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Theodore Roosevelt III

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Theodore Roosevelt IV
Secretary of Commerce of Pennsylvania
In office
1949–1951
Personal details
Born
Theodore Roosevelt IV

(1914-06-14)June 14, 1914
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedMay 2, 2001(2001-05-02) (aged 86)
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Resting placeNear Somesville, Maine
Spouse(s)
Anne Mason Babcock
(m. 1940; died 2001)
RelationsSee Roosevelt family
ChildrenTheodore Roosevelt IV
ParentsTheodore Roosevelt III
Eleanor Butler Alexander
EducationGroton School
Alma materHarvard University
Military career
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Navy
Rank
US-O4 insignia.svg
Lieutenant Commander
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsAir Medal

Theodore Roosevelt IV (June 14, 1914 – May 2, 2001), commonly known as Theodore Roosevelt III, was an American banker, government official, veteran of World War II, and a grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt through his father, Brig. Gen. Theodore Roosevelt Jr., a politician and World War II military leader, and Eleanor Butler Alexander.[1] His name suffix varies since President Roosevelt's father was Theodore Roosevelt Sr., though the same-named son did not commonly use a "Jr" name suffix.

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  • ✪ Theodore Roosevelt: The Old Lion
  • ✪ Biography of Theodore Roosevelt for Kids: Meet the American President for Kids - FreeSchool
  • ✪ How Are Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt Related? An American Political Dynasty (1994)

Transcription

Few believed that the frail, asthmatic little boy who loved to collect insects would amount to anything special, much less the youngest and most robust president in US history. Theodore Roosevelt’s transformation from sickly child to master of the bully pulpit and the ultimate symbol of American strength and vitality is an inspiring story of the power of self determination. In this week’s Biographics we uncover his story. Early Life Theodore Roosevelt, the future 26th President of the United States, was born in New York City on October, 27th, 1858 to Theodore Roosevelt Senior and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt. Roosevelt, senior was one of the leading citizens of New York City. Theodore Junior, who was known as Teedie was the second child to the affluent couple, who lived in a luxurious home on Manhattan Island. Teedie had a sister, Anna, who was four years older than him. A younger brother, Elliot, would follow two years later, and then another sister, Corrine, a year after that. Teedie suffered from asthma from the age of three. His condition was so bad that he spent much of his early years in bed. Unable to attend school, his parents hired tutors to teach him from home. Despite his illness, young Teedie relished the opportunity to learn. Once he had learned to read, he became a voracious devourer of books. He loved to fill his mind with tales of such Nordic heroes as King Olaf and Eric the Red. He was also fascinated with newspaper stories about the exploits of the famous British explorer Dr. David Livingstone. Teedie was a dreamer and he filled his mind with dreams of tracking through uncharted territories and discovering untamed tribes. Young Teedie showed an unusual curiosity about the natural world. One day, on a trip to the market, he came across a dead seal in a butcher’s stall. He was fascinated with the find and returned daily to study and measure it with his ruler. Eventually he managed to take possession of the seal’s skeleton and take it home where it became the prize exhibit of his ‘Roosevelt Museum of Natural History’, which he had set up in his bedroom. From the age of six, Teedie began filling journals with his observations about the natural world. His mother regularly took him on trips to the country in order to help alleviate his asthma. Teedie made the most of the opportunity to wander around in search of fish, insects, eels and birds that he could analyze and write about. The Roosevelt children were raised under the norms of Victorian society. As members of the upper class they did not mix with the less wealthy, strict mores of decency were enforced and manners and politeness were of utmost importance. Sunday was the day for religious observance, consisting of church followed by quiet contemplation. Teedie hated Sundays as this was the day when he was not permitted to indulge his natural curiosity of the world. In 1869, when he was ten years of age, Teedie’s family embarked on a tour of Europe. For twelve months the children were exposed to the great sights of England, Germany, France and Italy. Yet, Teedie was not impressed. He later wrote . . . I cordially hated it, as did my younger brother and sister. Practically all the enjoyment we had was in exploring any ruins or mountains when we get away from our elders, and in playing in our different hotels. When he was thirteen, Teedie’s father gave him his first shotgun. He was dismayed to find that he was a terrible shot, which brought ridicule from his peers. When a friend challenged him to hit a billboard in the distance, he discovered what the problem was, later recalling . . . Not only was I unable to read the sign, but I could not even see the letters. He was extremely near-sighted, but had never realized it. After telling his father about the problem, he was given a pair of eyeglasses. He wrote in his diary . . . I had no idea how beautiful the world was until I got those spectacles. With his improved eyesight, Teedie was able to become even more obsessive with his nature studies. He learned taxidermy, stuffing and mounting birds that he shot and adding them to his ever-expanding natural history museum. In the winter of 1870-71, the Roosevelt’s made a trip to the Mediterranean, visiting Egypt, the Holy Land, Syria, Greece and Turkey. Unlike the trip to Europe, Teedie loved this experience. He made the most of the opportunity to shoot exotic birds and stuff them to take home and add to his collection. When he was 13, Teedie was sent off to Maine for a solo trip to improve his health. On the train journey north, he found himself in a cabin with some other teenage boys. In the skinny, weak, bespectacled asthmatic they found an easy mark. They roughed him up, leaving him bruised and humiliated. When he returned home, he told his father about the incident. Roosevelt senior told his son that he needed to develop his body physically so that he could defend himself. A prizefighter was hired to teach the boy how to box. From this point onward, Teedie became obsessed with building his body. He began lifting weights, doing calisthenics and running. He developed a great admiration for those who possessed strength and displayed manly virility. And he was determined to live what he called ‘the strenuous life’. A Harvard Man The Roosevelt’s were a family that were driven by goals and, after returning from their trip to the Middle East, they set one for their oldest son; to gain entry to Harvard College in three years. This was a terrific challenge for young Teedie. He had never gone to school and, although he was well skilled in languages, nature and the classics, he was deficient in mathematics. A special tutor was hired and, over the next two years, he worked hard to improve his skills. The hard work paid off and in 1875 he passed the Harvard entrance exams. For a freshman at Harvard, the childhood name of Teedie would never do, so he now took to calling himself Theodore. He immediately took to college life, involving himself in political parades, boxing tournaments and rowing competition. He also became a skilled debater, taking on professors and fellow students alike. To his delight, he found himself readily accepted and was soon invited to join some of Harvard’s most prestigious societies. Theodore’s blissful existence was interrupted during a visit home during his Sophomore year. He found that his father was gravely ill. With his beloved Teedie back home, the old man’s health revived somewhat and the danger seemed to have passed. But when Theodore returned to Harvard for the new year, his father took a sharp turn for the worse. Towards the end of February, Theodore received a telegram to return home urgently. He never made it in time, with his father dying that night. Theodore was deeply depressed as a result of his father’s death. However, he refused to show his pain to others. Instigating a pattern that he would continue for the rest of his life, he soldiered on, disciplining his mind and body to do what had to be done. Still his grief became evident in his actions. During a Summer family vacation to Oyster Bay he rode his horse to exhaustion. When a dog insisted on chasing the horse he turned and shot it. Theodore also began hiking, finding his release in the great outdoors. He teamed with a crusty old adventurer by the name of Bill Sewell, who served as his guide. Sewell later recorded his impression of Theodore at the time . . . He was fair minded, Theodore was. And then he took pains to learn everything. There was nothing beneath his notice. I liked him right off. I liked him clear through. There wasn’t a quality in him I didn’t like. He wasn’t headlong or aggressive, except when necessary, and as far as I could see he wasn’t a bit cocky, though other folks thought so. By his mid-teens, Theodore had developed into quite a character. Never afraid to express his opinion, he could always be counted on to be the center of attention. His unique outbursts of approval, ‘Bully!’ and ‘De-lighted!’ quickly became trademark responses. In 1879 he set his charms on a young woman by the name of Alice Lee. ‘See that girl, he said to a Harvard pal, ‘she won’t have me, but I m going to have her’. And have her he did. He set out on a campaign to win Alice’s heart, leading to their engagement in early 1880. Theodore graduated from Harvard in June of that year, 21st in his class of 160 students. Then, in October, he and Alice were married. After a short honeymoon, Theodore enrolled in a law degree at Columbia University, while also working at his uncle’s law firm. During his limited leisure time he decided to learn about the War of 1812. When he couldn’t find a decent book on the subject, he decided to write one himself. During the Summer of 1881, the young Roosevelt couple took a trip to Europe. While in Switzerland, Theodore left his wife behind while he climbed the Matterhorn. It was during this trip that he decided to forego a legal career. He was determined to set his sights on becoming a politician. Entering the Arena Back then, politics was seen as being beneath men of wealth and friends and family tried to dissuade Theodore’s ambitions. But that was always going to be a losing proposition and, on returning to New York, he joined the Republican Party. Here he was associating with a class of men that he hadn’t previously mixed with – rough men, who were skilled in the low blows and dirty tricks of state politics. Roosevelt soon learned their ways and, within months had won the party’s nomination for a seat in the New York State Assembly. It was a solid Republican seat and Roosevelt won it handily. Roosevelt turned up to take his seat at the New York state capital in Albany on January 22nd, 1882. He cut the figure of a dandy with his fine suit and upper crust ways. He was ridiculed by Democrats and Republicans alike. Despite this he, according to his own recollection, ‘rose like a rocket’ in New York politics. Roosevelt’s politics were grounded in self-determination. He firmly believed that each man was in control of his own destiny. But he also realized that the system was grossly unfair, with those with the money and power having all the opportunities. He made it his goal to bring about a fairer system where all Americans had the opportunity to succeed. When he wasn’t working his way up the political ladder in New York, Theodore ventured out west in order to fulfil his love of adventure and the outdoors. In September 1883, he made an excursion to the Dakota Badlands, with the express purpose of bringing home a buffalo head as a trophy. As with most things he set his mind to, he was successful in that goal. During this trip, he also purchased a cattle ranch. In November 1883, Theodore won his 3rd term to the New York State Assembly. He returned to Albany while his wife, who was heavily pregnant with their first child went to live with his sister. On February 11, 1884 he received a long-awaited telegram announcing the birth of a baby girl. But it also told him that Alice was very sick. He rushed home to discover that the news was even worse – both his wife and his mother were gravely ill. They both died on the same day, February 14th, 1884. That night he wrote in his diary . . . The light has gone from my life. Theodore responded to the double tragedy with the stoicism that epitomized his personality. After a few days of isolation, he left the baby in the care of his sister and returned to Albany to see out his term in the General Assembly. Life had to go on. Throughout 1884, Roosevelt worked tirelessly to propel himself from state to national politics. His brash, unwavering style brought him to the attention of prominent men, including an influential Bostonian by the name of Henry Cabot Lodge. By the end of the year the 25-year-old, was being eyed by many as a future Republican leader. However, inside Roosevelt was an empty man. He needed to get away from the rough and tumble of politics in order to heal himself. At the end of 1884, Roosevelt retired from politics and moved to one of his ranches in North Dakota. Cowboy Theodore Roosevelt turned up in the small Dakota town of Medora dressed in buckskins, brandishing a brand new Winchester rifle and with a hunting knife in his belt that he’d bought from Tiffany’s Jewellers. He was the quintessential ‘dude’ and was soon ridiculed by the hardened locals. Despite this, he reveled in life in the west. He displayed a steely courage which impressed all who came to know him. Roosevelt hired his old tramping guide Bill Sewell to come out and mange his ranch for him. But he didn’t leave all the hard wok to his men. He rode out on the range with them, chased spooked cattle and stood guard during long, bitterly cold nights. In 1886, he captured a group of thieves who had stolen a boat and then took them his prisoners on a three-day trek to the local sheriff. During those 3 days he didn’t sleep a wink as he kept his rifle trained on his captives. Following the exceptional harsh winter of 1886-87, which killed half of his cattle stock, Roosevelt returned east. He was thirty pounds heavier than we he left and was a harder, more confident version of himself. Soon after returning he met up with and fell in love with a childhood friend maned Edith Carrow. They were married on December 2nd, 1886 and would go on to have five children together. Political Ascendancy Roosevelt was soon approached by Republican leaders and urged to re-enter politics. They wanted him to run for mayor of New York. He accepted and campaigned hard, despite having little chance of winning. He came in third place with 27 percent of the vote. Thinking that his political career was over, he next put his efforts into the writing of his book, The Winning of the West. In 1888, Roosevelt gave stump speeches for Republican Presidential candidate Benjamin Harrison. When he won the Presidency, Harrison was persuaded by Theodore’s political champion Henry Cabot Lodge, to appoint the energetic Roosevelt to the US Civil Service Commission. He took to the role with a vengeance, determined to fight the corrupt spoils system and enforce civil service laws. In 1894, Roosevelt was appointed President of the Board of New York City Police Commissioners. He then set about making improvements to the structure of the police force, rooting out corruption and imposing more stringent standards for recruitment. In 1897, again under the urging of Henry Cabot Lodge, new President William McKinley appointed Roosevelt as the assistant secretary of the Navy. He became a strong advocate for the building of the strength of the navy. When on February 15th, 1898 the US warship Maine exploded in Havana harbor, Roosevelt took it upon himself to order a number of ships to prepare for war. When war was declared a short time later, Roosevelt resigned his post and formed the First US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. He was determined to be in the thick of the action. The Rough Riders The press dubbed Roosevelt’s cavalry regiment the ‘Rough Riders’. After a period of training in San Antonio, Texas, they were shipped to Cuba. Their first action was at the Battle of Las Guasimas, where they forced the Spanish to abandon their entrenched positions. On July 1, 1898, Roosevelt led his men on the famous charge up Kettle Hill. He was the only man on horseback, making an easy target for the enemy. Still, without any care for his own safety, he rode up and down the line, urging his men up the hill. Also attempting to take the hill were soldiers of the Ninth US Cavalry, but these soldiers were having a hard time of it. A reporter for the New York Times recorded the action . . . Colonel Roosevelt, on horseback, broke from the woods behind the line of the Ninth, and finding its men lying in his way, shouted: “If you don’t wish to go forward, let my men pass, please.” The junior officers of the Ninth, with their Negroes, instantly sprang into line with the Rough Riders, and charged at the blue block-house on the right. I speak of Roosevelt first because... he was, without doubt, the most conspicuous figure in the charge.... Roosevelt, mounted high on horseback, and charging the rifle-pits at a gallop and quite alone, made you feel that you would like to cheer. He wore on his sombrero a blue polka-dot handkerchief... which, as he advanced, floated out straight behind his head, like a guidon. Having reached the crest of the hill, Roosevelt dismounted and urged his men to follow him. But there was yet another hill to conquer and no sooner had the Rough Riders scrambled to the top of Kettle Hill than their dashing colonel set off for San Juan Hill. His men overpowered the Spanish resistance and took possession of both hills. In the process, Roosevelt killed a Spanish trooper who, he said, ‘doubled over like a jack-rabbit’. Following victory in Cuba, Roosevelt returned to New York, where he was convinced to run for Governor. Campaigning vigorously on his war record he won by just 1 percent of the popular vote. During his time as governor, he developed the style and platform which would underpin his presidency. He was a passionate advocate for the rights of the underprivileged, was against large corporations and monopolies and championed the preservation of national resources. In 1900, Henry Cabot Lodge and other prominent Republicans urged Roosevelt to throw his hat into the ring for the vacant Republican Vice-Presidential spot in the upcoming Presidential elections. Though reluctant, he won the Republican nomination, pairing with President McKinley. With his boundless energy he threw himself into a barnstorming campaign, making 480 speeches in 23 states. In the end, he and McKinley easily won and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as Vice President of the United States on March 1st, 1901. Six months later, President McKinley was shot while attending the Pan-American exposition in New York. He died eight days later. As a result, the 42-year-old Roosevelt was propelled into the highest office in the land, becoming the 26th President of the United States on September 14, 1901. He was the youngest man to ever hold the position. POTUS Roosevelt was a very different man to William McKinley. Still, he vowed that he would continue to pursue the policies of his predecessor. At the same time, he was determined to stamp his mark on the Presidency in order to win a second term in his own right. A large part of the focus of Roosevelt’s domestic policies were focused on breaking up the monopolies of big business. He instigated 44 anti-trust suits, forcing the breaking up of the Northern Securities Company and putting regulatory controls on Standard Oil. Of all the domestic policies that Roosevelt was passionate about, however, none came close to the preservation of wildlife and the environment. He established the United States Forest Service, created five national parks and placed a total of 230 million acres of land under public protection. In terms of foreign policy, Roosevelt was an ardent imperialist. He successfully mediated the Treaty of Portsmouth which brought an end to the Russo-Japanese War, winning a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. His making of a deal with the Panamanian government for the building of a canal led to the separation of Panama from Columbia in 1903. In the 1904 Presidential election, the Democrats put up Alton Brooks Parker to face Roosevelt. Campaigning on the promise to give every American a ‘square deal’, Roosevelt won 56% of the popular vote, along with 336 of 476 electoral votes. During his second term in office, Roosevelt began moving to the left of his Republican base. He pushed for a number of quite radical reforms, including the 8-hour work day, most of which were defeated in the House. He had declared that he would not seek a third term and so became a lame duck President. While thoroughly enjoying the role of President he was felt that staying in office for more than two terms would run the risk of dictatorship. Post Presidency Following the end of his second term in office in March, 1909, Roosevelt went on an African safari with a group of prominent scientists and hunters. The expedition was on behalf of the Smithsonian Institute and was charged with bringing back specimens for the Institute’s museum. The trip was successful, and the group came back with 11,400 specimens, ranging from insects to elephants. When he returned to the United States, Roosevelt was far from happy with the performance of his successor, William Taft, believing that Taft had made the Republicans far too conservative. He began to speak loudly of leading a program of New Nationalism, which emphasized labor over capital. By the time that the 1912 Presidential election rolled around, Roosevelt was convinced that only he could save the Republican Party. He challenged Taft in the Republican Primary. However, Taft won the nomination, squeezing Roosevelt to the sidelines. Undeterred, Roosevelt quit the Republicans, formed his own party, the Progressives, and ran for president as an independent. He then went to the stumps and appealed to the people. On October 14, 1912 Roosevelt was giving a speech in Milwaukee, Wisconsin when he was struck by an assassin’s bullet. It was a perfect shot to the heart, penetrating his breast pocket and slamming into his thick glasses case. The bullet then thumped into a heavy speech manuscript that he had chosen not to use. Without missing a beat, Roosevelt, ensured that the would-be killer was apprehended than when right on with his speech. His first words to the crowd after being hit were . . . Ladies and gentlemen I don’t know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose. The bullet stayed in his pectoral muscle until his death. The 1912 Presidential election was won by Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson, with 42 percent of the popular vote. However, Roosevelt did beat the incumbent president with 27 percent compared to 23 percent for Taft. During a South American Expedition in 1913-14, Roosevelt contracted tropical fever after suffering a leg wound, which became badly infected. By the time he was returned to New York he was 50 pounds lighter and deathly pale. The Old Lion is Dead The last few years were racked with pain for the once robust outdoor adventurer. Malaria bouts were common as were complications of his leg inflammation. The end came in the very early morning hours of January 6th 1919, after he had complained about not being able to breathe the night before. A doctor was summoned and, after some treatment, he felt better. However, he died in his sleep as a result of a blood clot in the lungs. When he heard of his father’s demise, oldest son Archibald telegraphed his siblings with the words . . . The old lion is dead. Theodore Roosevelt was 60 years old.

Contents

Early life

Roosevelt was born on June 14, 1914 in New York City.[1] He was the second born and the last surviving of four children to Theodore Jr./III and Eleanor Butler Alexander. Theodore had an older sister, Grace Green Roosevelt, who married William McMillan, and two younger brothers, Cornelius Van Schaack Roosevelt III and Quentin Roosevelt II. Following his father, Ted, and paternal grandfather, T. R., Theodore went to Groton School and graduated from Harvard in 1936, where he was a member of the Hasty Pudding Theatricals and the Owl Club.[2] While at Harvard, Roosevelt played for the Harvard Crimson men's soccer team, and was named a second-team All American in 1934.[3]

When his grandfather, President Theodore "T. R." Roosevelt Jr., died in 1919, his father took on the "Junior" last name suffix. As a result, he was known as Theodore, III rather than Theodore IV.[verification needed] As an Oyster Bay Roosevelt, Ted was a descendant of the Schuyler family.[4][self-published source] [5] His maternal grandparents are Henry Addison Alexander and Grace Green.

Career

After graduating from Harvard, Roosevelt worked for the DuPont company from 1936 to 1941.[6]

Service in World War II

Following the Roosevelt tradition of military service during times of national emergency, during World War II, Roosevelt volunteered as a Navy pilot, serving as a flag lieutenant (i.e. an aide to an admiral) in the Pacific theater.[7] For his service as a naval aviator, Theodore was awarded the Air Medal. He was promoted to lieutenant on April 1, 1944 and left the Navy as a lieutenant commander.

His father, Theodore "Ted" Roosevelt Jr., also volunteered for service, participated in the Allied invasion of North Africa and led soldiers at Utah Beach on D-Day in France before dying of a heart attack a month afterward. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.[8]

Post-war life

Gravestone of Theodore Roosevelt III
Gravestone of Theodore Roosevelt III

Upon his return from the Pacific Theater, Theodore joined the Philadelphia brokerage firm of Montgomery, Scott, becoming a partner in 1952.[2] Appointed by Governor James Duff, Ted served as Secretary of Commerce of Pennsylvania from 1949 to 1951.[9]

For many years, he was president of the Competitive Enterprise System, Inc., a nonprofit group that promoted free markets in the United States. Roosevelt was a trustee of the Theodore Roosevelt Association (TRA) for many years and a generous supporter of the organization. In recent years, he attended TRA Police Awards ceremonies in Boston and Philadelphia as well as TRA annual meetings in Boston and Norfolk, VA. He was an honorary plank owner in the USS Theodore Roosevelt, and a strong supporter of the efforts to preserve the Pine Knot site in Virginia, his grandparents' presidential retreat.

Personal life

On February 3, 1940, Roosevelt married Anne Mason Babcock (December 3, 1917 — January 29, 2001),[10] daughter of George Wheeler Babcock (May 12, 1879 — November 21, 1950) and Anne Mason Bonnycastle Robinson (January 10, 1886 — February 4, 1923).[11][12] They had one son:

Roosevelt died on May 2, 2001 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.[2][13] He and his wife are buried near Somesville, Maine.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b "Introduced by Roosevelt". Reading Eagle. October 18, 1949. p. 16. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d "Theodore Roosevelt III; Brokerage Partner, 86". The New York Times. 2001-05-05. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  3. ^ "Harvard Men's Soccer All-Americans" (PDF). Harvard Crimson. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  4. ^ Taylor, Robert Lewis. Along The Way: Two Paths From One Ancestry Xlibris Corporation, 2014
  5. ^ Brogan, Hugh and Mosley, Charles American Presidential Families October 1993, page 568
  6. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt Iii, 86". Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  7. ^ "Advocates for Harvard ROTC" (PDF). Harvard.edu.
  8. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt Jr., President's Son and WWII Hero, Thrived in Military Life". Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  9. ^ Inc, Time (8 May 1950). "Duff's Men". LIFE. Time Inc. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  10. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths  ROOSEVELT, ANNE MASON BABCOCK". The New York Times. 2001-02-02. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  11. ^ http://genealogy.kolthammer.org/Bonnycastle-o/p13718.htm
  12. ^ "Anne Roosevelt, 86, Sportswoman". Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  13. ^ "Editors  "Theodore Roosevelt III — Obituary," Oyster Bay Enterprise-Pilot (May 11, 2001) Online Edition". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
This page was last edited on 29 September 2019, at 18:27
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