 14 – Thomas A. Turner and Robert Armour, Esq., are appointed commissioners for the improvement of internal navigation between Montreal and Lachine, under the Provincial Act 48 George III,c. 19.
  • 1816-18 – John Coape Sherbrooke is the Governor General of British North America; Sherbrooke Street and the town of Sherbrooke later named after him.
  • 1817 – The Bank of Montreal begins operations in June. Mary Griffin's husband, Robert, is the first clerk.
  • 1817 – Guy Street is named on August 30 for Étienne Guy, a notary who gave the city the land for the street.
  • 1818 – Saint Helen's Island was purchased by the British government. Fort de l'Île Sainte-Hélène was built on the island as defences for the city, in consequence of the War of 1812.
  • 1819 – Darkness at noon on November 9.[clarification needed]

1820–1839

  • 1821 – The Earl of Dalhousie presents Dalhousie Square to Montreal
  • 1821 – March 31 – McGill University established by Royal Charter.
  • 1821 – Beginning of Lachine Canal excavations on July 17.
  • 1821 – The British garrison starts the construction of the Fort de l'Île Sainte-Hélène. It is completed in 1823 and partially rebuilt in 1863 after a fire as a preventive measure against an eventual American attack.
  • 1822 – The first iron bridge is erected on March 8.
  • 1822 – May 1 – The Montreal General Hospital building is completed.
  • 1822 – In September, a whale (42 feet 8 inches in length, 6 feet across the back, and 7 feet deep) finds its way up the Saint Lawrence River.
  • 1824 – Recollet Convent opens as a school for Irish children.
  • 1824 – First Saint Patrick's Day Parade organized on March 17.
  • 1824 – Construction on the new Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal) begins, designed by New York architect James O'Donnell, an Irish Protestant.
  • 1825 – The Lachine Canal is opened, and new industries spring up in the St. Antoine ward area as a direct outcome of the easier transport of goods. Shipping immediately increases and, along with the destruction of the city walls, Montreal comes to be an economic, rather than military, city. Gradually, the city's harbour facilities expand. In 1830 the wharves are rudimentary and stretched for only a short distance along De la Commune Street.
  • 1825 – First permanent theatre building in Montreal, Theatre Royal, is built by John Molson to attract bigger names to the city, which lacked such a venue. It costs the magnate $30,000. The building is demolished in 1844 and the site was used for the Bonsecours Market. Another venue, also called Theatre Royal, was built not far away in Old Montreal; this building, too, no longer exists.
  • 1826–37 and 1842–99 – La Minerve published.
  • 1827 – Fleming windmill (13, avenue Strathyre) built.
  • 1829 – Most of Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal) is now completed. Work continues for more than a decade on the two bell towers. A new skyline begins to develop.
  • 1830 – The Montreal harbour is officially incorporated.
  • 1831 – Alexis de Tocqueville visits Montreal in August–September.
  • 1832 – Charter of incorporation for the city of Montreal (27,000 inhabitants).
Acte pour incorporer la Cité de Montréal
Acte pour incorporer la Cité de Montréal

1840–1859

1860–1879

1880–1900

Monument Maisonneuve
Monument Maisonneuve
  • 1895 – The monument in memory of Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, by artist Louis-Philippe Hébert, was unveiled on July 1 on Place d'Armes.
  • 1896 – Motion pictures are first shown in Canada for the first time at the Palace Theatre at 972 St. Lawrence, corner Viger, on June 27.
  • 1897 – Lion of Belfort (Montreal) unveiled on May 24.
  • 1897 – A survey of living conditions is conducted by Mr. Herbert Brown Ames. He points out the discrepancy in living conditions between wealthy areas of Montreal ('the upper city') and the areas inhabited by the working class ('the city below the hill'): "The sanitary accommodation of 'the city below the hill' is a disgrace to any nineteenth century city on this or any other continent. I presume there is hardly a house in all the upper city without modern plumbing, and yet in the lower city not less than half the homes have indoor water-closet privileges. In Griffintown only one home in four is suitably equipped, beyond the canal (in Pointe-Saint-Charles) it is but little better. Our city by-law prohibits the erection of further out-door closets, but it contains no provision for eradicating those already in use."
  • 1897 – Canadian Car and Foundry's history goes back to 1897, but the main company is established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later becomes part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase of Avro Canada in the late 1950s.
  • 1898 – Place Viger constructed.
  • 1898 – Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal founded on June 1.
  • 1898–1903 – Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church built.
  • 1899 – The Montreal Shamrocks win the Stanley Cup.
  • 1899 – Incorporation of Loyola College on March 10.
  • 1899 – October 30 – The First Canadian Contingent of the Boer War sets sail to South Africa on the SS Sardinian of the Allan Line, bearing Canada's initial quota of fighting men, including the men of "E Company" of Montreal.
  • 1899 – In the afternoon of November 21, Montrealers see their first car. At the wheel of this first steam-powered automobile is Ucal-Henri Dandurand, accompanied by Mayor Raymond Préfontaine. They descend steep Côte du Beaver Hall without difficulty and climb back up through the streets in the same fashion.
  • 1899 – Construction of a dam in the Old Port of Montreal: there will be no more flooding.
  • 1900 – The Montreal Shamrocks win the Stanley Cup.

20th century

1901–1919

1920–1939

1940–1959

1960–1979

1980–1999

21st century

2001–2019

See also

References

  1. ^ Pariona, Amber (1 June 2018). "The Largest Cities in Canada". WorldAtlas.com. World Atlas. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  2. ^ Reza, Zainab (1 August 2017). "The Largest Francophone Cities in the World". WorldAtlas.com. World Atlas. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Place Royale and the Amerindian presence". Société de développement de Montréal. September 2001. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
  4. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia, Iroquois
  5. ^ Bruce E. Johanson, Dating the Iroquois Confederacy
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-31. Retrieved 2008-05-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Tremblay, Roland (2006). The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians. Corn People. Montreal, Qc: Les Éditions de l'Homme.
  8. ^ "Jacques Cartier: New Land for the French King". Pathfinders & Passageways. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  9. ^ (in French) "La Première messe sur île de Montréal - 24 juin 1615" Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Ontario's Pioneer Priest" by John J. O'Gorman Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Sneath, Allen Winn (2001). ""Brewing in the New Land"". Brewed in Canada. Toronto and Oxford: The Dundurn Group. pp. 21–22.
  12. ^ [Roland Auger, La Grande Recrue de 1653; Publications de la Société généalogique canadienne-française; Montreal, 1955.]
  13. ^ NRC. "New France circa 1740 Archived 2007-12-10 at the Wayback Machine", in The Atlas of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 2003-10-06. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
  14. ^ Le Quebec et Bourgues
  15. ^ Societe d'Histoire de la Region de Terrebonne
  16. ^ Theatre and Politics in Modern Quebec (1989) by Elaine Nardoccio
  17. ^ Smith (1907), vol 1, p. 474
  18. ^ Shelton, pp. 122–127
  19. ^ Stanley, p. 131
  20. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19380719&id=1JEjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=dqgFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6052%2C2123265
  21. ^ "CRTC Origins". Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2008-09-05. Archived from the original on 2012-01-10. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
  22. ^ Census of Canada, 1941, Census of Canada, 1951
  23. ^ Census of Canada, 1961
  24. ^ Census of Canada, 1971
  25. ^ "A Short History of Toronto". City of Toronto. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
  26. ^ Statistics Canada (2002). "Community Highlights for Montréal". Retrieved 2007-02-22.

External links

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