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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nghi Thiên Chương Hoàng hậu
儀天章皇后
Empress Nghi Thiên
Empress Mother of Nguyễn Dynasty
Tenure1847–1883
PredecessorEmpress Mother Thuận Thiên
SuccessorEmpress Mother Trang Ý
Grand Empress Mother of Nguyễn Dynasty
Tenure1885–1902
PredecessorGrand Empress Mother Thuận Thiên
SuccessorGrand Empress Mother Trang Ý
Empress consort of Nguyễn Dynasty
TenureEmpress title granted posthumously
PredecessorEmpress Tá Thiên
SuccessorEmpress Lệ Thiên
Born20 June, 1810
Tân Hòa, Vietnam (in modern Tiền Giang Province)
DiedMay 12, 1902(1902-05-12) (aged 91)
Huế, Vietnam
Burial
Xương Thọ Lăng
SpouseEmperor Thiệu Trị
IssuePrincess Diên Phúc
Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm (Emperor Tự Đức)
Princess Uyên Ý
Full name
Phạm Thị Hằng (范氏姮)
Posthumous name
Short: Nghi Thiên Chương Hoàng hậu 儀天章皇后
Full: Nghi Thiên Tán Thánh Từ Dụ Bác Huệ Trai Túc Tuệ Đạt Thọ Đức Nhân Công Chương hoàng hậu
儀天贊聖慈裕博惠齋肅慧達壽德仁功章皇后
HouseNguyễn (by marriage)
FatherPhạm Đăng Hưng
MotherLady Phạm

Từ Dụ or Từ Dũ (Hán tự: 慈裕, 20 June 1810 – 12 May 1902), born Phạm Thị Hằng, was the wife of Thiệu Trị and mother of Tự Đức.

Hằng was a daughter of Phạm Đăng Hưng. She was granted the title Empress Dowager Từ Dụ (Vietnamese: Từ Dụ hoàng thái hậu) after Tự Đức ascended the throne.

Tự Đức died in 1883. Three regents, Nguyễn Văn Tường, Tôn Thất Thuyết and Trần Tiễn Thành, declared Dục Đức, the eldest adoptive-son of Tự Đức, as the new emperor. Three days later, they deposed Dục Đức and enthroned Hiệp Hòa. Từ Dụ was elevated to the position of one of the "Tam Cung" (三宮) together with Trang Ý and Học phi.[1] Từ Dụ played a significant role in the dethronement of Hiệp Hòa, whom was a pro-French emperor, and enthroned Kiến Phúc.[2]

In 1885, she was granted the title Grand Empress Dowager Từ Dụ (Vietnamese: Từ Dụ thái hoàng thái hậu). Tôn Thất Thuyết decided to launch the Cần Vương movement against French colonists. "Tam Cung" fled to Tomb of Tự Đức together with Emperor Hàm Nghi. Thuyết decided to take them to a mountain base at Tân Sở, and then went to China to hide and seek reinforcements.[3] "Tam Cung" refused, and came back to Huế.[4]

She was granted the title Great Grand Empress Dowager Từ Dụ (Vietnamese: Từ Dụ thái thái hoàng thái hậu) by Thành Thái in 1889. She died in 1902, and was given the posthumous name Empress Nghi Thiên.

A hospital in Ho Chi Minh City was named after her.

References

  • Chapuis, Oscar (2000). The Last Emperors of Vietnam: from Tu Duc to Bao Dai. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31170-6.
This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 00:11
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