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Telecommunications network

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes,[1] links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.[1] The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal.

Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space.

Examples of telecommunications networks are:[2]

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Transcription

This module deals with some of the more technical things we will cover in this class. This chapter discusses networks and telecommunications. Even though it gets a little technical, it still covers some very important information. A network is a group of Computers and peripheral devices connected to each other to transmit and share data and information. For example, two computers may be connected to each other to share files or send email. Those two computers may also share a printer. The internet is actually a very large computer network. This is an illustration of a network. Several computers are connected to each other via a hub. They all share a common printer. A Local Area Network (LAN): exists in a limited geographical region, within the same building or at least the same campus. This illustration is a peer to peer network which means there is no one controlling server. Each Workstation is equal. You will see P to P networks in homes and small businesses. This is an illustration shows an example of a wide area network. A Wide Area Network (WAN): covers a large geographical area. WANs typically connect multiple LANs. A college with an extension campus, would use a WAN. The Internet is also an example of a WAN. This is an illustration shows an example of a twisted pair wire. Twisted-Pair Wire: is the most prevalent communications wiring. It is use for telephone wiring and local area networks. These illustrations show examples of coaxial cables. Coaxial Cable: uses a single insulated copper wire. It is shielded to make it less susceptible to electrical interference. Coax can carry much more data than twisted-pair. You may have encountered coax cable in connecting your television to cable or a satellite provider. If you have internet service provided by a cable company, you also use coaxial cable. These illustration shows an example of a fiber optic cable. Fiber-Optic Cables: contain thousands of thin glass filament fibers that transmit information via light pulses. The fiber-optic cable is surrounded by an insulated coating that keeps the light from leaving the fiber. These illustration shows a modem and its purpose. A Modem (modulator-demodulator): converts digital signals to analog signals—a process called modulation—and analog signals to digital signals—a process called demodulation. Computers use digital signals and but they are transmitted over coaxial cable and twisted pair as analog when connecting to the internet. Here are some methods used to connect to the internet. At the top of the list is dial up. Dial up is old and outdated, still used when other methods are not readily available. Most home still use DSL or Cable modem. Large businesses and new housing developments use Fiber. A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device on a network A series of four numbers separated by a period or dot 69.32.133.79 Static IP addresses seldom change Using IP addresses is clunky. So, fortunately, we use domain names. When you know a specific site you want to reach on the internet you use a URL. The url specifies the protocol such as HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP, the domain name, the path (if any) and finally the file name. HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Hypertext is what makes the world wide web possible. It is the protocol that creates links in text that jump somewhere else. This is called HyperText. Information transferred over a non-secure web site can be intercepted through packet sniffers and other means. HTTPS is a secure version of HTTP and this protocol encrypts the information that travels between you and your bank for instance. The internet has changed the way we do business. One area that is exciting, especially for students doing group projects are tools for online collaboration. This slide lists a few of these tools, most of which are free. Among them are Google Doc, Dropbox, Skype and Microsoft’s Onedrive.

Contents

Benefits of telecommunications and networking

Telecommunications facilitates interaction and information transfer over large distances. Businesses use telecommunications to expand and grow their networks. With Internet, computer, and telephone networks, businesses can allocate their resources efficiently. These core types of networks will be discussed below:

Computer network: a computer network consists of computers and devices connected to one another. Information can be transferred from one device to the next. For example, an office filled with computers can share files together on each separate device. Computer networks can range from a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN). The difference between the types of networks is the size. These types of computer networks work at certain speeds, also known as broadband. The Internet network connects computers worldwide.

Internet network: access to the network allows users to use many resources. Over time the Internet network will replace books. This will enable users to discover information almost instantly and apply concepts to different situations. The Internet can be used for recreational, governmental, educational, and other purposes. Businesses in particular use the Internet network for research or to service customers and clients.

Telephone network: the telephone network connects people to one another. This network can be used in a variety of ways. Many businesses use the telephone network to route calls and/or service their customers. Some businesses use a telephone network on a greater scale through a private branch exchange. It is a system where a specific business focuses on routing and servicing calls for another business. Majority of the time, the telephone network is used around the world for recreational purposes.

Network structure

In general, every telecommunications network conceptually consists of three parts, or planes (so called because they can be thought of as being, and often are, separate overlay networks):

  • The data plane (also user plane, bearer plane, or forwarding plane) carries the network's users' traffic, the actual payload.
  • The control plane carries control information (also known as signaling).
  • The management plane carries the operations and administration traffic required for network management. The management plane is sometimes considered a part of the control plane.

Example: the TCP/IP data network

The data network is used extensively throughout the world to connect individuals and organizations. Data networks can be connected to allow users seamless access to resources that are hosted outside of the particular provider they are connected to. The Internet[3] is the best example of many data networks[1]from different organizations all operating under a single address space.

Terminals attached to TCP/IP networks are addressed using IP addresses. There are different types of IP address, but the most common is IP Version 4. Each unique address consists of 4 integers between 0 and 255, usually separated by dots when written down, e.g. 82.131.34.56.

TCP/IP are the fundamental protocols that provide the control and routing of messages across the data network. There are many different network structures that TCP/IP can be used across to efficiently route messages, for example:

There are three features that differentiate MANs from LANs or WANs:

  1. The area of the network size is between LANs and WANs. The MAN will have a physical area between 5 and 50 km in diameter.[3]
  2. MANs do not generally belong to a single organization. The equipment that interconnects the network, the links, and the MAN itself are often owned by an association or a network provider that provides or leases the service to others.[3]
  3. A MAN is a means for sharing resources at high speeds within the network. It often provide connections to WAN networks for access to resources outside the scope of the MAN.[3]

Datacenter networks also rely highly on TCP/IP for communication across machines. They connect thousands of servers, are designed to be highly robust, provide low latency that is typically up to hundreds of microseconds, and high bandwidth. Datacenter network topology plays a significant role in determining the level of failure resiliency, ease of incremental expansion, communication bandwidth and latency.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Design Elements - Telecommunication networks".
  2. ^ "Telecommunication Network - Types of Telecommunication Networks".
  3. ^ a b c d "Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)". Erg.abdn.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  4. ^ Noormohammadpour, Mohammad; Raghavendra, Cauligi (28 July 2018). "Datacenter Traffic Control: Understanding Techniques and Tradeoffs". Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE. 20 (2): 1492-1525.
This page was last edited on 11 November 2018, at 10:53
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