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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state. In most countries, a territory is an organized land controlled division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed into,[1] or incorporated into, a political unit of the country that is of equal status to other political units that may often be referred to by words such as "provinces" or "states". In international politics, a territory is usually a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government; which has not been granted the powers of self-government normally devolved to secondary territorial divisions; or both.

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Transcription

This is The United States of America. Wait, no. This is the United States of America. These islands aren’t states, but rather territories of the United States. There are 16 islands here, most of which are in the caribbean, polynesia, or micronesia. 11 of these island territories are less significant than the rest because they have no permanent population. In fact, some of them have an area of less than 5 square miles. The other 5 of the 16 islands are inhabited, and those are the ones you’ve probably heard of. So, what are these 5 islands? First let’s talk about how these territories are organized. Incorporated organized territories are the first of these subclasses. Territories under this group are incorporated, meaning they are not a state, but are still entitled to all parts of the Constitution, besides for parts specifically reserved for states. The organized in the title refers to the Organic Acts, which were acts that gave certain territories the right to self-govern. Organic Acts have been passed for territories in the past, some of which are now states, including my home state of Illinois, Hawaii, Colorado, and even the District of Columbia, to name a few. There are currently no territories in the Incorporated Organized subclass, the last territories in the group being Alaska and Hawaii, both granted statehood in 1959. The second group, Incorporated Unorganized territories, are the same as Incorporated Organized territories except for their lack of a “normal” government. Territories in this group also usually have no or a very small permanent population. The Minnesota, California, and Dakota territories, for example, were all part of this group before becoming states. Currently, the group only includes one territory, Palmyra Atoll. U.S. coastal waters, extending out to about 12 nautical miles, are also Incorporated Unorganized “territories”, along with U.S. flagged vessels, including the Coast Guard, Navy, and U.S. Merchant Marine ships. The U.S. Merchant Marine refers to both federally and civilian owned merchant vessels. The third group, Unincorporated Organized territories, consists of the territories you’ve probably heard of, including Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The last group, Unincorporated Unorganized territories, are all desolate islands with no inhabitants, with one exception, the American Samoa. This island is in this group simply because Congress hasn’t done anything about it yet. An uninformed person would expect to see yet another desolate island, just like the others in the group, but instead they’d find over 50,000 people and a lot of tourists. Since these islands are unincorporated, some fundamental rights are given, but other Constitutional rights are not. Of course, the American Samoa is self governing, but it doesn’t fit the description of a not “normally” constituted system of government. So, now that you have a better understanding of the way these territories are grouped, how did they become territories in the first place? The largest territory of all, both population and land wise, is Puerto Rico. This island boasts a large population of 3.7 million making it more populous than 21 states, and has a land area of 3,515 square miles. Puerto Rico was first settled by humans between 3,000 BCE and 2,000 BCE. However, Puerto Rico, in its modern form, was founded on November 19th, 1493 by Columbus himself. He originally named the island San Juan Bautista, but Spanish traders referred to the island as Puerto Rico, meaning rich port, and that name stuck. After enslaving the natives and establishing ports, Columbus sailed onwards to Florida, but the island remained an important trade port. After the United States gained independence from Britain, trade between the nations grew to the point where the US rivaled Spain in trade importance on the island. On September 23rd, 1868, an army of Puerto Ricans claimed independence from Spain for their island in a movement known as Grito de Lares. However, the army was soon defeated by the mightier Spanish army. The island was granted autonomy by Spain in 1897, but a year later the Spanish American war broke out. The United States launched an invasion of Puerto Rico in July of 1898, and claimed the island with little resistance from the inhabitants. In December of the same year, the Treaty of Paris (the 3rd one that involved the US) was signed, officially ending the Spanish American war. It also approved of the cession of Puerto Rico. Because of this, Puerto Rico, the now colony of the US, switched to the US’s monetary system and placed it under tariff protection. Things remained the same until 1947, when the American government gave Puerto Rico the right to elect their own governor. Luis Munoz Marin became the first governor of Puerto Rico that was elected by the people. 3 years later, in 1950, the US government gave the island the right to draft its own Constitution. Another 3 years later, Puerto Rico was changed from a US territory to commonwealth. This means it's a state in every way except name. 4 states, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are commonwealths in their full, official state names. There is no difference between these 4 commonwealths/states and the 46 other states nowadays. However, when the states were founded they drafted their own Constitutions, written in order to ensure the monarchy doesn’t return. Commonwealth status gives Puerto Ricans common citizenship to the US, common defense, and a common market. But, because the island is not a state, they do not pay federal taxes, and are not able to vote in Congress. They do however send delegates to Congress, but they can’t vote. This makes for an awkward situation when the island has a larger population than 21 states. Guam, with a population of 170,000 and a land area of 210 square miles, is the second largest US territory both population and land wise. The island was purely inhabited by natives until March 6th, 1521 when a Spanish expedition, led by Ferdinand Magellan, arrived with a 3 ship fleet. Magellan was Portuguese, but was sailing for King Charles I of Spain. Magellan's fleet had consisted of 5 ships when they first left from Spain, but 2 ships were lost along the way, and the 3 remaining lost about half their crew. This was because of storms, disease, and mutiny. Magellan's fleet first landed at Umatac, a village on the southwestern coast of the island. Guam wasn’t officially claimed by Spain until 1565, 44 years after Magellan first landed on the island. From 1565 on, the island was a regular port for Spanish traders sailing from Mexico to the Philippines. A few hundred years later, on June 21st, 1898, American troops captured Guam in a bloodless takeover. This was during the Spanish-American war, and Guam was an important Spanish port island. The island wasn’t officially owned by the US until the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898. From this point on, the island was an important naval station for the US. Because of this, the US made the naval commandant governor of the island. The Navy governed the island as “USS Guam”, and refused any proposals of a civilian government. Besides for serving as a military base, the island was also used for farming. Maize, copra (essentially dried coconut), rice, sugar, and timber were exported, along with fish and refined petroleum. The island continued exporting goods until, on December 8th, 1941, Guam was invaded by the Japanese. The Japanese renamed the island “Omiya Jima”, which means Great Shrine Island. This was one of the countless islands captured by Imperial Japan during World War 2. However, the second Battle of Guam began on July 21st, 1944. It ended when Japanese forces surrendering to US troops on August 10th. Sumay and Hagåtña, Guam’s previous largest towns, were destroyed. With the island back in US hands, they converted it into a naval base like it had been previously, now with airfields. However, Guam’s natives weren’t too happy with this. The result was the Guam Organic Act of 1950, which established Guam as an unincorporated organized territory of the US, the same status held by Puerto Rico. The Immigration Act of 1952, section 307, associated the island with the US even more. It granted everyone born on the island after April 11th, 1899, full US citizenship. 18 years later, on September 11, 1968, Congress passed the Elective Governor Act. This allowed the people of Guam to elect their own governor and lieutenant governor (a lieutenant governor is basically a “vice governor”, if you will). In the current day, the island is still used as an important strategic location for air force and naval bases. In fact, after the US’s leases in the Philippines expired in the 90’s, they relocated many of the troops located there to Guam. The United States Virgin Islands, or USVI, with a population of 106,000 and a land area of 133 square miles, is the third most populous territory island of the United States. The USVI consists of 4 large islands and 50 plus smaller islets and cays. The first European to discover the islands was Christopher Columbus, when he was blown off course during his 1493-1496 voyage. He first landed in modern day Saint Croix island, and continued exploring Saint Thomas and Saint John. By the 1600s, many European countries were interested in establishing colonies on the islands, including England, France, Spain, Denmark, and the Netherlands. England and the Netherlands followed through with their plans in the 1620s, when they jointly settled Saint Croix island. Puerto Rico, still under Spanish control, invaded the small colony, causing the French to intervene. They were able to fend off the invasion, and took the colony for themselves. It remained under French control until 1733. The Danish West India and Guinea Company founded the second settlement on the islands in 1665, which was on modern day Saint Thomas island. Their new settlement had a mere 113 residents. Wanting to expand, they founded their second settlement, which was in modern day Saint John island in 1692. The Danish had claimed the island since the 1680s, but they hadn’t been able to settle due to their feud with the neighboring British city Tortola. In order to maintain their relationship with the Danish, they eventually ceased their opposition. The Danes joined the West India Company and settled Saint John. After they settled, the agricultural business exploded on the island. The Danish West Indian Company purchased St. Croix from the French in 1733, uniting St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John together as the Danish West Indies. The island remained under Danish control until 1917, until the US bought the islands for strategic reasons in the ongoing World War 1. The islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John became the United States Virgin Islands. The Northern Mariana Islands, officially known as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, with a population of 77,000 and a land area of 179 square miles, is the 4th most populous territory of the United States. The commonwealth consists of 22 islands, all of which are part of the larger chain of islands simply known as the Mariana Islands. The Mariana Islands chain even includes Guam, though it is politically separated. Saipan is the largest of the islands with a land area of 46.5 square miles, and is where the capital, Chalan Kanoa, is located. The islands were only inhabited by the Chamorro people until European explorers settled the islands in 1668. The Chamorro people are believed to have come from Southeast Asia to the islands around 2,000 BCE. They were skilled sailors and craftsmen, making intricate weavings and pottery. Chamorro farmers mainly grew sweet potatoes and yams, planting the seeds based on the phases of the moon and ocean tides. The islands were under Spanish rule from their first meeting with Ferdinand Magellan until 1899, when they were sold to Germany. Germany then relinquished the islands to Japan as the empire went against Germany. The islands did not become US owned until the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands was put into effect in 1947, following World War 2. Initially the islands included in the trust were under the control of the US Navy, but in 1951, they were transferred to the Department of the Interior. This would remain this way until the trust was dissolved by the UN in 1990. This made the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands an American territory. The American Samoa, officially known as the Territory of American Samoa, with a population of 56,000 and a land area of 76 square miles, is the least populated of the populated island territories. The island has been inhabited by Samoan people since around 1,500 BCE. In 1722, Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen was the first European to encounter the islands. Even after Europeans knew of the island, their influence was limited to occasionally trading with the islanders. In the 1830s, missionaries from the London Missionary Society arrived on the Samoa Islands. The missionaries converted the islanders to Christianity with great success. Some of these missionaries, along with traders, enjoyed the islands so much that they settled there. They established their own communities, with governments and laws. The natives and the settlers lived in peace for many years. 42 years later, in 1872, the United States asked the high chief of tribes on the eastern Samoa islands for permission to establish a naval base in exchange for military protection. The base was greenlighted, and was built 6 years later in 1878. By the end of the century, both Britain and Germany were competing for control of the island. As a result of the second Samoan Civil War, a treaty between Great Britain, Germany, and the US was drafted, making island became an official territory of the United States. Uniquely, citizens of this island territory are not granted citizenship to the United States because of the territory’s odd classification under Unincorporated unorganized. Instead of citizens, the islanders are American nationals. This means that they can live and work in the states and other territories but cannot vote in elections unless they go through normal immigration processes. So that’s the US, 50 states and 13 islands (5 of which aren’t desolate), with, like everything else, a deeper history than you would have thought.

Contents

Etymology

The origins of the word territory begin with the Proto-Indo-European root ters ('to dry').[2] From this emerged the Latin word terra ('earth, land') and later the Latin word territorium ('land around a town').[3][4] Territory made its debut as a word in Middle English during the 14th century. At this point the suffix -orium, which denotes place, was replaced with -ory which also expresses place.[5]

Types

Types of territory include:

Capital territory

A capital territory or federal capital territory is usually a specially designated territory where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in the federal model of government, no one state or territory takes pre-eminence because the capital lies within its borders. A capital territory can be one specific form of federal district.

Dependent territory

Dependent territory is a designation for a territory that is not an independent sovereign state, yet remains politically outside the governing state's integral area.[6] Presently, all dependent territories are either overseas territories or non-sovereign associated states. Only four countries currently possess dependent territories: the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Norway and the United States.

Examples include:

Federal territory

A federal territory is an area within the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of the central or national government within a federation.

Federal territories include:

Overseas territory

Overseas territory is a broad designation for a territorial entity that is separated from the country that governs it by an ocean. An overseas territory may be either a constituent part of the governing state or a dependent territory.

Examples include:

See also

References

  1. ^ https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/territory
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  4. ^ "Definition of TERRITORY". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  5. ^ Dunmore, Charles; Fleischer, Rita (2008). Studies in Etymology (Second ed.). Focus. ISBN 9781585100125.
  6. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514

External links

This page was last edited on 21 November 2018, at 21:24
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