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# Tax bracket

Tax brackets are the divisions at which tax rates change in a progressive tax system (or an explicitly regressive tax system, though that is rarer). Essentially, tax brackets are the cutoff values for taxable income—income past a certain point is taxed at a higher rate.

## Example

Imagine that there are three tax brackets: 10%, 20%, and 30%. The 10% rate applies to income from $1 to$10,000; the 20% rate applies to income from $10,001 to$20,000; and the 30% rate applies to all income above $20,000. Under this system, someone earning$10,000 is taxed at 10%, paying a total of $1,000. Someone earning$5,000 pays $500, and so on. Meanwhile, someone who earns$25,000 faces a more complicated calculation. The rate on the first $10,000 is 10%, from$10,001 to $20,000 is 20%, and above that is 30%. Thus, they pay$1,000 for the first $10,000 of income (10%),$2,000 for the second $10,000 of income (20%), and$1,500 for the last $5,000 of income (30%), In total, they pay$4,500, or an 18% average tax rate.

In practice the computation is simplified by using point–slope form or slope–intercept form of the linear equation for the tax on a specific bracket, either as tax on the bottom amount of the bracket plus the tax on the marginal amount within the bracket:

${\displaystyle \3\,000+(\25\,000-\20\,000)\times 30\%=\3\,000+\1\,500=\4\,500,}$

or the tax on the entire amount (at the marginal rate), minus the amount that this overstates tax on the bottom end of the bracket.

${\displaystyle \25\,000\times 30\%-\3\,000=\7\,500-\3\,000=\4\,500.}$

See Progressive tax#Computation for details.

## Tax brackets in Australia

### Individual income tax rates (residents)

Financial years 2018–19, 2019–20[1]

Taxable income Tax on this income Effective tax rate
0 – $18,200 Nil 0%$18,201 – $37,000 19c for each$1 over $18,200 0 – 9.7%$37,001 – $90,000$3,572 plus 32.5c for each $1 over$37,000 9.7 – 21.9%
$90,001 –$180,000 $20,797 plus 37c for each$1 over $90,000 21.9 – 30.3%$180,001 and over $54,097 plus 45c for each$1 over $180,000 30.3 – less than 45% The above rates do not include the Medicare levy of 2.0%. ## Tax brackets in Canada Canada's federal government has the following tax brackets for the 2012 tax year (all in Canadian dollars). Note that the "basic personal amount" of$15,527 effectively means that income up to this amount is not subject to tax, although it is included in the calculation of taxable income.[2]

Taxable income Tax on this income
$0–$15,527 Nil
$15,528–$42,707 15%
$42,708–$85,414 22%
$85,414–$132,406 26%
Over $132,406 29%[3] Each province except Québec adds their own tax on top of the federal tax. Québec has a completely separate income tax. Provincial / Territorial Tax Rates for 2012:[4] ## Tax brackets in India Income tax slabs applicable for financial year 2015–16 (Assessment Year- 2016–17)is summarized below: Men and Women under 60 years Up to ₹ 250,000 Nothing ₹ 250,001 to ₹ 500,000 5% of the amount exceeding ₹ 2,50,000 (2.5 lacs) ₹ 500,001 to ₹ 1,000,000 ₹ 12,500 + 20% of the amount exceeding ₹ 500,000 (5 Lacs ) More than ₹ 1,000,000 ₹ 1,12,500 + 30% of the amount exceeding ₹ 1,000,000 (10 lacs) Men and Women between 60 and 80 years Up to ₹ 300,000 Nothing ₹ 300,001 to ₹ 500,000 5% of the amount exceeding ₹ 300,000 (3 lacs) ₹ 500,001 to ₹ 1,000,000 e ₹ 15,000 + 20% of the amount exceeding ₹ 500,000 (5 lacs) More than ₹ 1,000,000 ₹ 115,000 + 30% of the amount exceeding ₹ 1,000,000 (10 lacs) Very Senior Citizens above 80 years Up to ₹ 500,000 Nothing ₹ 500,001 to ₹ 1,000,000 20% of the amount exceeding ₹ 5 lacs More than ₹ 1,000,000 ₹ 100,000 + 30% of the amount exceeding ₹ 10 lacs ## Tax brackets in Malaysia Malaysia has the following income tax brackets based on assessment year.[6] ### Assessment Year 2020 Taxable income Tax payable on this income Effective tax rate MYR 0 – 5,000 Nil 0% MYR 5,001 – 20,000 1% for each MYR 1 over MYR 5,000 0 – 0.75% MYR 20,001 – 35,000 MYR 150 + 3% for each MYR 1 over MYR 20,000 0.75 – 1.71% MYR 35,001 – 50,000 MYR 600 + 8% for each MYR 1 over MYR 35,000 1.71 – 3.60% MYR 50,001 – 70,000 MYR 1,800 + 14% for each MYR 1 over MYR 50,000 3.60 – 6.57% MYR 70,001 – 100,000 MYR 4,600 + 21% for each MYR 1 over MYR 70,000 6.57 – 10.90% MYR 100,001 – 250,000 MYR 10,900 + 24% for each MYR 1 over MYR 100,000 10.90 – 18.76% MYR 250,001 – 400,000 MYR 46,900 + 24.5% for each MYR 1 over MYR 250,000 18.76 – 20.91% MYR 400,001 – 600,000 MYR 83,650 + 25% for each MYR 1 over MYR 400,000 20.91 – 22.28% MYR 600,001 – 1,000,000 MYR 133,650 + 26% for each MYR 1 over MYR 600,000 22.27 – 23.77% MYR 1,000,001 – 2,000,000 MYR 237,650 + 28% for each MYR 1 over MYR 1,000,000 23.76 – 25.88% MYR 2,000,001 and over MYR 517,650 + 30% for each MYR 1 over MYR 2,000,000 25.88% – 30.00% ## Tax brackets in Malta Malta has the following tax brackets for income received during 2012 Single Rates: Taxable income Tax on this income €0 – 8,500 Nil €8,501 – 14,500 15% €14,501 – 19,500 25% €19,501 and over 35% Married Rates: Taxable income Tax on this income €0 – 11,900 Nil €11,901 – 21,200 15% €21,201 – 28,700 25% €28,701 and over 35% ## Tax brackets in the Netherlands ## Tax brackets in New Zealand New Zealand has the following income tax brackets (as of 1 October 2010). All values in New Zealand dollars, with the ACC Earners' levy not included.[7] Taxable income Tax on this income$0 – $14,000 10.5%$14,001 – $48,000 17.5%$48,001 – $70,000 30%$70,001 and over 33%

45% when the employee does not complete a declaration form (IR330).

ACC Earners' Levy for the 2010 tax year is 2.0%, an increase from 1.7% in the 2008 tax year.

## Tax brackets in Singapore

### 2007 & 2008

Taxable income Tax on this income
$0–$20,000 Nil
$20,001–$30,000 3.5c for each $1 over$20,000
$30,001–$40,000 $350 plus 5.5c for each$1 over $30,000$40,001–$80,000$900 plus 8.5c for each $1 over$40,000
$80,001–$160,000 $4300 plus 14c for each$1 over $80,000$160,001–$320,000$15,500 plus 17c for each $1 over$160,000
Over $320,000$42,700 plus 20c for each $1 over$320,000

A personal tax rebate of 20% was granted for 2008, up to a maximum of $2,000. ### 2013 Taxable income Tax on this income$0–$20,000 Nil$20,001–$30,000 2c for each$1 over $20,000$30,001–$40,000$200 plus 3.5c for each $1 over$30,000
$40,001–$80,000 $550 plus 7c for each$1 over $40,000$80,001–$120,000$3,350 plus 11.5c for each $1 over$80,000
$120,001–$160,000 $7,950 plus 15c for each$1 over $120,000$160,001–$200,000$13,950 plus 17c for each $1 over$160,000
$200,001–$320,000 $20,750 plus 18c for each$1 over $200,000 Over$320,000 $42,350 plus 20c for each$1 over $320,000 All figures are in Singapore dollars. ## Tax brackets in South Africa The Minister of Finance announced new tax rates for the 2012–2013 tax year. They are as follows :[8] ### Tax brackets for the 2012 year of assessment Taxable income Tax on this income R0–R150,000 18% of every Rand R150,001–R235,000 R27,000 plus 25% of the amount above R150,000 R235,001–R325,000 R48,250 plus 30% of the amount above R235,000 R325,001–R455,000 R75,250 plus 35% of the amount above R325,000 R455,001–R580,000 R120,750 plus 38% of the amount above R455,000 R580,001 and over R168,250 plus 40% of the amount above R580,000 ### Tax brackets for the 2013 year of assessment Taxable income Tax on this income R0–R160,000 18% of every Rand R160,001–R250,000 R28,800 plus 25% of the amount above R160,000 R250,001–R346,000 R51,300 plus 30% of the amount above R250,000 R346,001–R484,000 R80,100 plus 35% of the amount above R346,000 R484,001–R617,000 R128,400 plus 38% of the amount above R484,000 R617,001 and over R178,940 plus 40% of the amount above R617,000 ## Tax brackets in Switzerland Personal income tax is progressive in nature. The total rate does not usually exceed 40%. The Swiss Federal Tax Administration website [2] provides a broad outline of the Swiss tax system, and full details and tax tables are available in PDF documents. The complexity of the system is partly because the Confederation, the 26 Cantons that make up the federation, and about 2 900 communes [municipalities] levy their own taxes based on the Federal Constitution and 26 Cantonal Constitutions. ## Tax brackets in Taiwan ### Income tax rates (Individual) Financial year 2013[9] Taxable income Tax on this income Effective tax rate NT$0 – NT$272,000 [Includes Tax Free Threshold for below 70 of age (NT$85,000),

Personal Standard Deduction (NT$79,000) and Payroll Income Deduction (NT$108,000)]

Nil 0%
NT$272,001 – NT$792,000 5% for each NT$1 for the next NT$520,000 0 – 3.28%
NT$792,001 – NT$1,442,000 NT$26,000 plus 12% for each NT$1 for the next NT$650,000 3.28 – 7.21% NT$1,442,001 – NT$2,622,000 NT$104,000 plus 20% for each NT$1 for the next NT$1,180,000 7.21 – 12.97%
NT$2,622,001 – NT$4,672,000 NT$340,000 plus 30% for each NT$1 for the next NT$2,050,000 12.97 – 21.3% NT$4,672,001 and over NT$995,000 plus 40% for each exceeding NT$1

## Tax brackets in the United States

### 2018 tax brackets under current law

As of 1 January 2018, the tax brackets have been updated due to the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act:

Marginal tax rate[10] Single Married filing jointly
10% Up to $9,525 Up to$19,050
12% $9,526 to$38,700 $19,051 to$77,400
22% $38,701 to$82,500 $77,401 to$165,000
24% $82,501 to$157,500 $165,001 to$315,000
32% $157,501 to$200,000 $315,001 to$400,000
35% $200,001 to$500,000 $400,001 to$600,000
37% over $500,000 over$600,000

In the United States, the dollar amounts of the federal income tax standard deduction and personal exemptions for the taxpayer and dependents are adjusted annually to account for inflation. This results in yearly changes to the personal income tax brackets even when the federal income tax rates remain unchanged.

### 2011 tax brackets

Marginal tax rate[11] Single Married filing jointly or qualified widow(er) Married filing separately Head of household
10% $0 to$8,500 $0 to$17,000 $0 to$8,500 $0 to$12,150
15% $8,501 to$34,500 $17,001 to$69,000 $8,501 to$34,500 $12,151 to$46,250
25% $34,501 to$83,600 $69,001 to$139,350 $34,501 to$69,675 $46,251 to$119,400
28% $83,601 to$174,400 $139,351 to$212,300 $69,676–$106,150 $119,401 to$193,350
33% $174,401 to$379,150 $212,301–$379,150 $106,151 to$189,575 $193,351 to$379,150
35% $379,151+$379,151+ $189,576+$379,151+

Two higher tax brackets (36% and 39.6%) were added in 1993, and then taxes in all brackets were lowered in 2001 through 2003 as follows:

1992 1993–2000 2001 2002 2003–2007
15% 15% 15% 10% 10%
15% 15%
28% 28% 27.5% 27% 25%
31% 31% 30.5% 30% 28%
36% 35.5% 35% 33%
39.6% 39.1% 38.6% 35%

### Internal Revenue Code terminology

Gross salary is the amount your employer pays you, plus your income tax liability. Although the tax itself is included in this figure, it is typically the one used when discussing one's pay. For example, John gets paid $50/hour as an administrative director. His annual gross salary is$50/hour x 2,000 hours/year = $100,000/year. Of this, some is paid to John, and the rest to taxes. W-2 wages are the wages that appear on the employee's W-2 issued by his employer each year in January. A copy of the W-2 is sent to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). It is the gross salary less any contributions to pre-tax plans. The W-2 form also shows the amount withheld by the employer for federal income tax. W-2 wages = gross salary less (contributions to employer retirement plan) less (contributions to employer health plan) less (contributions to some other employer plans) Total income is the sum of all taxable income, including the W-2 wages. Almost all income is taxable. There are a few exemptions for individuals such as non-taxable interest on government bonds, a portion of the Social Security (SS) income (not the payments to SS, but the payments from SS to the individual), etc. Adjusted gross income (AGI) is Total Income less some specific allowed deductions. Such as; alimony paid (income to the recipient), permitted moving expenses, self-employed retirement program, student loan interest, etc. Itemized deductions are other specific deductions such as; mortgage interest on a home, state income taxes or sales taxes, local property taxes, charitable contributions, state income tax withheld, etc. Standard deduction is a sort of minimum itemized deduction. If you add up all your itemized deductions and it is less than the standard deduction you take the standard deduction. In 2007 this was$5,350 for those filing individually and $10,700 for married filing jointly. Personal exemption is a tax exemption in which the taxpayer may deduct an amount from their gross income for each dependent they claim. It was$3,400 in 2007.

### Sample tax calculation

Given the complexity of the United States' income tax code, individuals often find it necessary to consult a tax accountant or professional tax preparer. For example, John, a married 44-year-old who has two children, earned a gross salary of $100,000 in 2007. He contributes the maximum$15,500 per year to his employer's 401(k) retirement plan, pays $1,800 per year for his employer's family health plan, and$500 per year to his employer's Flexfund medical expense plan. All of the plans are allowed pre-tax contributions.

Gross pay = $100,000 W-2 wages =$100,000 – $15,500 –$1,800 – $500 =$82,200

John's and his wife's other income is $12,000 from John's wife's wages (she also got a W-2 but had no pre-tax contributions),$200 interest from a bank account, and a $150 state tax refund. Total Income =$82,200 + $12,000 +$200 + $150 =$94,550.

John's employer reassigned John to a new office and his moving expenses were $8,000, of which$2,000 was not reimbursed by his employer.

Adjusted gross income = $94,550 –$2,000 = $92,550. John's itemized deductions were$22,300 (mortgage interest, property taxes, and state income tax withheld).

John had four personal exemptions—himself, his wife and two children. His total personal exemptions were 4 x $3,400 =$13,600.

Taxable Income = $92,550 –$22,300 – $13,600 =$56,650.

The tax on the Taxable Income is found in a Tax Table if the Taxable Income is less than $100,000 and is computed if over$100,000. Both are used. The Tax Tables are in the 2007 1040 Instructions. The Tax Tables list income in $50 increments for all categories of taxpayers, single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, and head of household. For the Taxable Income range of "at least$56,650 but less than $56,700" the tax is$7,718 for a taxpayer who is married filing jointly.

The 2007 tax rates schedule[12] for married filing jointly is:

If taxable income is over but not over then the tax is of the amount over
$0$15,650 10% $0$15,650 $63,700$1,565.00 + 15% $15,650$63,700 $128,500$8,772.50 + 25% $63,700$128,500 $195,850$24,972.50 + 28% $128,500$195,850 $349,700$43,830.50 + 33% $195,850$349,700 $94,601.00 + 35%$349,700

The tax is 10% on the first $15,650 =$1,565.00

plus 15% of the amount over $15,650 ($56,650 – $15,650) =$41,000 x 15% = $6,150.00 Total ($1,565.00 + $6,150.00) =$7,715.00

In addition to the Federal income tax, John probably pays state income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax. The Social Security tax in 2007 for John is 6.2% on the first $97,500 of earned income (wages), or a maximum of$6,045. There are no exclusions from earned income for Social Security so John pays the maximum of $6,045. His wife pays$12,000 x 6.2% = $744. Medicare is 1.45% on all earned income with no maximum. John and his wife pays$112,000 x 1.45% = \$1,624 for Medicare in 2007.

Most states also levy income tax, exceptions being Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, New Hampshire, Tennessee and Wyoming.[13]

## References

1. ^ Kasprak, Nick. "2013 Tax Brackets". Tax Foundation. Retrieved 4 January 2012.

1. ^ "Individual income tax rates". www.ato.gov.au. Australian Taxation Office. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
2. ^
3. ^ "Canadian income tax rates for Individuals – current and previous years". Cra-arc.gc.ca. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
4. ^ "Canadian income tax rates for Individuals – current and previous years". Cra-arc.gc.ca. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
5. ^ http://caconnectindia.com/tax/income-tax-slab-rates/
6. ^ "Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri". Retrieved 16 September 2020.
7. ^ "Income tax rates for individuals (Find out about)". Ird.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 7 April 2005. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
8. ^ http://www.treasury.gov.za/documents/national%20budget/2011/review/Annexure%20c.pdf
9. ^ "賦稅法令相關之行政規則". Tax Administration, Ministry of Finance, ROC. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
10. ^ "Tax Brackets | Income Tax Brackets 2013". Bankrate.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
11. ^ https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/i1040tt.pdf
12. ^ "2007 Federal Tax Rates Schedule". IRS. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
13. ^ [1] Archived 25 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
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