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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tees Valley

Teesside
Tees Boroughs
Location of Tees Valley
Coordinates: 54°36′18″N 1°15′25″W / 54.605°N 1.257°W / 54.605; -1.257
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
CountryEngland
RegionNorth East England
CountiesCounty Durham (North Tees)
North Yorkshire (South Tees)
Established2011 (as a Local enterprise partnership)
Administrative HQThornaby
(Cavendish House)
Boroughs
Government
 • TypeCombined authority
Local enterprise partnership
 • BodyTees Valley Combined Authority
Tees Valley Unlimited
 • MayorBen Houchen, (Conservative)
Area
 • Total306.93 sq mi (794.95 km2)
Population
 (mid-2019 est.)
 • Total701,818
 • Density2,300/sq mi (880/km2)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Websitewww.teesvalley-ca.gov.uk

Tees Valley is a combined authority area in the north of England around the River Tees. The combined authority was established in 2016, after public consultation in 2015. The area is not a geographical valley.[1]

Administrating the area is the Tees Valley Combined Authority, consisting of a mayor and six selected chairs, local enterprise partnership chair and each unitary authority.

The area covers five boroughs: Darlington, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar & Cleveland and Stockton-on-Tees. Middlesbrough is the smallest of the five at only 20.8 square miles and a population of 138,400. Stockton-on-Tees borough is the largest with a population of 194,000.

Before the region, from 1968 until 1974, parts had been under the County Borough of Teesside authority. This was replaced by Cleveland county, it consisted of four districts which become unitary authorities after the county was abolished in 1996. The Darlington district in the Durham county council area became a unitary authority in 1997.

History

Former political names are frequently still used. Rural areas, the valley’s lower south, tend to have kept older names for longer than the rest of the valley which is evident with Teesdale (dale is an old name for a valley) and Redcar and Cleveland in addition to its predecessor, Langbaurgh council. This has led the words’ meanings to narrow to refer to these areas.

For centuries, north Tees was under the Bishop of Durham's Palatine and south Tees was under a wapentake (division) of the North Riding of Yorkshire, which originally met at Langbaurgh in the centre of the wapentake.

From 1885 to 1974, Cleveland, a parliament constituency, was established in an area as a successor to the two previous entities. The constituency covered land north of the River Tees down to and including Whitby. This was counted as one of four divisions of a larger North Riding of Yorkshire, which had expanded into Durham’s historic county.

Political regions were introduced to England causing south Humber to be put with Yorkshire and Cleveland to split with its southern parts and put inside of the North East of England region with some of its other segmented land.[clarification needed] This was due to its shared industrial heritage. The centre was no longer in the Yorkshire Moors, Cleveland being a description of the said land, but the Tees. This led to the name Teesside.

In 1974, the County Borough of Teesside was disbanded and Cleveland was reintroduced with land including Hartlepool and Guisborough. The area was partitioned between the boroughs.[2]

Local government reorganisation in 1996 saw the county of Cleveland broken up for a second time with the boroughs becoming independent unitary authorities; Langbaurgh was shrunk into Redcar and Cleveland and Stockton borough enlarged. At this time they were returned to the counties of North Yorkshire and County Durham for ceremonial purposes. The general area name defaulted back to Teesside.

In 1998 the neighbouring Borough of Darlington also became an independent unitary authority. Darlington, along with the four Teesside boroughs, formed the region of the Tees Valley which is used for now used statistical purposes and governmental organisation.

Governance

Status

The Tees Valley region does not have city status granted by the Crown. There are two central towns of Middlesbrough and Stockton-on-Tees with Hartlepool, Redcar and Darlington also having boroughs. The Teesside conurbation excludes Darlington.

In common usage, the terms "Tees Valley", "Teesdale", "Teesside" (urban areas) and "Cleveland" are usually used interchangeably with each term more common than the others in the west of the valley, urban areas and east of the valley, respectively.

Archaically, the southern area was known as the Langbaurgh Wapentake given its name from Langbaugh which was close to the southern original meeting point for governance. Norton was the main north valley town. Middlesbrough and Stockton have since taken over from Langbaurgh and Norton.[3]

Local government

Map of the Tees Valley Region
Map of the Tees Valley Region

The official region consists of the following 5 unitary authorities, each governed by a council:

Unitary Authority Population Area
(sq mi)
Population density
(per km2)
Darlington 105,367 76.3 535
Hartlepool 92,590 36.1 985
Stockton-on-Tees 194,119 79.2 952
Redcar and Cleveland 135,042 94.5 551
Middlesbrough 138,400 20.8 3242

UK Parliament

Tees Valley is divided into seven and a part UK parliamentary borough constituencies, formed from the combined area of wards. Stockton is the only borough covered by two whole constituencies with all others holding one and a part except Hartlepool with one:

Four constituencies are held by the Conservative Party after the 2019 general election, up by three since the 2017 general election. Labour hold the other three. Sedgefield's partial seat is also represented by a Conservative MP, as of the 2019 election.

Combined Authority

Tees Valley Combined Authority logo.png

Tees Valley is under the strategic local governance of a combined authority. The headquarters of the TVCA are at Cavendish House in Thornaby. Voters in the region covered by the Authority, announced in October 2015, directly elected their first regional Mayor in 2017.[4][5][6]

Mayors

The Mayor of Tees Valley is a directly elected politician who, along with the Combined Authority, is responsible for the strategic government of Tees Valley.[7] There are other mayors for the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Stockton-on-Tees.[8] Hartlepool also had a Mayor from 2002 to 2013.

The current, overarching, Tees Valley Mayor is Ben Houchen. His work is scrutinised by the elected TVCA, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The Mayor is responsible for Tees Valley's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend a plan for each electoral cycle.[9]

Lord Lieutenants

Two Lord Lieutenants (Durham and North Yorkshire) are appointed by the borough’s ceremonial counties.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Tees Valley at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics.

Gross value added (£ millions)
Year Agriculture[1] Industry[2] Services[3] Total[4]
1995 26 2,746 3,574 6,347
2000 23 2,716 4,622 7,362
2003 22 2,568 5,478 8,069
  1. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  2. ^ includes energy and construction
  3. ^ includes Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured
  4. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

Enterprise zone

The Tees Valley Enterprise Zone is an enterprise zone which encourages industrial development. It was initiated by the local enterprise partnership Tees Valley Unlimited and its creation was announced by the government in 2011. At its launch, the zone contained 12 sites. Four of these sites offer enhanced capital allowances, aimed at large manufacturers. These sites are Wilton International and South Bank Wharf, both in Redcar and Cleveland, Port Estates in Hartlepool and New Energy and Technology Park in Billingham, Stockton-on-Tees. The remaining sites offer reduced business rates.[10] In March 2015 the government announced that a thirteenth site is to be added, South Bank Wharf Prairie, aimed at oil and gas decommissioning business.[11]

Businesses

BOC plant on Teesside
BOC plant on Teesside

Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) operated here until the late 1990s on three chemical sites at Wilton, Billingham and Seal Sands. ICI was broken up, and its many chemical manufacturing units are now operated by a large number of companies that have acquired its assets. The Centre for Process Innovation (CPI), a national innovation catapult[clarification needed], is based at the Wilton Centre, the former corporate headquarters of ICI, which has become a multi-company research and development centre: along with CPI there are now some 60 other companies, including the cluster body NEPIC, using these R&D and business development facilities. This centre is now one of Europe's largest R&D facilities focusing on developments in the chemistry-based process industries. The area is a chemicals processing area, but recently it has diversified to become the UK's leading site for renewable biofuel research. This industrial activity is taking place in a collaborative environment facilitated by the economic cluster body, the North East of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC).

Hartlepool has a nuclear power station, and there is a conventional CHP power station and a biomass power station operated by Sembcorp on the Wilton chemical site.Hereema Fabrication Group make North Sea platforms at the A1048/A179 roundabout in Hartlepool.

Wilton Engineering's 50 acre fabrication and maintenance site is in Port Clarence. Barker and Stonehouse make furniture north of Middlesbrough next to the A66/A178 junction. The Teesside Steelworks near Redcar has the biggest blast furnace in Europe and is operated by Sahaviriya Steel Industries (SSI). Tata Steel Europe operate a pipe works at Hartlepool, a heavy beam mill near Middlesbrough and a special sections mill at Skinningrove Steelworks. Able UK operate the biggest dry dock in the UK near Seaton Carew, Hartlepool where ships can be dismantled and oil rigs can be dismantled or refurbished.

The many chemistry-based businesses on Teesside[12] include Huntsman Tioxide plant at Greatham makes titanium dioxide. Huntsman's European headquarters are in Wynyard. Johnson Matthey Catalysts and Fujifilm Dyosynth Biologics have manufacturing units in Billingham while the Lucite International Acrylics factory and the Mitsubishi battery chemical plant are on the other side of the town. Exwold Technology operate their two extrusion and packaging facilities in Hartlepool. Banner Chemicals are adjacent to the A66 in Middlesbrough. Aldous Huxley's visit to the former ICI plant in Billingham inspired Brave New World and this unit now makes fertiliser for Growhow, using 1% of the UK's natural gas. SABIC perochemicals and polymers, Lotte Chemicals PET and PTA plants, Biffa recycled polymers, Huntsman polyurathanes and the Ensus Biofuels all operate at Wilton. ConocoPhillips refinery, BP Cats, Harvest Energy Biodiesel unit, Greenery Fuels, Fine Organics, Vertelus speciality chemicals and Ineos Nitriles are all based at Seal Sands, with Vopak and Simon Storage tank storage businesses nearby. Air Products are building[when?] two waste to energy units at Seal Sands, and Sita are upgrading[when?] their unit at Haverton Hill. Marlow Foods produce Quorn, and KP Snacks make McCoy's Crisps in Billingham. Santander UK's mortgages division is located in Thornaby. Tetley Tea have had their only tea bag factory in the UK at Eaglescliffe, in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees, since 1969. It is the largest tea bag factory in the world and makes 18 billion tea bags a year. Its distribution centre is at nearby Newton Aycliffe in County Durham.

Teesport

Teesport is on the River Tees and is currently the third largest port in the United Kingdom, and amongst the ten biggest in Western Europe, in terms of tonnage shipped. Its size is due to the local steel and chemical industries.

This port handles over 56 million tonnes of goods per annum which are mainly associated with the local petrochemical, chemical and steel processing industries.

The port is an important piece of logistical infrastructure for the NEPIC cluster of process companies.PD Ports, who own Teesport, is headquartered in Middlesbrough adjacent to Middlesbrough railway station.

Landmarks

Transport

Road

Main

Road Route Notes
A1(M) West of Darlington A motorway standard stretch of the A1
A19 South for the rest of Yorkshire and North to Tyne and Wear. Between Stockton & Middlesbrough, then Stockton & Hartlepool, as aproxoximate borough borders.
A66 Most of Tees Valley is served, terminating between Middlesbrough and Redcar, linking to Hartlepool via the A19, running to the west coast of England. The road is motorway standard around Darlington.
A67 Darlington to Stockton It is the main road for the airport, running adjacent to the railway, and was previously designated as the A66 from Darlington to Eaglescliffe and A19, Eaglescliffe southwards through Yarm.
A68 Darlington to Edinburgh Runs west of Darlington.

Triple-digit roads

Road From To Notes
A135 (Yarm Road) Stockton-on-Tees Egglescliffe
A139 Stockton-on-Tees Billingham
A167 Topcliffe Kenton Bar
A171 A66 as Cargo Fleet Lane Scarborough Until the road goes out of the region, it is also known as: Sunnyfields, Orchard Way, Ormesby Bank, Middlesbrough Road, Whitby Road, Fancy Bank, Birk Brow Road & Fancy Bank
A172 A66 as Marton Road, Middlesbrough A19 as Stocking Hill also known as Stokesley Road, Pannierman Lane & Dixons Bank
A173 A172 (Middlesbrough) Skelton-in-Cleveland Also known as Church Lane & Skelton Ellers.
A174 Thornaby Whitby As the road goes out of the region, it is known for a short stretch, as Apple Orchard Bank
A177 Stockton Durham
A178 Middlesbrough Hartlepool
A179 A19 Hartlepool

Bus

Most of the area is served by Stagecoach's Tees Flex network, a pre-bookable service running in and around the valley, mainly serving Stockton on Tees, Darlington and Redcar and Cleveland. Services are operated by a dedicated fleet of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter minibuses.

Rail

Stations

The Tees Valley boroughs have multiple railway stations within their borders. Each borough head town has a station in and named after them, Redcar has two. The stations, by borough, are as follows:

Lines

Commuter rail services linked with lInes from Tees Valley to Durham and Tyne and Wear
Commuter rail services linked with lInes from Tees Valley to Durham and Tyne and Wear
  • Darlington is connected to the East Coast Main Line (ECML) and provides fast connections to London and Edinburgh. From May 2018, the UK Government announced that the line was to be re-nationalised for the second time since privatisation in 1997.[13]
previously proposed Tees Valley Metro route showing most current stations in the region along with proposed stations not built at the present time
previously proposed Tees Valley Metro route showing most current stations in the region along with proposed stations not built at the present time

Services

York-based LNER serves the full length of the ECML and operates most of the stations on the route. Grand Central has linked Teesside with London since December 2007 with a non-stop from York onwards. It does not have electric trains, and uses the Northallerton–Eaglescliffe Line and Durham Coast Line.

Local-service routes in the Tees Valley are provided by Northern, based in Manchester. TransPennine Express, also based in Manchester, has long-distance services from Middlesbrough to Manchester, via West Yorkshire.

Air

Teesside International Airport serves the area and has a regular service from Amsterdam, Schiphol airport.[14]

Sport

Football

Association

Division Club Ground Location
EFL Championship Middlesbrough FC Riverside Stadium Middlehaven, Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
National League Hartlepool FC Victoria Park Hartlepool, County Durham
National League North Darlington FC Blackwell Meadows Darlington, County Durham
Northern Premier League North West Marske United FC Mount Pleasant Marske-by-the-Sea, North Yorkshire
Northern League Division One Billingham Town FC Bedford Terrace Billingham, County Durham
Guisborough Town FC King George V Ground Guisborough, North Yorkshire
Thornaby FC Teesdale Park Thornaby, North Yorkshire
Stockton Town F.C. Bishopton Road West Stockton, County Durham
NL Division Two Billingham Synthonia FC Norton Sports Complex Norton, County Durham (formally Billingham, County Durham)
Redcar Athletic F.C. Green Lane Redcar, North Yorkshire

Under the Northern League they is the North Riding Football League, founded in 2017 by a merger of the Teesside Football League and Eskvale & Cleveland League

Wearside League also host North Tees Teams mainly in Division One:

Wearside League Division two:

  • Wynyard Village, Wynyard (Stockton), County Durham

Rugby Union

As of the 2020–2021 season, there are nine Rugby Union Football Clubs in the region, Darlington Mowden Park is in the highest division compared to the rest of the clubs:

Division Club Stadium Location
National League 1 Darlington Mowden Park R.F.C. Northern Echo Arena Darlington, County Durham
North Premier Billingham RUFC Greenwood Road Billingham, County Durham
North 1 East West Hartlepool R.F.C. Brinkburn Hartlepool, County Durham
Durham/ Northumberland 1 Acklam R.U.F.C. Talbot Park Acklam, Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
Hartlepool Rovers The New Friarage Hartlepool, County Durham
Middlesbrough RUFC Acklam Park Acklam, Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
Stockton RFC Grangefield Ground Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham
D/N 2 Darlington RFC Blackwell Meadows Darlington, County Durham
Guisborough Belmangate Guisborough, North Yorkshire
Hartlepool Mayfield Park Hartlepool, County Durham
Redcar RUFC Mackinlay Park Redcar, North Yorkshire
Seaton Carew Hornby Park Seaton Carew, County Durham
D/ N 3 West Hartlepool T.D.S.O.B. John Howard Park Hartlepool, County Durham
Yarm Wass Way Eaglescliffe, County Durham

Cricket

ECB PL’s North Yorkshire and South Durham Cricket League:

County Durham

  • Darlington:
    • Darlington Cricket Club
    • Darlington Railway Athletic Cricket Club
    • Middleton St George
    • Haughton, Haughton-le-Skerne
  • Hartlepool:
    • Hartlepool
    • Seaton Carew
    • Hartlepool Power Station
  • Stockton (North Tees)
    • Cowpen
    • Norton
    • Billingham Synthonia
    • Stockton

North Yorkshire

  • Stockton (South Tees):
    • Durham Palatinates
    • Thornaby
    • Maltby
    • Yarm
  • Middlesbrough:
    • Middlesbrough, Acklam Park
    • Smiths Dock
    • Normanby Hall
    • Marton
    • Guisborough
  • Redcar & Cleveland
    • Redcar
    • Marske
    • Saltburn

Basketball

Uses in local culture

References

  1. ^ "Tees Valley". Centre for Cities. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Cleveland County Council (Abolition) (Hansard, 17 June 1993)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  3. ^ William Page, ed. (1923). Parishes: Great Ayton. A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Victoria County History. pp. 225–231. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  4. ^ "Elected mayors for north-east of England as devolution deal announced". BBC News. 23 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Tees Valley joins the unstoppable momentum of Northern Powerhouse". gov.uk. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  6. ^ "New Statutory Combined Authority Proposed for Tees Valley, with Backing from Business". Teesvalleyunlimited.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Cities and Local Government Devolution Act: Section 2", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 28 January 2016, 2016 c. 1 (s. 2), retrieved 23 November 2019
  8. ^ "Stockton-on-Tees has a new Mayor..." Stockton Borough Council. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  9. ^ "The Tees Valley Combined Authority Order 2016". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  10. ^ "Teesside celebrates as enterprise zone approved". The Journal. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  11. ^ Price, Kelley (18 March 2015). "Potential for 'many hundreds' of jobs at new Teesside enterprise zone". The Gazette. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  12. ^ NEPIC Directory. NEPIC. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  13. ^ "State takeover for failed rail franchise". BBC News. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Whitby and North York Moors National Park Maps & Travel | Visit Whitby". 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.

External links

This page was last edited on 17 April 2021, at 22:23
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