To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tumgan (Turkshad, Turksanf, Ta'n han, Turxanthos, Turxath) was a shad (governor prince) of the Turkic Empire (also called Göktürk) in the late 6th century. According to Edward Gibbon his name may be a title rather than a proper name.[1]


In 552 Bumin founded the Gokturk Empire. His younger brother Istämi was viceroy (Yabghu) in the west. In 575 Ishtami was followed by Tardu. By 575/76 Tamgan held some kind of power in the far west around the Volga River. He was probably Tardu's younger brother.[2]

Relations with the Byzantine Empire

Because of the geographic position of his region, Tamgan was responsible in diplomatic relations with Byzantine Empire. (Hence, the historical sources about Tamgan are mostly the reports of Byzantine envoys). Inıtially Turkic and Byzantine Empires were allies against Sassanid Iran and Pannonian Avars. However, according to Byzantine historian Menander Protector, a Byzantine envoy named Valentinos visited Tamgan's headquarters where Tamgan accused Byzantines for the recently signed treaty between the Byzantine Empire and the Avars. He said that the Byzantines were liars and had ten tongues, meaning they were unreliable as allies. He also threatened the Byzantine side mentioning the rivers Danapr, Istr and Evr. (Former names of Dnieper, Danube and Maritsa.) [3] Following this accusation, Turks began to capture Byzantine possessions around north east Black Sea coasts and even Crimea. Briefly, a part of Bosporan Kingdom in Crimea, a vassal of Byzantine Empire fell to Turks.[4] Tardu effectively fought in this area, but left his gains to Tamgan. (About half a century later Byzantine Turkic relations recovered and Turks collaborated with Heraclius in the invasion of North Caucasus.)


There is no record of Tamgan's death. However it is known that together with his brother he supported Apa Khagan during the Turkic interregnum after 584.[3] Thus Tamgan's death year can be located to be later than 584.


  1. ^ Edward Gibbon: Decline and fall of the Roman Empire Vol IV, ISBN 0-8095-9238-X p.576
  2. ^ According to Cambridge History of Inner Asia, ISBN 0-521-24304-1 , p.304 Menander said omaimos which usually means brother but can also mean close relative.
  3. ^ a b L.M.Gümilev :Eski Türkler, tr:Ahsen Batur, Selenge yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, ISBN 975-7856-39-8, OCLC 52822672, p.69, 141
  4. ^ S.G.Klashtorny-T,I.Sultanov:Türkün Üçbinyılı (tr:D.Ahsen batur),Selenge yayınları, ISBN 975-8839-03-9, p.102

External links

This page was last edited on 30 July 2018, at 23:47
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.