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Television pilot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A television pilot (also known as a pilot or a pilot episode and sometimes marketed as a tele-movie) is a standalone episode of a television series that is used to sell the show to a television network. At the time of its creation, the pilot is meant to be the testing ground to gauge whether a series will be successful, and is therefore a test episode of an intended television series. It is an early step in the development of a television series, much like pilot studies serve as precursors to the start of larger activity. In the case of a successful television series, the pilot is commonly the very first episode that is aired of the particular series under its own name;the episode that gets series "off the ground" . A "back door pilot" is an episode of an existing successful series that features future tie-in characters of an up-and-coming television series or film. The purpose of the "back door pilot" is to introduce the characters to an audience before the creators decide on whether they want to pursue a spin-off series with those characters or not.

Television networks use pilots to discover whether an entertaining concept can be successfully realized. After seeing this sample of the proposed product, networks will then determine whether the expense of additional episodes is justified. They are best thought of as prototypes of the show that is to follow, because elements often change from pilot to series. Variety estimates that only a little over a quarter of all pilots made for American television proceed to the series stage,[1] although the figure may be even lower.[2]

Most pilots are never publicly screened if they fail to sell a series. If a series eventuates, pilots are usually—but not always—broadcast as the introductory episode of the series.

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Film Courage: From your Park on the Lot website you have a [blog] post that you wrote in 2015 Six Things Your TV Spec Script Needs To Stand Out and we'd love to hear more about that. Carole Kirschner: Do I remember all six of them? That's a year ago but I can't give you some generals. Your spec script has to be profoundly memorable what I like to call blazing hot Greg is not good enough so the first thing is it has to be incredibly memorable you have to choose a concept that is something that people will be talking about the next day it also has to be really really really really good I just finished reading fifty spec scripts for my CBS program just good isn't good enough there there were plenty that we're good but it has to be blazing hot has to be exceptional and one of the things that makes it exceptional is a concept where you're taking a risk you're just taking a risk you're going outside of just a typical kind of show typical kind of television series and you're really trying to go deeper deeper on the concept level deeper with your characters and I just read a script last night that we end that didn't make it into the into the next round it was well-written but it was a procedural that was just a typical procedural with a well-written but typical protagonist and it was a different sort of environment than we different workplace than we normally see and it was fine but it didn't make it wasn't exceptional it didn't get you excited when you read it tell me what is typical that's that's fascinating to me what about it wasn't Walter White mmm okay what wasn't Walter White the character wasn't that interesting it was a female it was a young woman who was going against what her family wanted to do this thing in a man's world we've only seen that a hundred thousand times and she she she had something that she was passionate about but it didn't reveal enough about her it wasn't a character you know Walter White had layers and layers and layers this character had a lid number to make sure the show you've selected to speck on is going to be on the air for a few years yes I don't want it to be too new you don't want it to be too old around you want it just right as a as in a show that's the second or third season yes it's important that you don't put all this work and energy into a spec script that you can only use for 30 minutes because a show gets canceled it shouldn't be so new that we don't know whether or not it's going to come back it shouldn't be so old that people have read it have read every single possible configuration of that show I saw for my CBS project I saw somebody write a Criminal Minds that shows been on the air for more than ten years don't do that don't I hate to see people who put so much time and energy and effort in blood and sweat and tears into doing a spec and then only being able to use it for 30 minutes because the show went off the air and so really the sweet spot is a show that's been on the air for two seasons we know it's kind of a hit and going into the third season now there's some exceptions for that when a show comes out of the gate as a huge hit like Empire you can pretty much be assured that it's going to be on the air for a while which it is and will be but just to be safe second year third year second season third season that's what I recommend in addition to how long it's been on the air you want to make sure that the numbers are strong the other reason to wait for the second season is so that people in the business will have had a chance to have seen the show sometimes people write shows that are so obscure that our BBC shows that nobody's watching that it's hard to appreciate the spec because we don't know the show just to go off-topic for a second Carole where could someone go to look at the ratings for a show there's a couple of places you can go to TV by the numbers comm you can go to actually if you just google it if you do a search TV ratings there will be four or five websites that will come up that will tell you what the ratings are you can also just google the name of the television show and then picked up renewed or cancelled and there's a whole website that just deals with renewed or cancelled okay interesting I did not know that number four so show runners and executives need to have actually seen the show how do you know which ones hint if it's a critically acclaimed or getting good reviews it's most likely being watched any show with buzz okay any show that has buzz that's getting good numbers or even if it's not getting good numbers but it's getting a lot of critical acclaim like Jane the virgin has not gotten good numbers but is sort of a critical darling then you know that executives and showrunners have read it know the show you want them as I said to know the show so that they can evaluate your material here's here's another sort of inside tip don't write a spec for a show that's not very good there's certain shows that have been on the air a long time but they don't have depth they aren't interesting they're just crowd pleasers that will not show off your writing ability you want to show that is textured and layered and interesting and has depth to show your writing ability can you can you name a few shows sure you have texture sure well there was Breaking Bad which doesn't help anybody now because if you have a Breaking Bad I'm sad for you there is certainly the Americans but the Americans is going off the air mr. robot is really good and interesting and Laird masters of sex I think veep is funny as a comedy Silicon Valley as funny as a comedy I think that shows like I'm just I'm going by the Network show too shameless although shameless has been on too long but it's that kind of a show where there's there's more to it than just what's on the surface number 5 your script can't be too soft make it edgy edgy edgy ok so you don't want you want to swing for the fences you want to take a big risk you want to do something that that is really edgy that is really sort of on the per if the parameter of everyday and is moving into the extraordinary that is pretty that's pretty vague I know but take a risk do something that is unexpected that's what edgy is - it's unexpected it goes to a dark place when you don't expect it to go to a dark place it goes to a funny place when you don't expect it to go to a funny place it's what you want is to surprise somebody when they're reading the script where they go here's the bottom line let me read something that I didn't see it coming that will get you that will get you noticed a strong memorable concept and somewhere at least once in your script where wow I didn't see that coming but again not so but still keeping within the world of that show and the reality of that show so again I think we were talking about Silicon Valley you're not going to have aliens land that is risky that is too risky don't go outside of what what is the reality of the world the other thing and I might not have mentioned it is if you have a show that's called the Carmichael show let's say which is on NBC if the stars name is in the title then you need to make your spec about the star you aren't going to get very far if you pick a character that is rarely seen to do the whole episode about as somebody said a long time ago it's called Roseanne because it's about Roseanne so that's just a thing to keep in mind it's interesting to explore in some way the the B characters but you've got to pay attention to your a character so if the whole show becomes about Becky and all the things going on in her life and Roseanne just in the background it's a problem yes it's a big problem exactly edgy though I see now that stuff's really pushing the boundaries that get used to especially 80s television for all this yes 80s kids out there but when is it still too edgy for the world that we're in now which it seems like pretty much anything we'll go these days but how do you know you've kind of not not even just aliens landing but I mean just something like yucky that's a little sick that's taking it too far I think that I I read a script where I went ooh yeah because somebody was describing something that was so sexual and and weirdly special I went whoa no no no no no no and being sexual is fine to me you know I that is I don't have a problem with that but this went way over the edge and then it was like anything that makes you go you or it if you write something like that and the people that are reading it for you before you send it out go ooh then check it out okay because as soon as somebody has that reaction it's over right and I think people have different levels it's true they do yeah they do but so if you get someone else who maybe is more squeamish because there's some people I could see just go any which way and yeah I think it's fine but yeah so maybe have I would show it to a couple of different people with different levels of as you say squeamishness and see what kind of reaction you get if all three of them go Jim it's just over the edge it's over the top make sure it's something you can write the hell out of yes it has to be a show you love that you love that you can't wait to write it people often have agents or managers or friends tell them this is a show it's the best show that's on right now you should write it you should only write it if you love it and you can write the hell out of it you have the voices of the characters in your head you have a great idea for it now that doesn't mean that you should write something that it's in its first year or that's in its tenth year or that is not very well made but it doesn't have to be what everybody else is writing write something that you cannot wait to write and then write the hell out of it


Pilot season

Each summer, the major American broadcast television networks – including ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox, and NBC – receive about 500 brief elevator pitches each for new shows from writers and producers. That fall, each network requests scripts for about 70 pitches and, the following January, orders about 20 pilot episodes.[3] Actors come to Los Angeles from within the area or elsewhere in the United States and around the world to audition for them. By spring, actors are cast and production crews assembled to produce the pilots.[4]

Casting is a lengthy and very competitive process. For the 1994 pilot of Friends, casting director Ellie Kanner reviewed more than 1,000 actors' head shots for each of the six main roles. She summoned 75 actors for each role to audition, then chose some to audition again for the show's creators. Of this group, the creators chose some to audition again for Warner Bros. Television executives, who chose the final group of a few actors to audition for NBC executives; as they decide whether to purchase a pilot, network executives generally have ultimate authority over casting.[5] Since the networks work on the same shared schedule, directors, actors, and others must choose the best pilot to work for with the hopes that the network will choose it. If it is not chosen, they have wasted their time and money and may have missed out on better career opportunities.[6]

Once they have been produced, the pilots are presented to studio and network executives, and in some cases to test audiences; at this point, each pilot receives various degrees of feedback and is gauged on its potential to advance from one pilot to a full-fledged series. Using this feedback, and factoring in the current status and future potential of their existing series, each network chooses about four to eight pilots for series status.[3] The new series are then presented at the networks' annual upfronts in May, where they are added to network schedules for the following season (either for a fall or "mid-season" winter debut), and at the upfront presentation, the shows are shown to potential advertisers and the networks sell the majority of the advertising for their new pilots.[6] The survival odds for these new series are low, as typically only one or two of them survive for more than one season.[3]

Types of pilots

Standard pilot


If a network is not completely sold on a potential series' premise but still wants to see its on-screen execution, and since a single pilot can be expensive to produce, a pilot presentation may be ordered. Depending on the potential series' nature, a pilot presentation is a one-day shoot that, when edited together, gives a general idea of the look and feel of the proposed show. Presentations are usually between seven and ten minutes. However, these pilot-presentations will not be shown on the air unless more material is subsequently added to them to make them at least 22 or 45 minutes in length, the actual duration of a nominally "30 minute" or "60 minute" television program (taking into account television commercials that fill the remaining time). Occasionally, more than one pilot is commissioned for a particular proposed television series to evaluate what the show would be like with modifications. Star Trek: The Original Series and All in the Family are famous examples of this presentation-to-pilot-to-series situation.

An example of change between the making of a pilot and the making of a series is To Tell the Truth in 1956. The show's original title at pilot was Nothing But the Truth and was hosted by Mike Wallace; by the time it became a series, the title was changed and Bud Collyer was tapped as host.


Pilots usually run as the first episode of the series, and more often than not are used to introduce the characters and their world to the viewer. However, the post-pilot series may become so different that it would not make sense for the pilot to be aired. In this case, the pilot (or portions of it) is often re-shot, recast, or rewritten to fit the rest of the series. The pilot for Gilligan's Island, for instance, showed the castaways becoming stranded on the island. However, three roles were recast before going to series, with the characters either modified or completely altered to the point where the pilot could no longer be used as a regular episode. As a result, CBS aired Gilligan's second produced episode, which had the characters already stranded on the island, first; the story from the pilot was largely reworked into a flashback episode which aired later (with several key scenes re-shot). Even Gilligan's theme song, which was originally done as a calypso number, was rewritten and recomposed to be completely different. Another example was in the original Star Trek where most of the footage of the original pilot, "The Cage," was incorporated into the acclaimed two-part episode, "The Menagerie," with the story justification that it depicted events that happened several years earlier. Conversely, the second pilot for Star Trek, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", aired as the third episode of the show's first season, even though it included some casting and costuming differences that set it apart from the preceding episodes (enough that a literary work based on one of its spin-offs would actually place the episode in a parallel universe).

If a network orders a two-hour pilot, it will usually broadcast it as a television film to recoup some of the costs even if the network chooses to not order the show.[7] Sometimes, a made-for-TV-movie is filmed as the pilot, but because of actors not being available, the series intro is reshot and the first reshot episode is considered the pilot. The original Cagney & Lacey movie co-starred Loretta Swit (of M*A*S*H fame) as Chris Cagney, but when she could not get out of her contract, they reshot it with Meg Foster, who after the first season was replaced with Sharon Gless; therefore, the original movie is not considered a pilot, and is not included in the series collections on DVD. In some cases, this does not hamper broadcast, such as Jackie Cooper playing the role of Walter Carlson in the TV movie pilot of the 1975 series The Invisible Man, but replaced by Craig Stevens for the remainder of the series; the pilot is still considered part of the series and released to DVD as such. Likewise, The Homecoming: A Christmas Story had an almost entirely different cast than the series it was intended to pilot (The Waltons), but both were rerun for many years.

Multiple airings

The majority of TV pilots are aired twice (typically in September and December), while some have aired more times.

Examples of pilots airing three times, typically in September, December, and June, include:

  • Scrubs (first airing: 15.4 million; second airing: 10 million; third airing: 6.5 million)
  • Medium (first airing: 16.1 million; second airing: 9.3 million; third airing: 5.2 million)
  • The Office (first airing: 11.2 million; second airing: 3.4 million; third airing: 4.2 million)
  • Ghost Whisperer (first airing: 11.3 million; second airing: 8.8 million; third airing: 4.9 million)
  • The Good Wife (first airing: 13.7 million; second airing: 5 million; third airing: 6.9 million)

Some examples of pilots airing more than three times:

  • ABC aired the pilot of Lost five times (first airing: 18.7 million viewers; second airing: 8.8 million; third airing: 11.6 million; fourth airing: 8.1 million; fifth airing: 6.4 million)
  • Desperate Housewives (first airing: 21.6 million; second airing: 7 million; third airing: 12.9 million; fourth airing: 7.4 million)
  • My Name Is Earl (first airing: 15.2 million; second airing: 5.3 million; third airing: 8.3 million; fourth airing: 4.8 million)


Since the mid-1990s, television producers and networks have increasingly used presentation tapes called "demos" in lieu of full-length pilots.[2] These demos tend to be substantially shorter than a standard episode, and make limited use of original sets and post-production elements. The idea is merely to showcase the cast and the writing. These types of pilots are rarely broadcast, if ever, although the material is sometimes partially fitted onto a future episode of the resulting series. A demo prepared at an early stage, normally using amateur equipment, is also known as a sizzle script.[8]

Some series sold using demos:

The "demo" episode is not a new concept, as The Munsters was sold on the basis of a 13-minute demo episode in 1964, while Who's Afraid of Diana Prince? in the late 1960s attempted without success to launch a comedic Wonder Woman series.

Backdoor pilot

A backdoor pilot is a movie or miniseries that serves as a proof of concept for a full series,[9] but may be broadcast on its own even if the full series is not picked up.[10]

The term may also be used for an episode of a currently running show that serves to introduce a spin-off. Such backdoor pilots commonly focus on an existing character or characters from the parent series who are to be given their own show. For example, to introduce A Different World, built around Cosby Show character Denise Huxtable (Lisa Bonet), the Cosby Show episode "Hillman" was devoted to Denise's visit to the college that would become the new show's setting, and her encounters with some of the new show's supporting characters. A 2018 episode of ABC's 1980s-set sitcom The Goldbergs, titled "1990-Something", heavily featured teachers who were recurring characters on the series served as the backdoor pilot to Schooled, which is set to debut in early 2019.[11]

In other cases, however, an episode of the parent show may also focus on one or more guest characters who have not previously appeared in the show; for example, the JAG season eight episodes "Ice Queen" and "Meltdown" introduced the characters for what would become NCIS, while the NCIS season six "Legend Part 1" and "Legend Part 2", two-part episode introduced the characters for what would become the NCIS spin-off series, NCIS: Los Angeles and the NCIS season 11 two-part episode, "Crescent City", introduced the characters for what would become NCIS: New Orleans. Similarly, the backdoor pilot for the television sitcom Empty Nest was an episode of The Golden Girls, which relegated that show's regular stars to supporting characters in an episode devoted to new characters who were introduced as their neighbors. Feedback on the episode resulted in Empty Nest being extensively reworked before its debut; while the concept and the "living next to the Golden Girls" setting was retained, the series ended up featuring different characters from those in the original Golden Girls episode. In a 2011 episode of the TV Land original sitcom Hot in Cleveland focused on the wedding of the Elka character (Betty White). Boyce Ballentine (Cedric the Entertainer), an R&B singer-turned-preacher, was introduced as the pastor for the wedding, with the intention to give the Boyce character his own series on the network. That came to fruition in 2012, when TV Land introduced The Soul Man.[12]

Not all backdoor pilots lead to a series. In 1968, the Star Trek episode "Assignment: Earth" was intended as the pilot for a spin-off of the same name, featuring a human named Gary Seven (played by Robert Lansing), taken from Earth's far past and raised by aliens to be sent to watch over Earth in the 1960s; while the series was not picked up, its characters have appeared in numerous non-canon Trek productions set in the 20th century.[13] The series finale of One Day at a Time in May 1984 was supposed to serve as a backdoor pilot to a spin-off featuring Pat Harrington, Jr.'s character of Dwayne Schneider in a new setting, but CBS ultimately passed on the potential series.[14] The Dukes of Hazzard aired two episodes, named "Jude Emery" and "Mason Dixon's Girls", which served as a backdoor pilot complete with the Dukes cast interacting with the new characters. Ultimately, CBS passed on the two series in favor of a series starring Hazzard County deputy Enos Strate. Another example within sitcoms would be a season 2 episode of The Nanny called "The Chatterbox", which centered around a struggling actress who gets a job at a barbershop owned by a single father.[citation needed] In an example from June 2010, Lifetime pursued a spinoff procedural drama of Army Wives featuring Brigid Brannagh's character, police officer Pamela Moran.[15] The fourth-season episode "Murder in Charleston" was intended to serve as a backdoor pilot for the proposed spin-off.[15] The episode sees Moran teaming up with an Atlanta-based detective on a murder that is related to a case she has been working on for the past three years. At the end of the episode, the detective encourages Moran to take a detective's exam, and to look for her if she is in Atlanta.[16] In September 2010, however, Lifetime declined to pick up the project to series.[17] In 2013, The CW announced there was a spin-off of their genre hit Supernatural in the works. The 20th episode of season nine titled Bloodlines, served as a back-door pilot, revealed in January 2014 to have been titled Supernatural: Bloodlines. The series was set to explore the "clashing hunter and monster cultures in Chicago". The show was not picked up by the CW for the 2014–2015 season due to dismal overall reception by viewers.

The Gossip Girl episode "Valley Girls" was supposed to be a backdoor pilot for a prequel spin-off series starring Brittany Snow as a young Lily van der Woodsen, however the show was not picked up. "The Farm" was an episode of NBC's The Office that was supposed to act as a backdoor pilot for a spin-off series starring Rainn Wilson and focusing on his character, Dwight Schrute.[18] Upon review, the spin-off was not picked up by NBC[19] and the original version was never aired; instead it was reworked with additional material shot later, as the original version contained "certain aspects that were appropriate for a pilot of a new show".[20]

A historically important venue for backdoor pilots has been the anthology series. They have variously been used as a place to show work still being actively considered for pickup, and as a venue for completed work already rejected by the network. With the decline of anthology series, backdoor pilots have increasingly been seen as episodes of existing series,[21] one-off television films, and miniseries. As backdoor pilots have either failed to sell or are awaiting audience reception from its one-time broadcast, networks will not advertise them as pilots, only promoting them as a "special" or "movie". It is thus often unclear to initial viewers of backdoor pilots that they are seeing a pilot of any kind, unless they have been privy to knowledgeable media coverage of the piece.

In one extraordinary case, an unsold pilot was released as a theatrical film. Lum and Abner Abroad, a 1956 attempt to create a television vehicle for film and radio stars Lum and Abner, was never picked up as a series, but the three pilot episodes produced as proof of concept for the series were strung together and released as a theatrical film.

Unintentional pilot

While, as listed above, there are many telemovies or episodes within series intended as pilots, there are often telemovies or episodes within other series that are so popular that they inspire later television series. Popular examples are South Park, which began as a duo of shorts its creators made at college; The Simpsons, which began as an occasional comic short within The Tracey Ullman Show; and Family Guy, which began life as a short, titled The Life of Larry. A two-part episode of The Six Million Dollar Man introduced the character of Jaime Sommers who, despite dying in the story, was popular enough to narratively return to life and a spinoff series, The Bionic Woman, was commissioned. The 2006 Doctor Who episode "School Reunion" was intended as a one-off reunion appearance by Sarah Jane Smith, but ended up leading to a spin-off series, The Sarah Jane Adventures.

Put pilot

A put pilot is a pilot that the network has agreed to air either as a special or series. If the network does not air the pilot episode, the network will owe substantial monetary penalties to the studio. Generally, this guarantees that the pilot will be picked up by the network.[22]

Unsold pilot

Unsold television pilots are pilots developed by a company that is unable to sell to a network for showing.


In a 10/90 production model, a network broadcasts ten episodes of a new television program without ordering a pilot first. If the episodes achieve a predetermined ratings level, the network orders 90 more to bring the total to 100 episodes, immediately enough to rerun the show in syndication. Series that used the 10/90 model include Tyler Perry's House of Payne, Meet the Browns, For Better or Worse, Debmar-Mercury's Anger Management,[23] and Are We There Yet?.

As distinguished from "first episode"

A pilot episode is generally the first episode of a new show, shown to the heads of the studio to whom it is marketed.

The television industry uses the term differently from most viewers. Viewers frequently consider the first episode available for their viewing to be the pilot. They therefore assume that the first episode broadcast is also the episode that sold the series to the network. This is not always true, however, in part because of the factors mentioned above. For instance, the episode "Invasion of the Bane" was not a pilot for The Sarah Jane Adventures because the BBC had committed to the first series before seeing any filmed content[24] – yet it is routinely referred to as a pilot.[25][26] In the Canadian supernatural drama Lost Girl, the pilot that sold the series to Showcase, "Vexed", was used as the eighth episode of the first series.[27] In the case of Firefly, the original pilot (Serenity) which was intended to serve as the series premiere was rejected by the network, and a new first episode, Train Job, was shot specifically for broadcast.[28]

Sometimes, too, viewers will assign the word "pilot" to a work that represented the first appearances of characters and situations later employed by a series – even if the work was not initially intended as a pilot for the series. A good example of this is "Love and the Television Set" (later retitled "Love and the Happy Days" for syndication), an episode of Love, American Style that featured a version of the Cunningham family. It was in fact a failed pilot for the proposed 1972 series New Family in Town, but was a successful pilot for 1974's Happy Days.[29] So firmly embedded is the notion of it as a Happy Days pilot, however, that even series actress Erin Moran viewed it as such, as well as its creator, Garry Marshall.[30]

On other occasions, the pilot is never broadcast on television at all. Viewers of Temple Houston, for example, would likely have considered "The Twisted Rope" its pilot because "The Man from Galveston" was only publicly exhibited in cinemas four months later. Even then, "The Man from Galveston" had an almost entirely different cast, and its main character was renamed to avoid confusion with the then-ongoing series.


List of highest rated television pilots which attracted 28 million or more viewers in America:

Rank Show Viewers
(in millions)
Rating Date Network
1 A Different World 38.9 31.3% September 24, 1987 NBC
2 Undercover Boss 38.7 19.1% February 7, 2010 CBS
Lead in: Super Bowl XLIV Post Game 75.5 33%
3 The Last Precinct 39.7 N/A January 26, 1986 NBC
4 Dolly 37.4 24.7% September 27, 1987 ABC
5 Veronica's Closet 35.07 [1] 23.3% September 25, 1997 NBC
6 Twin Peaks 34.6 [2] 21.7% April 8, 1990 (two hours) ABC
7 Brothers and Sisters 31.722 N/A January 21, 1979 NBC
8 Full House 31.3 21.7% September 22, 1987 ABC
9 Roseanne 30.8 23.7% October 18, 1988
10 Grand Slam 30.765 N/A January 28, 1990 CBS
11 seaQuest DSV 30.4 (8–10pm) [3] 17.8 rating September 12, 1993 NBC
12 Chicken Soup 30.2 21.8% September 12, 1989 ABC
13 Suddenly Susan 30.1 [4] 20.4% September 19, 1996 NBC
14 Caroline in the City 30.0 20.5% September 21, 1995
15 Delta 30.0 20.5% September 15, 1992 ABC
16 Dear John 30.0 19.8% October 6, 1988 NBC
17 The Single Guy 29.1 19.2 September 21, 1995
18 Frasier 28.1 19.3% September 16, 1993


  1. ^ "''Variety'' defines "busted pilot"". Retrieved 2016-03-05.
  2. ^ a b "Pilot programs at ''The Museum of Broadcast Communications''". Retrieved 2016-03-05.
  3. ^ a b c Chozick, Amy (2011-05-12). "The Math of a Hit TV Show". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  4. ^ Nocutt, Tamara-Lee. "A Survival Guide to Pilot Season". Backstage. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  5. ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (1994-04-06). "Finding the Absolutely Perfect Actor: The High-Stress Business of Casting". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Lotz, Amanda D. (2007) The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press. p. 103-104
  7. ^ Lowry, Brian (May 8, 2000). "The Saga of O.J.'s Last, Lost Pilot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  8. ^ Smith, Evan; "Creating a Series Pilot—Newcomers Welcome", Journal of Film and Video, vol. 65, no. 1 (2013): 56-61 Project Muse (accessed March 28, 2013)
  9. ^ "Alex Epstein on Backdoor Pilots". 2005-02-04. Retrieved 2016-03-05.
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Further reading

External links

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