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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tiger Force
Country United States
BranchUnited States Army
TypeSpecial Operations Forces
RoleSpecial Reconnaissance, Counter-Insurgency, Direct Action, Raids
Size45
Part ofU.S. XVIII Airborne Corps
Garrison/HQFort Campbell (1st Battalion, 327th Infantry, 1st Brigade)
EngagementsVietnam War
Decorations
Streamer PUC Army.PNG
United States Presidential Unit Citation
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Gerald Morse

Tiger Force was the name of a long-range reconnaissance patrol unit[1] of the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry, 1st Brigade (Separate), 101st Airborne Division, which fought in the Vietnam War from May to November 1967.[2] The unit gained notoriety after investigations during the course of the war and decades afterwards revealed extensive war crimes against civilians, which numbered into the hundreds.[3]

Composition

The platoon-sized unit, approximately 45 paratroopers, was founded by Colonel David Hackworth in November 1965 to "outguerrilla the guerrillas".[4] Tiger Force (Recon) 1-327th was a highly decorated small unit in Vietnam, and paid for its reputation with heavy casualties.[5] In October 1968, Tiger Force's parent battalion was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which included a mention of Tiger Force's service at Đắk Tô in June 1966.[6]

Investigations of war crimes

On October 19, 2003, Michael D. Sallah, a reporter at The Blade (Toledo) newspaper, obtained unreleased, confidential records of U.S. Army commander Henry Tufts. One file in these records referred to a previously unpublished war crimes investigation known as the Coy Allegation. To investigate this further, Sallah gained access to a large collection of documents produced by the investigation held at the National Archives in College Park, MD.[7]

Sallah found that between 1971 and 1975, the Army's Criminal Investigation Command had investigated the Tiger Force unit for alleged war crimes committed between May and November 1967.[8] The documents included sworn statements from many Tiger Force veterans, which detailed war crimes allegedly committed by Tiger Force members during the Song Ve Valley and Operation Wheeler military campaigns. The statements, from both individuals who allegedly participated in the war crimes and those that did not, described war crimes such as the following:

  • the routine torture and execution of prisoners[9]
  • the routine practice of intentionally killing unarmed Vietnamese villagers including men, women, children, and elderly people[10]
  • the routine practice of cutting off and collecting the ears of victims[11]
  • the practice of wearing necklaces composed of human ears[12]
  • the practice of cutting off and collecting the scalps of victims[13]
  • incidents where soldiers would plant weapons on murdered Vietnamese villagers[14]
  • an incident where a young mother was drugged, raped, and then executed[15]
  • an incident where a soldier killed a baby and cut off his or her head after the baby's mother was killed[16]

The investigators concluded that many of the war crimes indeed took place.[17] This included the murder of former-ARVN personnel, the murder of two blind brothers, the crippled and old and the routine murder of women and children.[3] Despite this, the Army decided not to pursue any prosecutions.[18]

Their high bodycounts were recognized and encouraged by military officials. Col. Morse ordered troops to rack up a body count of 327 casualties in order to match the battalion's infantry designation, 327th;[3] however by the end of the campaign soldiers were congratulated for their 1000th kill.[19] Those killed were listed as enemy combatants under the body count system.[3]

After studying the documents, Sallah and fellow reporter Mitch Weiss located and interviewed dozens of veterans who served in Tiger Force during the period in question as well as the CID investigators who later carried out the Army's inquiry. The reporters also traveled to Vietnam and tracked down numerous residents of Song Ve Valley who identified themselves as witnesses. Sallah and Weiss reported that the war crimes were corroborated by both veterans[20] and Song Ve Valley residents.[21] The reporters also managed to track down dozens of additional investigative records not included in the National Archives.

In October 2003, the reporters published their findings in a series of articles in The Toledo Blade.[22] Subsequently, The New York Times performed their own investigation, contacting a few Tiger Force veterans and corroborating The Toledo Blade's findings.[23]

Since The Blade's story, the United States Army has opened a review of the former Tiger Force investigation, but has not yet provided much additional information. On May 11, 2004, Lt. Col. Pamela Hart informed The Blade reporters that she had been too busy responding to prisoner abuse by U.S. soldiers in Iraq to check on the status of the Tiger Force case.[24] The Blade has not reported on any more recent updates from the U.S. Army.

Reporters Michael D. Sallah, Mitch Weiss, and Joe Mahr received multiple awards for their series:

In 2006, Sallah, now an investigative reporter with The Washington Post, and Weiss, an investigative reporter with the Associated Press, co-authored a book chronicling their findings: Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War (2006). He is currently on the national investigations team for Gannett/USA Today Network.[29]

Partial list of members 1965–1969

  • Lt. Col. David Hackworth,[30] unit founder
  • Lt. Col. Harold Austin[31]
  • Lt. Col. Joseph Collins[31]
  • John "Dynamite" Hughes (original member)[31]
  • Lt. Col. Gerald Morse[31] (radiocall = Ghost Rider, retired in 1979) Battalion commander, and not an actual member of the team.
  • Capt. Carl James[31]
  • Capt. Harold McGaha[31]
  • Capt. Bradford Mutchler[31]
  • Lt. Dennis Foley
  • Lt. Gary Forbes[31]
  • Lt. James Hawkins (Implicated in leading nearly all controversial events) [31]
  • Lt. James A. Gardner (awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously) killed in action, before any of the controversial events
  • Lt. William F. Kernan
  • Lt. Stephen Naughton[31]
  • Lt. Edward Sanders[31]
  • Lt. Donald Wood[31] (whistleblower)
  • Lt. Skip Franks[31] (whistleblower)
  • Ssg. John G. Gertsch (awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously) killed in action
  • Sgt. James Barnett[31]
  • PFC David J Broadhead (awarded silver star, bronze star) KIA 2/7/66
  • Sgt. Gerald Bruner[31] (whistleblower)
  • Sgt. Robert Diaz[31]
  • Sgt. William Doyle[31]
  • Sgt. Benjamin Edge[31]
  • Sgt. Charles Fulton[31]
  • Sgt. Kenneth Green
  • SFC. Terry Gammage
  • Sgt. James Haugh[31]
  • Sgt. Leo Heaney[31]
  • Sgt. Eric Walker[31] missing in action
  • Sgt. Ervin Lee[31]
  • Sgt. Forrest Miller[31]
  • Sgt. Ernest Moreland[31]
  • Sgt. Domingo Munoz[31] KIA 7/28/67
  • Sgt. Terry Lee Oakden[31]
  • Sgt. Cleve Rose [31]
  • Sgt. Manuel Sanchez Jr.[31] dr
  • Sgt. Edward Shigley (Silver Star)
  • Sgt. Harold Trout[31]
  • Sgt. Robin Varney[31]
  • Spc. Barry Bowman[31]
  • Spc. Lonnie Butts (awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, posthumously) killed in action, before any of the controversial events
  • Spc. William Carpenter[31] (whistleblower)k
  • Spc. Ralph Greenfield (Bronze Star)
  • Spc. Jean Louis Soucy
  • Pvt. Michael Allums[31]
  • Pvt. Edward Beck[31]
  • Pvt. Rion Causey[31] (whistleblower)
  • Pvt. Daniel Clint[31]
  • Pvt. James Cogan[31]
  • Pvt. John Colligan[20]
  • Pvt. Harold Fischer III[31]
  • Pvt. Jerry Ingram[31]
  • Pvt. Kenneth Kerney[31] (whistleblower)
  • Pvt. Terrence Kerrigan[31]
  • Pvt. Gary Kornatowski[31]
  • Pvt. Ralph Mayhew[31]
  • Pvt. James Messer[31]
  • Pvt. Cecil Peden[31]
  • Pvt. Floyd Sawyer[31]
  • Pvt. Douglas Teeters[31]
  • Pvt. Sam Ybarra[31]
  • Pvt. Jim Raysor
  • Joseph Evans[32]
  • Platoon Medic Larry Cottingham[20]
  • Spec. Richard Russell (awarded 3 bronze stars 1 for valor, 4 purple hearts, army commendation medal and good conduct medal) was not with Tiger Force till 1968.
  • PFC. Sterling Craig Hendricks, Bronze Star, Purple heart, KIA April 19, 1967
  • Spec. Dallas Rogers (awarded 2 purple hearts, Bronze Star, ARCOM medal.)
  • Sgt. Brandon Hovey, Tiger Force member 2015-P, not involved in war crimes.
  • Spc. Connor “Corn” Holden, Tiger Force member 2017-P, not involved in war crimes. Key Leader in Mosul Offensive Operation OIR 2019.

In popular culture

  • In the 2014 book Edge of Eternity by Ken Follett, character Jasper Murray is enlisted in the military and assigned to Tiger Force in Vietnam. He witnesses and is forced to participate in several war crimes, such as rape and murder of Vietnamese family and using Vietnamese peasants as "mine dogs" to detect mines and traps laid by Viet Cong.
  • Although not mentioned by name, Tiger Force's actions are referenced in the season 6 episode of Mad Men "The Doorway", set in late December, 1967. Copywriter Peggy Olson is forced to come up with a new ad for Koss headphones after their old one is forced to be pulled thanks to a comedian on the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson making jokes about Tiger Force members cutting off ears and wearing them as a necklace.

See also

Vietnam War
Broader, related topics
World War II

Notes

  1. ^ p. 33 Rottman, Gordon L. US Army Long-Range Patrol Scout in Vietnam 1965-71 Osprey Publishing, 2008
  2. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 22–23.
  3. ^ a b c d Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2017-09-05). The Vietnam War: An Intimate History. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 235–238. ISBN 9781524733100.
  4. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13–14, 23, 224.
  5. ^ Mahr, "Unit's founder".
  6. ^ U.S. Army, "101st Airborne Division".
  7. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 309–311.
  8. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 264–306.
  9. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 337, 344–345, 349, 353, 370–372.
  10. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335, 339–346, 350–352, 354–355, 359, 361–362, 367–369, 374–375, 376.
  11. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335–336, 371.
  12. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 371.
  13. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 346, 374.
  14. ^ "The Vietnam War Crimes You Never Heard Of". hnn.us. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  15. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 361–362, 377–378.
  16. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 360, 363–364, 372–373.
  17. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 383.
  18. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 306.
  19. ^ "Vietnam war crimes". socialistworker.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  20. ^ a b c Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 1."
  21. ^ Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 3."
  22. ^ Sallah, Michael D.; Weiss, Mitch; Mahr, Joe (2003). "Tiger Force columns in order of appearance in the original entry". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  23. ^ Kifner (December 28, 2003). "Report on Brutal Vietnam Campaign Stirs Memories". The New York Times.
  24. ^ Mahr, Joe. "Tiger Force answers". Toledo Blade.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2006-12-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "SPJ Announces Recipients of 2003 Sigma Delta Chi Awards - Society of Professional Journalists". www.spj.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  27. ^ http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/pageone/taylor2004.html
  28. ^ http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2004,Investigative+Reporting
  29. ^ Sallah, Michael; Weiss, Mitch (May 15, 2006). Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316159972.
  30. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, vii-xi.
  32. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 330, 331, 333.

References

External links

This page was last edited on 15 October 2019, at 02:16
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