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Telewizja Polska

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

TVP
Telewizja Polska
TypeBroadcast television
Country
AvailabilityNationwide
International
Headquarters17 Woronicza Street, Warsaw, Poland
OwnerGovernment of Poland
Key people
Jacek Kurski
(General Director)

Maciej Łopiński
(Deputy Managing Director)
Launch date
25 October 1952; 69 years ago (25 October 1952)
Former names
none; previously shortened as TP until 1992
Official website
tvp.pl

Telewizja Polska S.A. (pronounced [tɛlɛˈvizja ˈpɔlska]; "Polish Television"; TVP), also known in English as Polish Public Television is a Polish state media corporation.[1][2][3] It is the largest Polish television network,[4] although viewership has been declining since at least 2010.[5] As of 2020, the broadcaster's revenue is mainly compensations from the state budget for lost revenues from license fees, and to a lesser extent from advertising and sponsorship, radio and TV subscriptions and sales of self-produced TV programmes.[6]

Since 1993, the legal status of the broadcaster has been defined by the Broadcasting Act, according to which Telewizja Polska is obliged to implement "a public mission (...) by offering (...) various programmes and other services in the field of information, journalism, culture, entertainment, education and sport, characterized by pluralism, impartiality, balance and independence as well as innovation, high quality and integrity of the message."[7] However, since 2015, TVP has been widely described as providing one-sided favorable coverage of the ruling Law and Justice party.[8]

Timeline of Polish TV service

TVP headquarters at 17 Jan Paweł Woronicz Street (ul. Jana Pawła Woronicza), Warsaw, Poland[9]
TVP headquarters at 17 Jan Paweł Woronicz Street (ul. Jana Pawła Woronicza), Warsaw, Poland[9]
  • 1935: The PIT (Państwowy Instytut Telekomunikacyjny - National Telecommunications Institute) starts working together with Polish Radio on establishing the first television service.
  • 1937: Completion of the first black-and-white broadcasting station.
  • 1938: Experimental channel launched, regular programming scheduled for 1941.
  • 1939: All equipment destroyed by the German Army.
  • 1947: PIT resumes work on television broadcasting.
  • 1951: First Polish telecast after the Second World War.
  • 1952: Beginning of regular programming.
  • 1957: Broadcast of the first sports event; a boxing match Skra Warsaw – Gwardia Łódź[10]
  • 1958: Newscast Dziennik Telewizyjny ("Journal") was founded.
  • 1970: TVP2 was founded.
  • 1971: Start of colour broadcasting (in SECAM).
  • 1989: Introduction of a teletext service.
  • 1989: Dziennik Telewizyjny was replaced by Wiadomości ("News").
  • 1992: Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna comes into existence upon the separation of television and radio public broadcasting by an act of parliament.
  • 1992: TVP Polonia starts test transmissions.
  • 1993: Polskie Radio i Telewizja (Polish Radio and Television) joins the European Broadcasting Union as an active member (regrouping of OIRT and UER).
  • 1994: Beginning of the change over from SECAM to PAL for all channels except TVP1.
  • 1995: Change over from SECAM to PAL was completed as TVP1 moved to this colour standard.
  • 2003: Change of TVP logotype.
  • 2009: New main headquarters building opened in Warsaw.
  • 2013: Analogue terrestrial television was switched-off.
  • 2020: TVP eSzkoła, TVP Kultura 2 and TVP Dokument were founded.[11][12][13]
  • 2021: TVP Kobieta was founded.[14]

Incidents and controversy

Post-2015 changes

In 2015, the government passed a law allowing it to directly appoint the head of TVP.[15] Since then, TVP has displayed bias towards the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) part, compared with propaganda of the former Communist regime.[8][16][17] TVP has also faced criticism for its portrayal of LGBT people, the political opposition, Jews, and other groups as a shadowy conspiracy seeking to undermine Poland.[18][19] In 2018, The Economist stated: "the [TVP] anchors... praise PiS slavishly while branding its critics treacherous crypto-communists.[20]

The press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders wrote in its 2019 assessment of Polish press freedom that "many blamed state-owned TV broadcaster TVP’s 'hate propaganda' for Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz's murder in January 2019."[21] Ahead of the 2019 European parliament elections, TVP ran 105 segments of the election of which 68 of 69 focused on the ruling party were positive and all 33 about the opposition were negative, according to a study by the Society of Journalists.[16] Polish political scientist and anti-racism activist Rafał Pankowski stated, "I am old enough to remember Communist-controlled television in the 1980s, and I can safely say that what we have now is cruder, more primitive, and more aggressive than anything that was broadcast at that time."[16]

TVP was heavily criticized in the run-up to the 2020 Polish presidential election, being described as the "mouthpiece" of the government[22] and as "peddl[ing] government hate speech" by the organization Reporters Without Borders.[23]

In 2020, the station was ordered to retract a documentary, Inwazja, released just before the 2019 elections. Comparing the LGBT movement unfavorably to the Swedish Deluge and Communism, the documentary claimed that there is an "LGBT invasion" of Poland and that LGBT organizations have the goal of legalizing pedophilia. It was found to defame the Campaign Against Homophobia organization. Ombudsman Adam Bodnar stated, "The material not only reproduces stereotypes and heightens social hatred towards LGBT people, but also manipulates facts."[24][25][16][26]

During the 2020 presidential campaign, the state television broadcast a segment of Wiadomości called Trzaskowski spełni żydowskie żądania? ("Will Trzaskowski meet Jewish demands?") regarding the Civic Platform candidate Rafał Trzaskowski. A complaint was made by the American Jewish Committee, Union of Jewish Religious Communities, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, to the Polish Media Ethics Council [pl] regarding antisemitism in the program. The Council concluded not only were anti-semitic statements made in the show, it did not uphold journalistic standards: Wiadomości "turned into an instrument of propaganda of one of the candidates in this election".[27][28][29][30][31][32]

According to Timothy Garton Ash, "the broadcaster has descended into the paranoid world of the far right, where spotless, heroic, perpetually misunderstood Poles are being conspired against by dark, international German-Jewish-LGBT-plutocratic forces meeting secretly in Swiss chateaux."[18]

TVP president Jacek Kurski rejected the contention that the organization violated broadcasting law.[33][34] and conservative media commentator and former TVP employee Jacek Karnowski says the station "deserves recognition" for its "consistent promotion of patriotism and pro-state thinking".[35][36]

International cooperation

In 2015, TVP signed an agreement with the BBC, under which they will work together on film and television productions.[37][needs update]

The French-German TV liberal arts network ARTE cancelled a 15-year cooperation with TVP,[38] when it learned in February 2009 that TVP's general director, Piotr Farfał, was a member of the League of Polish Families, which opposed Arte’s "philosophy based on intercultural exchange"[39] and "the party that TVP's chairman is presently connected with does not share European values".[40] It was again cancelled in January 2016 after an amendment of the media law in Poland, which caused fears of a lack of pluralism and independence of TVP.[41]

Viewership

In September 2020, TVP's "Wiadomości" was the most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.66 million viewers a day.[42]
In February 2021, TVP's "Wiadomości" was second most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.41 million viewers a day.[43]

Logo history

  • 1976–1992: white-red inscription TP.
  • 1992–2003: Green letter T, red V, blue P, and the word TELEWIZJA POLSKA S.A. and three stripes: red, green and blue. In addition to letters three lines.
  • 2003–present: TVP logo and lettering TELEWIZJA POLSKA.

TVP channels

LCN Channel Logo Broadcast standard
1 TVP1 HD
bezramki
DVB-T MUX-3
2 TVP2 HD
TVP2 HD logo.svg
DVB-T MUX-3
3 TVP3
bezramki
HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3
29 TVP ABC
Logo TVP ABC
DVB-T MUX-1
31 TVP Historia
TVP Historia logo.svg
DVB-T MUX-3
32 TVP Sport HD
Logo TVP Sport.jpg
DVB-T MUX-3
34 TVP Info HD
TVP Info logo.svg
HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3
36/83 TVP Kultura HD
TVP Kultura logo 2015.png
DVB-T MUX-8
37 TVP Kobieta
TVP Kobietalogozespotu.png
DVB-T MUX-8 / DVB-T2
84 TVP Polonia HD
TVP Polonia new logo.png
DVB-T2
85 TVP Rozrywka
bezramki
DVB-T2
86 TVP Dokument
TVPdokument-logo655.png
DVB-T2
88 TVP 4K
TVP 4K.png
DVB-T2
92 TVP Eszkoła HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-8
93 TVP Historia 2 HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-8
94 TVP Kultura 2
TVP Kultura 2 2020.png
HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-8
95 Jasna Góra TV HbbTV / DVB-T2
102 TVP Seriale
bezramki
DVB-T MUX-4

TVP HD and TVP Seriale are pay television. TVP Polonia, TVP Info and TVP Historia are also available on DVB-T in Lithuania.

General and regional channels

HD channels

  • TVP1 HD: HD version of TVP1, introduced 1 June 2012;
  • TVP2 HD: HD version of TVP2, introduced 1 June 2012;
  • TVP Info HD: HD version of TVP Info, introduced 30 September 2016;
  • TVP HD: the best productions of TVP in HD, introduced 6 August 2008;
  • TVP Sport HD: HD version of TVP Sport, introduced 12 January 2014.
  • TVP Kultura HD: HD version of TVP Kultura, introduced 23 October 2019.

Specialty channels

International channels

  • TVP Polonia – retransmits selected TVP programming for the Polish diaspora (the so-called Polonia) in the US, Canada, Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, Europe, and the Caucasus. Broadcasts 24 hours per day.
  • Belsat TV – channel in the Belarusian language presenting news and subject-specific programming for the people of western Belarus. Broadcasts 16 hours per day.
  • TVP Wilno – channel presenting news and programming for the Polish diaspora in the Vilnius region of Lithuania, available in DVB-T in this country.
  • Poland In – English-language channel for Poles abroad.[45]

Upcoming channels

  • <b>TVP Muzyka</b>: a music channel that is to reactivate the Tylko Muzyka channel.[46][47]
  • <b>TVP Nauka</b>: focusing on science and nature.[46]
  • <b>TVP World</b>: English-language channel for Poles abroad.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^ Santora, Marc; Berendt, Joanna (11 October 2019). "Poland's State Media Is Government's Biggest Booster Before Election". The New York Times.
  2. ^ "Poland's media battle gets political". Politico.eu. 11 February 2019.
  3. ^ "Polish government to 'repolonize' media in next term, deputy PM says". Reuters. 20 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Nie ufamy mediom publicznym i częściej płacimy za treści". Press.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  5. ^ "W 2010 r. zyskała tylko TVN, duży spadek TVP 1" [In 2010, only TVN gained, TVP 1 decreased significantly] (in Polish). Wirtualnemedia.pl. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  6. ^ "Polska. Środki przekazu. Telewizja - Encyklopedia PWN - źródło wiarygodnej i rzetelnej wiedzy". encyklopedia.pwn.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  7. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 29 grudnia 1992 r. o radiofonii i telewizji". isap.sejm.gov.pl.
  8. ^ a b Połońska, Eva (2019). "Watchdog, Lapdog, or Attack Dog? Public Service Media and the Law and Justice Government in Poland". Public Service Broadcasting and Media Systems in Troubled European Democracies. Springer International Publishing. pp. 227–255. ISBN 978-3-030-02710-0.
  9. ^ "Redakcja tvp.pl" (in Polish). TVP S.A. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
  10. ^ "Sport w TVP - obrazki z wystawy". www.teleman.pl.
  11. ^ "Wystartowała TVP eSzkoła [akt.]". SATKurier.pl.
  12. ^ "Dziś wystartował internetowy kanał TVP Kultura 2: w ofercie m.in. filmy, seriale i koncerty". rozrywka.blog - Cyfrowy styl życia. June 26, 2020.
  13. ^ ""Ważna chwila dla fanów dobrego dokumentu". Startuje nowy kanał TVP [WIDEO]". www.tvp.info. November 18, 2020.
  14. ^ "Wyjątkowy prezent dla Polek z okazji 8 marca. Startuje TVP Kobieta". www.tvp.info. February 26, 2021.
  15. ^ "Poland profile - Media". BBC News. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d Davies, Christian (11 October 2019). "'Cruder than the Communists': Polish TV goes all out for rightwing vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  17. ^ Sources:
    • "A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy". Freedom House. Poland’s legislative elections laid bare the extent to which the ruling Law and Justice party had politically captured the state media, whose taxpayer-funded broadcasts leading up to the voting amounted to partisan propaganda.
    • Kalan, Dariusz (25 November 2019). "Poland's State of the Media". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
    • "Poland". RSF. Reporters without borders. Retrieved 27 September 2020. Partisan discourse and hate speech are still the rule within state-owned media, which have been transformed into government propaganda mouthpieces. Their new directors tolerate neither opposition nor neutrality from employees and fire those who refuse to comply.
    • Kortas, Olivia (11 March 2020). "Poland's TVP public television rift reveals PiS party split". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
    • OSCE 2020 presidential election final report: "The public broadcaster (TVP) failed in its legal duty to provide impartial coverage, which could offset the editorial bias of the private media. Instead, TVP acted as a campaign vehicle for the incumbent."
    • Żuk 2020. "The election campaign before the next election won by PiS in October 2019 showed particularly clearly how public media became the property of the ruling party and practiced propaganda typical of authoritarian states instead of public debate."
    • Węglińska, Agnieszka (2020). "The Image of Germany in Social Media: Political and Social Aspects of Public Service Media in Poland". Central European Journal of Communication. 13 (25): 41–54. doi:10.19195/1899-5101.13.1(25).4. ISSN 1899-5101. Government control over TVP contributes to public service media being a tool for propaganda and politics...
    • Kalan, Dariusz (18 January 2021). "Poland's PiS-poor media". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 18 January 2021. Over the last few years, Poland’s public television broadcaster TVP and radio broadcasters have been put squarely under PiS control – and even insiders admit they have been transformed into hardline government mouthpieces. This unprecedented move has been condemned by various international organisations, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Reporters Without Borders, and the Council of Europe, which called TVP “a propaganda channel for the ruling party”.
  18. ^ a b Ash, Timothy Garton (10 July 2020). "Opinion: For a bitter taste of Polish populism, just watch the evening 'news'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  19. ^ Żuk, Piotr (2020). "One Leader, One Party, One Truth: Public Television Under the Rule of the Populist Right in Poland in the Pre-Election Period in 2019". Javnost - the Public. 27 (3): 287–307. doi:10.1080/13183222.2020.1794413. S2CID 221980008.
  20. ^ "Poland's ruling Law and Justice party is doing lasting damage". The Economist. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  21. ^ "Poland". Reporters Without Borders.
  22. ^ Santora, Marc; Berendt, Joanna (2019-10-11). "Poland's State Media Is Government's Biggest Booster Before Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  23. ^ "Polish public broadcaster peddles government hate speech in presidential election run-up". Reporters Without Borders. 24 June 2020. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020.
  24. ^ Bretan, Juliette (8 June 2020). "Court orders Polish state broadcaster TVP to take down online anti-LGBT film". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  25. ^ "KPH wygrywa w sądzie z TVP. Podatnicy dowiedzą się, ile kosztowała homofobiczna "Inwazja"". oko.press. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  26. ^ "TVP o Inwazji LGBT: "Potop", "gorsza niż najbardziej zagorzali komuniści", "czeka nas legalizacja pedofilii"". oko.press. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  27. ^ "Rada Etyki Mediów o "Wiadomościach": "To instrument propagandy"". www.kobieta.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  28. ^ "Polish state TV incited hatred against Jews, media ethics panel says". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  29. ^ Reuters Staff (10 July 2020). "Jewish group slams Polish public TV for 'hateful' role in presidential race". Reuters. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  30. ^ "Leading presidential hopeful would 'satisfy Jewish claims' for Holocaust restitution, Polish state TV warns". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  32. ^ "Organizacje żydowskie złożyły skargę na "Wiadomości"". JEWISH.PL (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  33. ^ "Prezes TVP: Staramy się robić telewizję rzetelną i spluralizowaną" [President of TVP: We try to make television reliable and plural] (in Polish). Interia. Retrieved 2020-12-20.
  34. ^ "Sejmowa komisja o TVP. Kurski bronił rzetelności, ale posłanka Sobecka przebiła prezesa" [Sejm committee about TVP. Kurski defended integrity, but MP Sobecka defended more than the president] (in Polish). Gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2020-12-20.
  35. ^ "Cztery lata prezesury Jacka Kurskiego w TVP. "Sprawny i kreatywny, razi jego gust i cynizm"". Wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  36. ^ "Cztery lata prezesury Jacka Kurskiego w TVP. "Telewizja publiczna na wielu polach odbudowała swoją przewagę"". Wpolityce.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-12-20.
  37. ^ "TVP stawia na współpracę z BBC. Nowe produkcje". Media2.pl. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  38. ^ "EUROPÄISCHE PARTNER". arte.tv. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012.
  39. ^ "Libertas to cut links with controversial Polish political party". The Irish Times. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  40. ^ Nick Holdsworth. "Dual peril for Poland's top pubcaster". Variety. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  41. ^ "Francuska TV ARTE zrywa współpracę z TVP". Rzeczpospolita.
  42. ^ ""Wiadomości" liderem oglądalności we wrześniu". sdp.pl (in Polish). 5 October 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
  43. ^ ""Fakty" liderem oglądalności w lutym". wirtualnemedia.pl. 3 March 2021.
  44. ^ TVP Dokument wystartuje 19 listopada, satkurier, 6 October 2020
  45. ^ "TVP World ma ruszyć w 2021 roku. Kurski: dla Polaków za granicą niemówiących już po polsku". www.wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.
  46. ^ a b "TVP Muzyka i TVP Nauka - nowe kanały w planach". SATKurier.pl. Retrieved 2021-02-09.
  47. ^ "TVP Muzyka i TVP Klasyka - dwa nowe kanały tematyczne od Telewizji Polskiej". www.wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.
  48. ^ "TVP World ma ruszyć w 2021 roku. Kurski: dla Polaków za granicą niemówiących już po polsku". www.wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.

External links

This page was last edited on 22 November 2021, at 14:00
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