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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Taika (大化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō) during the reign of Kōtoku.[1] The Taika era immediately preceded the Hakuchi era. This period spanned the years from August 645 through February 650.[2]

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  • ✪ JAPÓN 2: Antigüedad (Parte 1) - Periodo Asuka

Transcription

NOW ON SALE 'EMPIRES AND espadazos' The following takes place between 540 and 710 BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY Japan 2: The Age Old Japanese I - The Asuka period ASUKA PERIOD The introduction of Buddhism in Japan changed everything. This was what marked the beginning of the Asuka period, so called because the court was established in this plain, but not in a particular location. It turns out that these guys had the belief that every time an emperor died should be moved to a new palace, because the place was filled with impurities and shits chungas. Friendship between Yamato Japs and Koreans Baekje was very nice, but came Silla Kingdom bother, as he always did. This kingdom caused many Korean allies of the Japanese pirar and they had to flee the archipelago, looking for some peace in Yamato. He came to Japan a lot of new people, and with them more Buddhism, Confucianism and other foreign moves. It is believed that the Clan of the Soga appeared here. This clan began to climb in the hierarchy of ujis, and became one of the three most powerful clans when Soga no Iname managed to marry their daughters with Emperor Kinmei, and got the job of Oomi, or Minister of State. His influence made Buddhism among the upper classes from expanding relatively quickly. In the following years ruled Bidatsu Emperor, and his power was weak, so he leaned on three clans. Clans like Mononobe and Nakatomi Shinto were 100%, and were masters of ceremonies of the court and controlled the troops. How could it be otherwise, sack opposed to Buddhism, destroying temples and statues of Buddha. "We're going to do here control ... control this youth of today" They preferred to stick with their traditional Shinto kami worship their private sanctuaries. By contrast, the Soga were the ones who led the Buddhist forehead. In 587 the Soga led by Umako and Mononobe led by Moriya began to see milks in a civil war that ended the Battle of Mount Shigi. The rope, pro-Buddhist, won, and lost all legitimacy Mononobe and pyro occurred. "I'm going to Strasbourg and arrange everything" Sushun Emperor came to the throne, but had differences with Soga and they killed him. Here is one of the daughters of the late Emperor Kinmei of origin Soga: Empress Suiko, considered the first woman to sit your ass with full powers in the Chrysanthemum Throne. While it is true that power in the shade was Soga no Umako. And the prince and nephew of Empress Shotoku Taishi's. The latter was the architect of the first Japanese constitution, which had only 17 items. It was sought to improve the organization of a centralized bureaucracy in Imperial State, and consists of a set of 12 ranges. Put Buddhism as the official religion of the court because it was cool to have to pray only a figure, Buddha, not hundreds of Shinto deities. Many people sat fatal, but both religions coexisted really well for hundreds of years. "You shut your mouth" This Shotoku was a real fan of Chinese culture, and its relations with the Sui Dynasty were excellent. In fact, this Constitution written in Chinese, and copied them to the calendar and writing system, which would create the kanji. He also built roads to help the neighboring country and conducted exchanges of students and embassy officials to exchange knowledge. Of the most important things he did highlight the Horyoji, a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, the oldest wooden structure, which was destroyed and rebuilt a jug of times, as it seems it was tradition. Soga no Umako power remained in the shadow of the state Yamato, building the Hoko-ji Temple or Asuka-dera in Kyoto today. Then there were others like Shitenno-ji, on the mountain Arahaka in Naniwa, Osaka current; or Horyuji in Nara, and originally called Ikaruga-dera. "Uffff, that's too much for my head ... I do not give to both" Japanese Buddhist temples include several parts. Large access doors to the enclosure; Kondo main hall or where the altar and several statues is; Kodo or hall, for meetings; and Pagoda, the typical tower where the statue of Buddha is kept. In Shinto temples they stand out more small shrines or altars that keep sacred relics of the kami; and torii, typical archways. The Haiden usually a prayer room, and behind them is another building called the Honden, characterized by these sticks on the roof. It was the place of the offerings, reserved only for the few, for there is the sacred body of the kami, the go-shintai, which can be anything from jewelry to mirrors or Mount Fuji keeps fucking. After the death of Empress Suiko in 628, the cut is divided into two factions. Those who supported Prince Tamura, the Soga, and those who supported the Prince Yamashiro-no-Oe, son of Shotoku. By pressures ropes, the latter ended up committing suicide and Tamura ascended the throne with the name of Emperor Jomei. The Soga clan were already supreme. However, they were coming problems for Soga. Shotoku and Umako had palmed, and in 642, the Empress Kōgyoku arrived. With it, the Soga clan led by Soga no Emishi and his son Soga no Iruka lived the good life of the court. But 3 years after the Isshi Incident occurred, a coup against the Soga led by Prince Naka no Oe, son of the Empress, and Nakatomi no Kamatari, the pro-Shinto Nakatomi clan. They went to Daigokuden, or large courtroom of the palace, and a espadazos messed with Soga, killing Iruka front of the Empress, and making Emishi, the father killed himself afire his palace. With this the Soga Clan disappeared. "To your house" All this occurred in the year 645. That same year Kotoku was named new emperor and with him, Naka and Kamatari, began the Taika era, an era of great reforms inspired by China and they would move up and down around the Yamato state. In fact, the court moved from Asuka to the city of Naniwa, Osaka today, although the change would not last long and returned to Asuka. the imperial authority by its relationship to the goddess Amaterasu Shinto and Buddhism as protectors strengthened, and reduced the power of local clans. He expropriated the ujis of their land for him and distribute quedárselas again including, but not their property. This aristocracy of the kuge, former Uji, officials would be responsible for collecting taxes, mainly rice. Under orders from these kuge the peasants, who were required to work the land, public works and military service, since the emperor began to mount an army remained. "Is fucking cool" They used many of these enlisted peasants to conquer terrain of northern Honshu, inhabited by indigenous Emishi, ie ancient Jomon and Ainu. In the long run it would not be such a good idea to fight them. When he died the Emperor Kotoku, Naka no Oe said he did not want to send, he preferred the shadows, so his mother that he commanded her again said, and he reigned but with the name of Empress Saimei. And when she died the boy thought better and longer reigned himself as Emperor Tenji. He continued his friendship with Kamatari, and together they wrote the Omi code, chronicling different Chinese and Confucian laws known as Ritsuryo system. Therefore, Nakatomi no Kamatari was privileged to form a new clan by 670, becoming now Fujiwara. However, shortly after the emperor Tenji died, and his son Prince Otomo, and his brother Oama, who lived like a monk in the mountains, began a civil war for power, the Jinshin War. Oama won and reigned as Tenmu, seeking greater peace possible and built the Yakushi Buddha statue, protector of the needy. "It's about time ... yeah, it was time" And in this time much proliferated monasteries and Buddhist sects, forming the clerical establishment, with juicy power within the court. In all, the social stratification was consolidated. two distinct breeds are created: the Ryomin were the upper class including the former uji, while Senmin peasants were slaves or servants. These were organized in many villages along the 66 regions or kunis of Japan at that time. The two tochas imperial institutions were the Department of Worship, Jingi-kan, responsible for appointing the clergy and religious rituals, and the Department of State, the Daijo-kan, a sort of central administration. The daijō-daijin was the Chancellor of the Kingdom, or a kind of 1st Minister, right hand of the emperor. This guy was who, for example, designating regional governors. All this new administration, judiciary and other legal operation rolls are grouped in the so-called Taiho Code, the year 702. And they began to create the first Japanese coins, Wadokaichin, but their use is not widespread. "The need the money" This emperor Tenmu had the urge to legitimize their lineage, and therefore sent Kojiki writing, historical and mythological texts that narrate the past of the island and written in archaic Japanese. Logically he puts his family through the roof. "I have pillao with caddy Helao" Closer to reality was the Nihon Shoki, which is also the first evidence of the word Nihon or Nippon, ie Japan. Foreign policy was fucking thing. The Korean kingdom Baekje sought help from the Japs, because it turns out that the kingdom of Silla was allied with Tang China and they were invading. The Yamatos poor suffered a terrible defeat at the Battle of Hakusukinoe. Baekje was taken by Chinese and Japan decided to cut relations with its neighbors. Tenmu daughter, the emperatriz Jito tried to create a definitive capital without transfers and shit like that, they were a roll, and the city would be chosen Fujiwara-kyo in 694, current Kashihara. The problem is that 15 years later the Empress Genmei changed to Heijo-kyo, better known as the city of Nara. This would be the new capital, where a new Imperial Palace was built, the Heijo Palace. This transfer took place in 710, and thus begins the Nara Period.

Contents

History

In 645, also known as Taika 1 (大化元年), the new era name was created to mark the beginning of the reign of the emperor Kōtoku. The previous reign ended and the new one commenced in the fourth year after the beginning of Empress Kōgyoku's reign.[1]

In Japan, this was the first nengō, derived from the Chinese system of eras (nianhao);[2] although some scholarly doubt has been cast on the authenticity of Taika and Hakuchi as historically legitimate era names.[3]

Timeline

Timelines of early Japanese nengō and Imperial reign dates
Emperor MommuEmpress JitōEmperor TemmuEmperor KōbunEmperor TenjiEmpress SaimeiEmperor KōtokuKeiunTaihō (era)ShuchōHakuchi (era)Taika (era)Empress GemmeiEmpress Kōgyoku

The system of Japanese era names was not the same as Imperial reign dates.

Events of the Taika era

  • 645 (Taika 1): Empress Kōgyoku abdicates; and her brother receives the succession (senso). Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōtoku formally accedes to the throne (sokui).[4]
  • 645 (Taika 1): Kōtoku introduces the Taika reform (大化の改新, Taika no kaishin). The ideas and goals of this systemic reform (律令, ritsuryō) were memorialized in a series of articles which formally bore the imprimatur of the emperor. Kōtoku officially divided Japan into eight provinces. The Taika reforms also sought to regulate the rank of government officials who were to be distinguished by 19 sorts of official hats or caps with differing forms and different colors according to a very strictly-defined hierarchy.[5]
  • 645 (Taika 1): Kōtoku decides to abandon Asuka, which had been the capital city up to this time. Instead, he transferred the capital to Naniwa, which is in the general vicinity of the Bay of Osaka. In this new location, Kōtoku centralized his power without further delay. Kōtoku lived in a palace which had been newly constructed for him on a promontory. The name of this palace was Toyosaki-no-Miya. The palace was at Nagara, in the general area of Naniwa in Settsu province.[6]
  • 646 (Taika 2, 1st day of the 1st month): Kōtoku established a regular calendar for the court, with major audiences scheduled only on certain days. The emperor also addressed a number of matters which would affect all parts of Japan—as for example, creating judicial districts, establishing guard posts on major roads, arranging for postal relay systems, dividing the country in governable units with separations following the natural boundaries created by mountains and rivers, appointing governors for each province, and fixing the amounts porters might be able to charge. Kōtoku named the chiefs in the districts and the villages; and for the first time, it became possible to register the number of houses and the numbers of people in each location, the taxes to be exacted from each area and the varying products from throughout the land. He also mandated that from every hundred households, one beautiful young woman should be sent for service in the palace household. He arranged that in each year, an officer from the central court should be sent to each province to examine the conduct of the governors and their government. The emperor also initiated plans for building storehouses of goods and arsenals which would serve the needs of a national army or militia.[5] The udaijin Sogo Yamada Ishikawa Maro was specifically charged with the task of planning so that all the faults that could be attributed to mistakes of government would not happen—or could be mitigated. This was also a time in which the greater part of the rules of etiquette and customs of the court were revised or contrived. Naka-no Ōe-shinnō and the sesshō Nakatomi no Kamatari counseled these and other measures intended to make Japan a better and stronger country.[7]
  • 649 (Taika 5,7th day of the third month): The sadaijin Abe no Kurahashi Maro died.[8]
  • 649 (Taika 5, 3rd month): Sogo-no Kiyouga, the younger brother of the udaijin Soga Yamada Ishikawa Maro, informed the emperor that his older brother was involved in a conspiracy against the emperor. On the basis of this information, Kōtoku sent men to the udaijin 's home with plans to put the traitor to death. Yamada somehow learned about this in advance, and he then decided to kill himself. Shortly thereafter, after Yamada's innocence had been proven, the surviving brother, Kiyouga, was punished. For his part in misleading the emperor and in causing the udaijin to kill himself, Kiyouga was exiled to Tokachi on the northern island of Hokkaidō, which was a largely unpopulated wilderness at that time.[7]
  • 649 (Taika 5,20th day of the 4th month): Kose no Toko no Ō-omi (593-658) was named sadaijin shortly after his predecessor died.[8]
  • 649 (Taika 5, 4th month): Ōtomo Nagatoko no Muraji was made udaijin.[8]
  • 649 (Taika 5): In this year, the Emperor decreed the establishment of a new system of government, (the hasshō hyakkan), which was composed of eight ministries and 100 bureaus.[9]
  • 650 (Taika 6): The Hakuchi era began in the sixth year of the Taika era. The daimyō of Nagato province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift for the emperor. This white pheasant was then construed as a good omen. Emperor Kōtoku was extraordinarily pleased by this special avian rarity, and he wanted the entire court to see this white bird for themselves. He commanded a special audience in which he could formally invite the sadaijin and the udaijin to join him in admiring the rare bird; and on this occasion, the emperor caused the nengō to be changed to Hakuchi (meaning "white pheasant").[10]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Tisingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 47-49., p. 47, at Google Books
  2. ^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Taika" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 924, p. 9247, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  3. ^ Bialock, David T. (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike, pp. 56-57, p. 56, at Google Books; excerpt at p. 57, "Whether the era name of Taika and Hakuchi are viewed as evidence of an actual precedent set by Kōtoku or as the work of chroniclers belonging to a later reign around the time of Nihon Shoki 's editing, the practice of assigning era names inaugurated a new phase in the consolidation of the court's expanding political power."
  4. ^ Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  5. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 48.
  6. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 266; Osaka City website: Osaka, history Archived 2007-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b Brown, p. 266; Titsingh, p. 49.
  8. ^ a b c Brown, p. 266.
  9. ^ Varley, p. 133; Titsingh, p. 49.
  10. ^ Titsingh, p. 49.

References

  • Bialock, David T. (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804751582 ISBN 0804751587; OCLC 237216457
  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764

External links

Preceded by
Era or nengō
Taika

645–650
Succeeded by
Hakuchi
Preceded by
Kōgyoku period
642–645
Imperial reign dates
Kōtoku period

645–654
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 2 April 2019, at 03:12
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