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The Snow Queen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"The Snow Queen"
The Snow Queen by Elena Ringo.jpg
"The Snow Queen" illustration by Elena Ringo.
AuthorHans Christian Andersen
CountryDenmark
LanguageDanish
Genre(s)Fairy tale
Published inNew Fairy Tales. First Volume. Second Collection. 1845. (Nye Eventyr. Første Bind. Anden Samling. 1845.)[1]
Publication typeFairy tale collection
Publication date21 December 1844[1]

"The Snow Queen" (Danish: Snedronningen) is an original fairy tale written by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. The tale was first published 21 December 1844 in New Fairy Tales. First Volume. Second Collection. 1845. (Danish: Nye Eventyr. Første Bind. Anden Samling. 1845.)[1] The story centres on the struggle between good and evil as experienced by Gerda and her friend, Kai.

The story is one of Andersen's longest and most highly acclaimed stories. It is regularly included in selected tales and collections of his work and is frequently reprinted in illustrated storybook editions for children.

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  • ✪ THE SNOW QUEEN Bedtime Story and Fairy Tales For Kids || Animated Story
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  • ✪ The Snow Queen | Full Story | Fairy Tales who Inspired Disney Frozen Movies

Transcription

Did you have a good birthday Tofu? Yes, very much. And look at all the lovely gifts you got! Yes… Why? Whats wrong? Nothing is wrong but I just thought grandmom could have got me a better gift than the single rose flower Tofu! That’s not a nice thing to say! You didn’t notice her love for you that made her fly all the way across the country to be with you today. Love… But, that’s not a gift. Maybe you’ll think differently once you hear the story of the Snow Queen Once upon a time, in a small village lived two neighbours who were best friends too Their names were Gerda and Kay. They loved each other a lot As a symbol of their friendship and love one day, they both planted a rose plant each in their front yards. Every morning they would get together and water their plants and take care of them. When winters came, Gerda invited Kay. Why don’t you come over in the afternoon? My grandma has promised to make us a cup of hot chocolate and tell us a story Okay, Gerda. I will come over after finishing my chores As promised, Kay went to Gerda’s home in the afternoon Tell us the story of The Snow Queen grandmamma! Bah! There is no Snow Queen! Do you still believe in such stories? Little did Kay know that the Snow Queen did exist And she had a magic mirror with which she could look at anybody and right at that moment she was looking into Gerda’s living room where they sat Doesn’t believe in me, does he? I will send him my ice arrows that will turn him cold all the love will be gone from his eyes and his heart will freeze over! And the Snow Queen sent her Ice arrows towards Kay As soon as they entered Gerda’s home they went straight for Kay’s eyes and heart. Ouch! My eyes! What’s happening they hurt! What is wrong Kay! Ouch! My heart. It hurts too! Kay! What’s wrong? Are you okay? Suddenly, Kay’s whole behavior changed towards Gerda Oh stop being such a whimp, Gerda. Nothing is wrong Get away from me! Saying so, he shoved Gerda aside and went home Over the next few days, he would give cold mean looks to Gerda and would never talk to her nicely He wouldn’t even come to tend to the roses that they had planted. One morning when Gerda was watering the plants she saw Kay get into a carriage with a lady who was wearing a white grown She had skin like diamonds and her hair was silver white. Gerda immediately knew that it was the Snow Queen She decided to follow her but the carriage just vanished into thin air So she went to her grandmamma Here, take this hand mirror and follow what it tells you The mirror only tells you the truth Gerda took the mirror from her grandma and looked into it The mirror told her to find the flower garden. So Gerda went looking for it. Meanwhile, once the Snow Queen reached the palace she told Kay to make it his home from now on This is your home now. You will never leave here And once your heart freezes over, you will be mine forever. Back in the village Gerda found the flower garden and entered it The garden was full of the most beautiful flowers Gerda had ever seen She fell in love with them immediately But there was no smell of the flowers Surprised, Gerda bent down and touched one of the flowers to understand if they were real As soon as she touched one flower the fragrances of all the flowers returned and the Flower Lady appeared in front of her Thank you! You have returned the fragrance of my flowers. Who are you? I am the owner of this garden, I am the Flower Lady Can you help me? Have you seen my friend Kay pass through here? He has been taken by the Snow Queen. Oh no! The Snow Queen… she is one who had taken away the fragrance of my flowers I did not see Kay cross from here but you should try the river outside the village Gerda thanked the Flower Lady and went to the river There she saw a boat waiting for her She climbed into the boat and it took her to the pirate ship Aboard the ship Gerda saw many pirates including a girl pirate. Hello! Can you help me? I am looking for my friend Kay The Snow Queen has taken him. I don’t know any Kay And even if I did, I wouldn’t tell you because once aboard the Pirate Ship you can’t go anywhere. You have to be here No! Please! You have to let me go Kay is my friend. I have to save him Friend, you say? Eh? Well….I have never had a friend Okay, I will help you if you promise to be my friend. Yes, of course. I would love to be your friend. Okay, then… take my reindeer He is the fastest reindeer in the world and she knows where the Snow Queen’s palace is Gerda thanked the Pirate Girl and climbed on the back of the reindeer Just as the Pirate Girl had promised the reindeer had Gerda outside the Snow Queen’s palace in no time. Gerda got off the reindeer and went inside the palace. Kay! Kay! Are you in here? What are you doing here? I am here to take my friend back with me! Your friend doesn’t exist anymore Look at him, standing there in the corner Just in a few minute his heart will freeze over and then he will be mine forever Gerda turned to see where the Snow Queen had pointed In the corner, stood Kay. His lips were blue and eyes were steely cold Gerda rushed to him Kay! It’s me. Your friend. When Kay didn’t reply she reached out for his hand. His old friend’s touch returned the colour in Kay’s eyes Encouraged by this change, Gerda pushed on Remember, all the times we had fun at home? And our roses that we have in the front yard? There is no point in all this. His heart will freeze soon! Hearing this, Gerda broke down and started crying As she was crying her tears rolled down from her eyes and onto the hand of Kay As soon as that happened Kay looked up at Gerda and smiled. Gerda! My friend! You came for me! This is impossible. Nothing can ever turn my curse over She tried to pull Gerda away from Kay and that’s when Grandma’s mirror fell out of Gerda’s pocket When the Queen looked into it, it spoke to her. Snow Queen, you have been mistaken There is one power stronger than your curse and it is the power of love. Hearing this truth, the Snow Queen started crying and soon dissolved in a pool of her own tears. Oh, now I feel so terrible Tia I think I have not been fair to Grandmom Well, you still have time to make things better Tofu Yeah You are right Tia. I will go to her and apologise right away! Don’t forget to give her a kiss and a big hug!

Contents

Narrative division

"The Snow Queen" is a tale told in seven 'stories' (Danish: Historier):

  1. About the Mirror and Its Pieces
  2. A Little Boy and a Little Girl
  3. The Flower Garden of the Woman Who Knew Magic
  4. The Prince and the Princess
  5. The Little Robber Girl
  6. The Lapp Woman and the Finn Woman
  7. What Happened at the Snow Queen's Palace and What Happened Afterwards

Story

Vilhelm Pedersen illustration.
Vilhelm Pedersen illustration.

The devil, in the form of an evil troll,[2] has made a magic mirror that distorts the appearance of everything that it reflects. The magic mirror fails to reflect the good and beautiful aspects of people and things, and magnifies their bad and ugly aspects. The devil, who is headmaster at a troll school, takes the mirror and his pupils throughout the world, delighting in using it to distort everyone and everything. They attempt to carry the mirror into heaven in order to make fools of the angels and God, but the higher they lift it, the more the mirror shakes with laughter, and it slips from their grasp and falls back to earth, shattering into billions of pieces, some no larger than a grain of sand. The splinters are blown by the wind all over the Earth and get into people's hearts and eyes, freezing their hearts like blocks of ice and making their eyes like the troll-mirror itself, seeing only the bad and ugly in people and things.

Vilhelm Pedersen illustration
Vilhelm Pedersen illustration

Years later, a little boy Kai and a little girl Gerda live next door to each other in the garrets of buildings with adjoining roofs in a large city. They could get from one's home to the other's just by stepping over the gutters of each building. The two families grow vegetables and roses in window boxes placed on the gutters. Gerda and Kai have a window-box garden to play in, and they become devoted to each other as playmates, and as close as if they were siblings.

Kai's grandmother tells the children about the Snow Queen, who is ruler over the "snow bees" — snowflakes that look like bees. As bees have a queen, so do the snow bees, and she is seen where the snowflakes cluster the most. Looking out of his frosted window one winter, Kai sees the Snow Queen, who beckons him to come with her. Kai draws back in fear from the window.

By the following spring, Gerda has learned a song that she sings to Kai: Roses flower in the vale; there we hear Child Jesus' tale! Because roses adorn the window box garden, the sight of roses always reminds Gerda of her love for Kai.

On a pleasant summer day, splinters of the troll-mirror get into Kai's heart and eyes. Kai becomes cruel and aggressive. He destroys their window-box garden, he makes fun of his grandmother, and he no longer cares about Gerda, since everyone now appears bad and ugly to him. The only beautiful and perfect things to him now are the tiny snowflakes that he sees through a magnifying glass.

The following winter, Kai goes out with his sled to play in the snowy market square and hitches it to a curious white sleigh carriage, driven by the Snow Queen, who appears as a woman in a white fur-coat. Outside the city she reveals herself to Kai and kisses him twice: once to numb him from the cold, and a second time to make him forget about Gerda and his family; a third kiss would kill him. She takes Kai in her sleigh to her palace. The people of the city conclude that Kai died in the nearby river. Gerda, heartbroken, goes out the next summer, to look for him and questions everyone and everything about Kai's whereabouts. She offers her new red shoes to the river in exchange for Kai; by not taking the gift at first, the river lets her know that Kai did not drown. So Gerda climbs into a boat and the river carries her away, to start her on the right path.

Gerda next visits an old sorceress with a beautiful garden of eternal summer. The sorceress wants Gerda to stay with her forever, so she causes Gerda to forget Kai, and causes all the roses in her garden to sink beneath the earth, since she knows that the sight of them will remind Gerda of her friend. However, a while later, whilst playing in the garden, Gerda sees a rose on the sorceress's hat, then remembers Kai and begins to cry. Gerda's warm tears raise one bush above the ground, and it tells her that it could see all the dead while it was under the earth, and Kai is not among them. So she interrogates the other flowers in the garden, but they only know a single story each, which they sign to her. Realizing that they cannot help her find Kai, Gerda flees the garden of eternal summer and realizes that it’s already autumn. She has wasted a lot of time, and has no warm clothes to wear.

Gerda flees and meets a crow, who tells her that Kai is in the princess's palace. Gerda goes to the palace and meets the princess and the prince, who is not Kai but looks like him. Gerda tells them her story, and they provide her with warm clothes and a beautiful coach. While traveling in the coach Gerda is captured by robbers and brought to their castle, where she befriends a little robber girl, whose pet doves tell her that they saw Kai when he was carried away by the Snow Queen in the direction of Lapland. The captive reindeer Bae tells her that he knows how to get to Lapland since it is his home.

Vilhelm Pedersen illustration
Vilhelm Pedersen illustration

The robber girl frees Gerda and the reindeer to travel north to the Snow Queen's palace. They make two stops: first at the Lapp woman's home and then at the Finn woman's home. The Finn woman tells the reindeer that the secret of Gerda's unique power to save Kai is in her sweet and innocent child's heart:

Vilhelm Pedersen illustration
Vilhelm Pedersen illustration

When Gerda reaches the Snow Queen's palace, she is halted by the snowflakes guarding it. She prays the Lord's Prayer, which causes her breath to take the shape of angels, who resist the snowflakes and allow Gerda to enter the palace. Gerda finds Kai alone and almost immobile on a frozen lake, which the Snow Queen calls the "Mirror of Reason", on which her throne sits. Kai is engaged in the task that the Snow Queen gave him: he must use pieces of ice like a Chinese puzzle to form characters and words. If he is able to form the word the Snow Queen told him to spell she will release him from her power and give him a pair of skates.

Gerda runs up to Kai and kisses him, and he is saved by the power of her love: Gerda weeps warm tears on him, melting his heart and burning away the troll-mirror splinter in it. As a result, Kai bursts into tears, which dislodge the splinter from his eye, and becomes cheerful and healthy again. He remembers Gerda, and the two dance around so joyously that the splinters of ice Kai had been playing with are caught up into the dance. When they tire of dancing the splinters fall down to spell "eternity," the very word Kai was trying to spell. Kai and Gerda leave the Snow Queen's domain with the help of the reindeer, the Finn woman, and the Lapp woman. They meet the robber girl, and from there they walk back to their home. Kai and Gerda find that everything at home is the same and that it is they who have changed; they are now grown up, and are also delighted to see that it is summertime.

At the end, the grandmother reads a passage from the Bible:

"Assuredly, I say to you, unless you are converted and become as little children, you will by no means enter the Kingdom of Heaven" (Matthew 18:3).

Characters

  • Gerda (English: /ˈɡɜːrdə/), the protagonist of this tale, who succeeds in finding her friend Kai and saving him from the Snow Queen.
  • Kai (English: /k/; Kaj), a little boy who lives in a large city, in the garret of a building across the street from the home of Gerda, his playmate, whom he loves dearly. He falls victim to the splinters of the troll-mirror and the blandishments of the Snow Queen.
  • The Snow Queen (Snedronningen), queen of the snowflakes or "snow bees", who travels throughout the world with the snow. Her palace and gardens are in the lands of permafrost, specifically Spitsbergen. She takes Kai back to this palace after he has fallen victim to the splinters of the troll-mirror. She promises to free Kai if he can spell "eternity" with the pieces of ice in her palace.
  • The Troll (Trolden) or the Devil (Djævlen), who makes an evil mirror that distorts reality and later shatters to infect people with its splinters that distort sight and freeze hearts. Some English translations of "The Snow Queen" translate this character as the "sprite" or the "hobgoblin".
  • The Grandmother (Bedstemoderen), Kai's grandmother, who tells him and Gerda the legend of the Snow Queen. Some of Grandmother's actions are essential points of the story.
  • The Old Lady who Knew Magic (den gamle Kone der kunne Trolddom), who maintains a cottage on the river, with a garden that is permanently in summer. She seeks to keep Gerda with her, but Gerda's thought of roses (the flower most favoured by herself and Kai) awakens her from the old woman's enchantment.
  • The Crow (Kragen), who thinks that the new prince of his land is Kai.
  • The Tame Crow (den tamme Krage), who is the mate of the field crow and has the run of the princess's palace. She lets Gerda into the royal bedchamber in her search for Kai.
  • The Princess (Prinsessen), who desires a prince-consort as intelligent as she, and who finds Gerda in her palace. She helps Gerda in her search for Kai by giving her warm, rich clothing, servants, and a golden coach.
  • The Prince (Prinsen), formerly a poor young man, who comes to the palace and passes the test set by the princess to become prince.
  • The Old Robber Woman (den gamle Røverkælling), the only woman among the robbers who capture Gerda as she travels through their region in a golden coach.
  • The Little Robber Girl (den lille Røverpige), daughter of the robber hag. She takes Gerda as a playmate, whereupon her captive doves and reindeer Bae tell Gerda that Kai is with the Snow Queen. The Robber Girl then helps Gerda continue her journey to find Kai.
  • Bae (English: /b/; ), the reindeer who carries Gerda to the Snow Queen's palace.
  • The Lappish Woman (Lappekonen), who provides shelter to Gerda and Bae, and writes a message on a dried cod fish to the Finnish Woman further on the way to the Snow Queen's gardens.
  • The Finnish Woman (Finnekonen), who lives just two miles away from the Snow Queen's gardens and palace. She knows the secret of Gerda's power to save Kai.

Jenny Lind

Andersen met Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind in 1840, and fell in love with her, but she was not interested in him romantically (although the two became friends). According to Carole Rosen, Andersen was inspired to model the icy-hearted Snow Queen on Lind after she rejected him as a suitor.[4]

Media adaptations

Theatrical films

Television

Video games

Operas

  • An opera The Snow Queen was written in 1913 by Slovenian composer Lucijan Marija Škerjanc, but it was lost and never performed.[citation needed]
  • The children's opera История Кая и Герды (The Story of Kai and Gerda) was written in 1980 by Russian composer Sergei Petrovich Banevich, (libretto by Tatiana Kalinina). It premiered at the Mariinsky Theatre (then Kirov Theatre) on 24 December 1980.
  • The children's opera The Snow Queen was premiered in 1993 in Toronto as part of the Milk Festival. This is a 60 minute version of the story by Canadian composer John Greer and English librettist Jeremy James Taylor. It was commissioned and premiered by the Canadian Children's Opera Company, and subsequently performed by them in 2001 and 2019. They also toured the work to the Netherlands and Germany in the summer of 2001.
  • The opera La Regina delle Nevi was written in 2010 by Italian composer Pierangelo Valtinoni (Libretto by Paolo Madron) and premiered at the Komische Oper Berlin on October 24, 2010.[28] The opera has since been translated into English, German, Spanish and Swedish and has been performed in numerous countries.
  • A family opera "Snödrottningen" in one act with prologue and 13 scenes is composed during 2013-2016 by Swedish composer Benjamin Staern (Libretto by Anelia Kadieva Jonsson) to be premiered at the Malmö Opera on December 17, 2016.

Stage plays and musicals

The story has been adapted into numerous stage plays and musicals, notably including:

"The Snow Queen" by Missoula children's theatre in several locations including Estevan and Humboldt.

Dance productions

  • The first full-length ballet production of The Snow Queen was choreographed and produced by Aerin Holt and California Contemporary Ballet in December 1998 with an original score by Randall Michael Tobin. The ballet ran for 16 consecutive Decembers from 1998 to 2013. In December 2017 The Snow Queen Ballet returns for three performances in celebration of the 20th anniversary of California Contemporary Ballet.[35]
  • An Off-Broadway dance theater adaptation of The Snow Queen was choreographed and produced by Angela Jones and Noel MacDuffie in 1999 with an original score by John LaSala. The soundtrack was released as an album on TownHall Records in 2000.[36]
  • On 11 October 2007, the English National Ballet premiered a three-act version of The Snow Queen, choreographed by Michael Corder with a score drawn from the music of Sergei Prokofiev's The Stone Flower, arranged by Julian Philips.[37]
  • On 23 November 2012, the Finnish National Ballet premiered a two-act version of The Snow Queen, choreographed by Kenneth Greve, music by Tuomas Kantelinen.[38][39]
  • On 22 March 2016, the Grand Theatre, Poznań premiered a two-act version of The Snow Queen, directed by Anna Niedźwiedź, music by Gabriel Kaczmarek.[40]

Inspired works

Literature

  • The Snow Queen by Evgeny Shvarts (1937): A play by the famous Soviet author loosely based on Andersen's tale, with the introduction of new characters such as the Councillor of Commerce, dealing with ice and therefore close ally of the Snow Queen.
  • The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (1950): It is possible that the White Witch from C. S. Lewis's novel may be inspired by the Snow Queen, as she turned Narnia into a snow-covered land, is also depicted as wearing a white fur coat and first appears riding in a sleigh, and kidnapped a boy.[41]'
  • The Snow Queen by Joan D. Vinge (1980): A science fiction novel loosely based on Andersen's tale.
  • The Snow Queen by Mercedes Lackey (2008): book four of the Five Hundred Kingdoms series, set in a fantasy world where fairy tales happen over and over in a never-ending cycle. The Snow Queen is a harsh persona adopted by a benevolent sorceress also known as the Ice Fairy to ensure that the kingdoms under her care get their happy endings. Andersen's tale is featured as a subplot within the novel, which tells an original story.
  • In the comic book Fables, the Snow Queen and Kai appear as minor characters.
  • "The Cryomancer's Daughter (Murder Ballad No. 3)" by Caitlín R. Kiernan is a retelling of The Snow Queen.
  • "The Player" (1992): Directed by Robert Altman, written by Michael Tolkin. Several traits of Greta Scachi's character, June Gudmundsdotir, seem to be references to The Snow Queen story.
  • "The Snow Queen's Shadow", by Jim C. Hines (2011), part of his Princess Series. Snow White is transformed into the Snow Queen when a spell goes wrong and her magic mirror shatters.
  • Breadcrumbs by Anne Ursu is a children's book set in modern times that is heavily inspired by the plot of "The Snow Queen."
  • French artist Stéphane Blanquet illustrated a version of the Snow Queen published in France in 2010 by Gallimard Jeunesse (ISBN 9782070641154)[42]
  • Ophelia and the Marvelous Boy by Karen Foxleen is a children's book set in modern times featuring the Snow Queen and other elements from the fairy tale.[43]
  • The book The Raven & The Reindeer by T. Kingfisher is a retelling of Andersen's tale where Gerta (Gerda) finds herself re-examining her attachment to the cold and selfish Kay (Kai) on her journey to rescue him.

Media

References

  1. ^ a b c "Hans Christian Andersen : The Snow Queen". sdu.dk.
  2. ^ Andersen, Hans Christian (1983). "The Snow Queen". The Complete Fairy Tales and Stories. trans. Erik Christian Haugaard. United States: Anchor Books. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  3. ^ cf. Sixth Story: The Lapland Woman and the Finland Woman"
  4. ^ Rosen, Carole (2004). "Lind, Jenny (1820–1887)". In Matthew, H. C. G.; Harrison, Brian. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198614111. Retrieved April 1, 2014. [W]hen [Lind] rejected him as a suitor she became the Snow Queen, whose heart was made of ice.
  5. ^ Snezhnaya koroleva on IMDb
  6. ^ "The Snow Queen" on IMDb
  7. ^ Snezhnaya koroleva on IMDb
  8. ^ Lumikuningatar on IMDb
  9. ^ The Snow Queen on IMDb
  10. ^ The Snow Queen's Revenge on IMDb
  11. ^ "Snow Queen". Wizart Animation. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  12. ^ "Snow Queen (2012) - IMDb" – via www.imdb.com.
  13. ^ "The Snow Queen: BBC Version". amazon.co.uk.
  14. ^ The Snow Queen at the British Film Institute
  15. ^ "The Snow Queen" on IMDb
  16. ^ Tayna snezhnoy korolevy on IMDb
  17. ^ The Snow Queen on IMDb
  18. ^ Snedronningen on IMDb
  19. ^ "Snedronningen | Det Danske Filminstitut".
  20. ^ Snow Queen on IMDb
  21. ^ The Snow Queen on IMDb
  22. ^ "Arts - The Times". timesonline.co.uk.
  23. ^ The Snow Queen - The Movie ( TXU-001-650-698 - WGA 1382055) Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ The Snow Queen - based on H.C. Andersen. YouTube. 23 September 2011.
  25. ^ "The Snow Queen - The Movie ( TXU-001-650-698 - WGA 1382055)". thesnowqueenmovie.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.
  26. ^ "Gerda and Kai - The Snow Queen Book by Richard Koscher". Gerda and Kai - The Snow Queen Book. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  27. ^ "Richard Koscher ist in vielen Medien zu Hause > Kleine Zeitung".
  28. ^ "Pierangelo Valtinoni - Die Schneekönigin". Boosey & Hawkes: The Classical Music Specialists. Retrieved 2016-12-25.
  29. ^ "The Snow Queen". The Guide to Musical Theatre. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
  30. ^ "The Snow Queen: A New Musical". Steele Spring Stage Rights. 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
  31. ^ "San Jose Repertory Theatre". Sjrep.com. 2013-12-22. Archived from the original on 2014-06-28. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
  32. ^ Anita Gates (2014-07-21). "A Fairy-Tale That Rocks' - The Snow Queen,' Based on a Hans Christian Andersen Story". New York City: The New York Times.
  33. ^ "The New York Musical Theatre Festival :: The Snow Queen". Nymf.org. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
  34. ^ Triad Stage. "Snow Queen - Triad Stage". triadstage.org.
  35. ^ "The Snow Queen Ballet".
  36. ^ "The Snow Queen". TownHall Records. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  37. ^ "The Snow Queen, The Coliseum, London". The Independent. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  38. ^ "The Snow Queen". opera.fi. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  39. ^ [1] helsinkitimes.fi (23 October 2014). Retrieved on 21 July 2016.
  40. ^ "The Snow Queen". opera.poznan.pl. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  41. ^ "No sex in Narnia? How Hans Christian Andersen's "Snow Queen" problematizes C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia". thefreelibrary.com.
  42. ^ "La Reine des Neiges". gallimard-jeunesse.fr.
  43. ^ Spires, Elizabeth (2014-02-14). "'Ophelia and the Marvelous Boy,' by Karen Foxlee". The New York Times.
  44. ^ "The Snow Queen" on IMDb
  45. ^ xXPayongXx (21 June 2011). "Subway to Sally - Schneekönigin" – via YouTube.

External links

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