To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Télé Liban
TypeTerrestrial & satellite television network
FoundedMay 28, 1959
OwnerLebanese Public (Governmental corporation)
Official website
Official website

Télé Liban (also known as TL, Arabic: تلفزيون لبنان) is the first Lebanese public television network, owned by the Lebanese government. It was a result of a merger of the privately run Compagnie Libanaise de Télévision (CLT) (channels 7 and 9) and Télé-Orient (channels 5 and 11). TL is the current Lebanese member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU).[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/4
    2 041
    755 914
    5 589
  • 🇱🇧 🤩Qui Se Souvient De La C33 ? Nostalgie Années 80 - Télévision Et Francophonie Au Liban
  • La violence à la télévision
  • George Galloway annoyed by EU referendum questions in TV interview - BBC News
  • Motorized TV Wall Mount for 32" to 65" Televisions



Compagnie Libanaise de Télévision

The Lebanese government granted businessmen Wissam Izzeddine and Alex Moufarrej the first local television license in August 1956, and private Compagnie Libanaise de Télévision (CLT) (in Arabic, شركة التلفزيون اللبنانية). CLT aired programs for the first time on 28 May 1959, making it the first TV station not only in Lebanon but also in the region.[2] The station was officially launched by General Sleiman Nawfal with the aid of France.[1][3]


The station remained Lebanon's only television station until Télé-Orient, full name Television of Lebanon and the Orient (in Arabic تلفزيون لبنان والمشرق) obtained its own license in July 1961[2] and began operating from Hazmieh.[4] The channel had identical programming on its two broadcasting channels 5 and 11.

The Golden Age

Throughout the 1960s and until the 1970s, Télé Liban provided local, original programming as well as imports from France and the United States.[5] What made Télé Liban unique in the region was its creation of innovative content for a pluralistic country like Lebanon.[5]

The station had two channels, the Arabic channel 7 and mainly French-oriented channel 9 with separate local and French television programming.

During the Civil War

During the Lebanese Civil War, the two private television stations had been taken over by militias, CLT-based channels 7 and 9 located in West Beirut had been dominated by the left wing and Muslim militias and Télé-Orient station channels 5 and 11 located in Hazmieh in the Christian suburbs of East Beirut by right wing Christian militias. Both stations fell into presenting biased coverage according to the parties dominating the station.

Two unlicenced pirate stations, the right-wing Christian "Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation" (LBC) and the left-wing Muslim "Television of Arab Lebanon" (تلفزيون لبنان العربي) run by the Mourabitoun Muslim Sunni militia were launched challenging the existing stations.

The newly elected president, Elias Sarkis wanted a unified media outlet to promote his agenda of peace and unity.[6] The two privately owned stations, CLT and Télé Orient, and their subsidiaries agreed to merge in a deal where half the shares were owned by the Lebanese government.[7] The Legislative Decree No. 100 was published in the National Gazette (in Arabic الجريدة الرسمية) on 7 July 1977, making the merger official[6]

The private CLT and Télé-Orient rival stations would later be completely acquired by the Lebanese government and the merged company became a public television station and name changed to Télé Liban.

Post-War Period

When the civil war ended, Télé Liban's monopoly was removed under the 1994 Audiovisual Media Law, and the station found itself for the first time facing tremendous competition.[8] Other television stations with more innovative programming, such as the Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International, overtook Télé Liban's audience in the 1990s.[9]

Rafic Hariri bought the private sector shares of Télé Liban months before he became prime minister in 1992 and appointed Fouad Naïm as chairman, who quickly revamped the station.[10] However, the government bought back all the shares from the private sector in 1994.[11]

The plethora of private terrestrial and satellite stations available in the Lebanese television market came at the expense of Télé Liban, which since the late 1990s been in continuous decline.[5]


Initially, Télé Liban was managed by a board composed of twelve directors, six representing the government and six representing TLC and Télé Orient.[6]

The chair of the channel is appointed by the Lebanese cabinet. Jean Claude Boulos and Ibrahim El Khoury (chairman from 1999 to 2013) were former presidents of the channel during the 1990s.[12] from 2014 to 2017 Talal Makdessi was the new temporary president of the channel until a committee from the new Council of Ministers appointed a new board,[13] but currently Télé Liban does not have a Chairman of the Board knowing that after a judicial decision on 26 May 2017, Makdessi was dismissed[14][3]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Tele Liban". Tele Liban. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Télé Liban looks to continue a long, prestigious history". Annahar. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Lebanese media coverage of oil and gas sector" (PDF). SKeyes. August 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Harb, Zahera. Channels of Resistance in Lebanon: Liberation Propaganda, Hezbollah and the Media, I.B.Tauris (15 April 2011), page 98
  5. ^ a b c Kraidy. Marwan M.Hybridity, or the Cultural Logic of Globalization, Pearson Longman, Temple University, 2005, page 123
  6. ^ a b c Harb, Zahera. Channels of Resistance in Lebanon: Liberation Propaganda, Hezbollah and the Media, I.B.Tauris (15 April 2011), page 97
  7. ^ Harb, Zahera. Channel of Resistance in Lebanon: Liberation Propaganda, page 97
  8. ^ Sakr, Naomi. Arab Television Today, I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., London 2007, page 34
  9. ^ Rugh, William A. Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics, Praeger Publishers, Westpport, CT, 2004, page 203
  10. ^ Harb, Zahera. Channels of Resistance in Lebanon: Liberation Propaganda, Hezbollah and the Media, I.B.Tauris (15 April 2011), page 102
  11. ^ Harb, Zahera. Channels of Resistance in Lebanon: Liberation Propaganda, Hezbollah and the Media, I.B.Tauris (15 April 2011), page 103
  12. ^ "Lahoud implores Tele-Liban to prioritize satellite broadcasting". The Daily Star. 30 April 1999. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  13. ^ "Télé Liban launches reforms". Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Télé Liban". Retrieved 19 February 2021.

External links

This page was last edited on 24 February 2023, at 13:56
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.