To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

The central science

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Partial ordering of the sciences proposed by Balaban and Klein.
Partial ordering of the sciences proposed by Balaban and Klein.

Chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in connecting the physical sciences,[1] which include chemistry, with the life sciences and applied sciences such as medicine and engineering. The nature of this relationship is one of the main topics in the philosophy of chemistry and in scientometrics. The phrase was popularized by its use in a textbook by Theodore L. Brown and H. Eugene LeMay, titled Chemistry: The Central Science, which was first published in 1977, with a thirteenth edition published in 2014.[2]

The central role of chemistry can be seen in the systematic and hierarchical classification of the sciences by Auguste Comte. Each discipline provides a more general framework for the area it precedes (mathematics → astronomy → physics → chemistry → physiology and medicine → social sciences).[3] Balaban and Klein have more recently proposed a diagram showing the partial ordering of sciences in which chemistry may be argued is “the central science” since it provides a significant degree of branching.[4] In forming these connections the lower field cannot be fully reduced to the higher ones. It is recognized that the lower fields possess emergent ideas and concepts that do not exist in the higher fields of science.

Thus chemistry is built on an understanding of laws of physics that govern particles such as atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons, thermodynamics, etc. although it has been shown that it has not been “fully 'reduced' to quantum mechanics”.[5][6] Concepts such as the periodicity of the elements and chemical bonds in chemistry are emergent in that they are more than the underlying forces defined by physics.

In the same way, biology cannot be fully reduced to chemistry, although the machinery that is responsible for life is composed of molecules.[7] For instance, the machinery of evolution may be described in terms of chemistry by the understanding that it is a mutation in the order of genetic base pairs in the DNA of an organism. However, chemistry cannot fully describe the process since it does not contain concepts such as natural selection that are responsible for driving evolution. Chemistry is fundamental to biology since it provides a methodology for studying and understanding the molecules that compose cells.

Connections made by chemistry are formed through various sub-disciplines that utilize concepts from multiple scientific disciplines. Chemistry and physics are both needed in the areas of physical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, and theoretical chemistry. Chemistry and biology intersect in the areas of biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, chemical biology, molecular genetics, and immunochemistry. Chemistry and the earth sciences intersect in areas like geochemistry and hydrology.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    6 984 233
    60 193
    64 141
  • SCIENCE WARS - Acapella Parody
  • Chapter 1 - Matter and Measurement: Part 1 of 3
  • Chapter 14 – Chemical Kinetics: Part 1 of 17

Transcription

See also

References

  1. ^ John M. Malin “International Year of Chemistry - 2011 Chemistry – our life, our future” "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2011-01-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  2. ^ Theodore L. Brown and H. Eugene LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science. Prentice Hall, 1977. ISBN 0-13-128769-9.
  3. ^ Carsten Reinhardt. Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century: Bridging Boundaries. Wiley-VCH, 2001. ISBN 3-527-30271-9. Pages 1-2.
  4. ^ ”Is chemistry ‘The Central Science’? How are different sciences related? Co-citations, reductionism, emergence, and posets” Alexandru T. Balaban, Douglas J. Klein Scientometrics 2006, 69, 615-637. doi:10.1007/s11192-006-0173-2
  5. ^ Eric Scerri “Philosophy of Chemistry” Chemistry International, Vol. 25 No. 3 [1].
  6. ^ Eric R. Scerri The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-530573-6.
  7. ^ Dennis R Livesay “At the crossroads of biomacromolecular research: highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of the field” Chemistry Central Journal 2007, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1752-153X-1-4.
This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 05:45
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.