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Sylheti language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sylheti
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
ছিলটি
Sylheti nagari.png
The word Siloṭi ('Sylheti') in Sylheti Nagari script
Pronunciation silɔʈi
Native to Bangladesh (Sylhet Division) and India (Barak Valley and Hojai of Assam, Shillong of Meghalaya, North Tripura, Unakoti and some parts of Dhalai district of Tripura)
Region Sylhet Division, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur
Ethnicity Sylheti people
Native speakers
11 million (2007)[1]
Sylheti Nagari, Eastern Nagari
Language codes
ISO 639-3 syl
Glottolog sylh1242[2]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-ui
Sylheti speaking zone.png
Sylheti speakers within South Asia
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sylheti (Sylheti: ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken by the Sylheti people in Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in Barak Valley of Assam, India. It is also spoken in parts of the Indian states of Meghalaya, Tripura, and Manipur.

The status of Sylheti is hotly disputed, with some considering it a dialect of Bengali, while others consider it a separate language.[3] There are significant differences in grammar and pronunciation as well as a lack of mutual intelligibility between the two varieties. There are greater differences between Sylheti and Bengali than between Bengali and Assamese, which is recognised as a separate language.[4] Most Sylhetis are at least bilingual to some degree, as Bengali is taught at all levels of education in Bangladesh. Sylhet was part of the ancient kingdom of Kamarupa,[5] and Sylheti shares many common features with Assamese, including having a larger set of fricatives than other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. According to George Abraham Grierson,[6] "The inflections also differ from those of regular Bengali, and in one or two instances assimilate to those of Assamese". Indeed, it was formerly written using its own script, Sylheti Nagari, which, although largely replaced with the Bengali script in recent times, is beginning to experience a revival in use.

Sylheti shares at least 80% of its lexicon with Bengali.[7]

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Transcription

Contents

Name of the language

Sylheti is the common English spelling of the language name after the accepted British spelling of the Sylhet District. The transliteration of the Standard Bengali spelling of the name (সিলেটি) is Sileṭi. The Sylheti name is spelled ছিলটি/ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ, transliterated as Silôṭi.

History

 SAMPLE TEXT: Front page of a Nagari book titled Halat-un-Nabi, written in the mid-19th century by Sadeq Ali of Sylhet
SAMPLE TEXT:
Front page of a Nagari book titled Halat-un-Nabi, written in the mid-19th century by Sadeq Ali of Sylhet

In ancient literature, Sylhet was referred as Shilahat and Shilahatta.[8] In the 19th century, the British tea-planters in the area referred to the vernacular spoken in Surma and Barak Valleys as Sylheti language.[9] In Assam, the language is still referred to as Sylheti.

During the British colonial period, a Sylheti student by the name of Munshi Abdul Karim studying in London, England, after completing his education, spent several years in London and learned the printing trade. After returning home, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagari and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet Town in about 1870. Other Sylheti presses were established in Sunamganj, Shillong and Kolkata. These presses fell out of use during the early 1970s.[10][11] Since then, the Sylotinagri alphabet has been used mainly by linguists and academics.[12] It gradually became very unpopular.[13][14]

The script includes 5 independent vowels, 5 dependent vowels attached to a consonant letter and 27 consonants. The Sylheti abugida differs from the Bengali alphabet as it is a form of Kaithi, a script that belongs to the main group of North Indian scripts of Bihar.[15] The writing system's main use was to record religious poetry, described as a rich language and easy to learn.[16]

Campaigns started to rise in London during the mid-1970s to mid-1980s to recognise Sylheti as a language in its own right. During the mid-1970s, when the first mother-tongue classes were established for Bangladeshis by community activists, the classes were given in standard Bengali rather than the Sylheti dialect which triggered the campaign. During the 1980s, a recognition campaign for Sylheti took place in the area of Spitalfields, East End of London. One of the main organisations was the Bangladeshis' Educational Needs in Tower Hamlets (usually known by its acronym as BENTH). However this organisation collapsed in 1985 and with its demise, the pro-Sylheti campaign in the borough lost impetus. Nonetheless, Sylheti remains very widespread as a domestic language in working class Sylheti households in the United Kingdom.[17]

Sylheti variation from Standard Bengali

Vocabulary look

A phrase in:

  • Sylheti: এক দেশর গালি আরক দেশর বুলি / ꠄꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠉꠣꠟꠤ ꠀꠣꠞꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠛꠥꠟꠤ ex deshôr gali arôx deshôr buli
  • Standard Bengali: এক দেশের গালি আরেক দেশের বুলি æk desher gali arek desher buli

which literally means "one land's obscenity is another land's language", and can be roughly translated to convey that a similar word in one language can mean something very different in another. For example:

মেঘ megh in Standard Bengali means cloud

মেঘ / ꠝꠦꠊ megh in Syloti means rain
In Pali মেঘ megh means both rain and cloud.
In Sylheti cloud is called বাদল / ꠛꠣꠖꠟ badol, সাজ / ꠢꠣꠎ haz or আসমানী সাজ / ꠀꠡꠝꠣꠘꠤ ꠢꠣꠎ ashmani haz (decor of the sky).
In Standard Bengali বৃষ্টি brishti means Rain.

নাড়া naṛa in Standard Bengali means to stir or to move

In Sylheti, নাড়া naṛa is pronounced as lara (ꠟꠣꠞꠣ)

কম্বল kombol in Standard Bengali means blanket

In Sylheti, blanket is called রাজাই / ꠞꠣꠎꠣꠁ razai.
In Sylheti, কম্বল / ꠇꠝꠛꠟ xombol means buttock

Grammar comparisons

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

  • In Sylheti:
    Eastern Nagari: হকল মানুষ স্বাধীন অইয়া হমান ইজ্জত আর হক লইয়া পয়দা অয়। তারার বিবেক আর আকল আছে। এর লাগি হকলর একজনে আরকজনর লগে বিরাদরির মনোভাব লইয়া আচরণ করা উচিত।
    Sylheti Nagari:ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘ ꠅꠁꠀ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠞꠣꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠄꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘꠧꠜꠣꠛ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ।
    • Transliteration Hôxôl manush shadin ôia hôman ijjôt ar hôk lôia fôeda ôe. Tarar bibex ar axôl ase. Er lagi hôxlôr exzône arôxzônôr lôge biradôrir mônobab lôia asôrôn xôra usit.
    • Transliteration (IPA) /ɦɔxɔl manuʃ ʃad̪in ɔia ɦɔman i͡dʒ͡dʒɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔk lɔia fɔed̪a ɔe. t̪aɾaɾ bibex aɾ axɔl ase. eɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ exzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔge birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔnobab lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa usit̪./
  • In Standard Bengali:
    সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত।
    • Transliteration Shômôstô manush shadhinbhabe shôman môrjada ebông odhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek ebông buddhi achhe; shutôrang shôkôleri æke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôshulôbh monobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit.
    • Transliteration (IPA) /ʃɔmost̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʰinbʰabe ʃɔman mɔɾd͡ʒad̪a ebɔŋ od̪ʰikaɾ nije d͡ʒɔnmogɾoɦon kɔɾe. t̪ãd̪eɾ bibek ebɔŋ bud̪d̪ʰi at͡ʃʰe; ʃut̪oɾaŋ ʃɔkoleɾi ɛke ɔpoɾeɾ prot̪i bʰɾat̪ɾit̪t̪oʃulɔbʰ monobʰab nije at͡ʃɔɾon kɔɾa ut͡ʃit̪./

Below are the grammar similarities and differences appearing in a word to word comparison:

  • Sylheti word-to-word gloss:
    All humans' born happen free and dignity plus rights with. Their conscious, intelligent and judgement-clever staying bearing a-person another-person's with spiritual brotherhood conduct stays.
  • Bengali word-to-word gloss:
    All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.

English: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Phonology

Sylheti is distinguished by a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from Arabic, Persian and Assamese, Standard Bengali and other Bengali dialects. Sylheti has affected the course of Standard Bengali in the rest of the state.

A notable characteristic of spoken Sylheti is the correspondence of the /ʜ/ (from hereby transliterated as x), pronounced as an Voiceless epiglottal fricative to the [ʃ], or "sh", of Bengali, e.g.

Standard Bengali Assamese Sylheti Transliteration Meaning in English
চরণস্পর্শ
Côrônspôrshô
চৰণস্পৰ্শ
Sôrônspôrxô
ꠇꠖꠝ ꠛꠥꠌꠤ
Xôdômbusi
/xɔdɔmbusi/ Touching the feet (A way showing respect)
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ꠓꠣꠇꠣ
Daxa
/ɖaxa/ Dhaka
একজন লোক
Ēkjôn lōk
এজন লোক
Êzôn lûk
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ
Ēxzôn manush
/exzɔn manuʃ/ A person
একজন
Ekjôn
এজন
Êzôn
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ
Exzôn
/exzɔn/ Someone
একজন পুরুষ
Ekjôn purush
এজন পুৰুষ
Êzôn purux
‌ꠄꠇꠐꠣ ꠛꠦꠐꠣ
Exta beta
/exʈa beʈa/ A man
কীসের
Kisher
কিহৰ
kihôr
ꠇꠤꠅꠞ
Kior
/kioɾ/ Informal of Whereof
কন্যা, মেয়ে
Kônna, Meye
কন্যা, জী
Kôinna, Zi
ꠇꠂꠘ꠆ꠘꠣ, ꠏꠤ, ꠙꠥꠠꠤ
Xôinna, Zi, Furi
/xoinna/, /zi/, /ɸuɽi/ Daughter
মানবজাতি
Manôbjati
মানৱজাতি, মানুহৰ জাতি
Manôwzati, Manuhôr zati
ꠝꠣꠘꠡꠞ ꠎꠣꠔ
Manshor zat
/manʃɔɾ zat̪/ Mankind
অসমিয়া, অহমিয়া
Ôshômiya, Ôhômiya
অসমীয়া
Ôxômiya
ꠅꠢꠝꠤꠀ, ꠀꠡꠣꠝꠤ
Ôhômia, Ashami
/ɔɦɔmia/, /aʃami/ Assamese people
আঙুল
Angul
আঙুলি
Anguli
ꠀꠋꠉꠥꠁꠟ
Anguil
/aŋguil/ Finger, toe
আংটি
Angti
আঙুঠি
Anguthi
ꠀꠋꠑꠤ
Angti
/aŋʈi/ Ring
আগুনপোড়া
Agunpora
জুইত পোৰা, জুইত সেকা
Zuit pura, Zuit xeka
ꠀꠉꠥꠁꠘꠙꠥꠞꠣ
Aguinfura
/aguinfuɽa/ Baked, grilled
অসিধারী
Oshidhari
অসিধাৰী
Oxidhari
ꠔꠟꠥꠀꠞꠗꠣꠞꠤ
Toluardari
/t̪ɔluaɾd̪aɾi/ Swordsman
পাখি, পক্ষী
Pakhi, Pôkkhi
চৰাই, পক্ষী
Sôrai, Pôkkhi
ꠙꠣꠈꠤ, ꠙꠣꠈꠤꠀ
Faki, Fakia
/ɸaki/, /ɸakia/ Bird
ভালোবাসা, প্রেম, পিরিতি
Bhalobasha, Prem, Piriti
ভালপোৱা, প্রেম, পিৰিটি, মৰম
Bhalpuwa, Prem, Piriti, Morom
ꠜꠣꠟꠣꠙꠣꠅꠣ, ꠙꠦꠞꠦꠝ, ꠙꠤꠞꠤꠔꠤ, ꠝꠢꠛ꠆ꠛꠔ
Balafawa, Ferem, Firiti, Mohobbot
Firiti /balaɸawa/, /ɸeɾem/, /ɸiɾit̪i/, /mɔɦɔbbɔt̪/ Love
পরে
Pôre
পিছত
pisôt
ꠙꠞꠦ, ꠛꠣꠖꠦ
Fôre, Bade
/ɸɔɾe/, /bad̪e/ Later
সকল, সমস্ত, সব
Shôkôl, Shômôsto, Shôb
সকল, সকলো, সমস্ত
Xôkôl, Xôkôlû; Xômôstô
ꠢꠇꠟ, ꠢꠇ꠆ꠇꠟ, ꠡꠛ
Hôxôl, Hôkkôl, Shôb
/ɦɔxɔl/, /ɦɔkkɔl/, /ʃɔb/ All
সারা
Shara
গোটেই
Gutêi
ꠢꠣꠀꠣ
Hara
/ɦaɾa/ Whole
সাত বিল
Shat bil
সাত বিল
Xat bil
ꠢꠣꠔ ꠛꠤꠟ
Hat bil
/ɦat̪ bil/ Seven wetlands
সাতকড়া
Shatkôra
সাতকৰা
Xatkôra
ꠢꠣꠔꠇꠠꠣ
Hatxôra
/ɦat̪xɔɽa/ Citrus macroptera fruit
সাতবার
Shatbar
সাতবাৰ
Xatbar
ꠢꠣꠔꠛꠣꠞ
Hatbar
/ɦat̪baɾ/ Seven-times (Sylheti term for lots of time)
সিলেটি
Sileṭi
ছিলঠীয়া
Silôṭiya
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
Silôṭi
/silɔʈi/ Sylheti
সৌভাগ্য
Shoubhaggo
সৌভাগ্য
Xoubhaiggô
ꠈꠥꠡꠘꠍꠤꠛ
Kushnôsib
/kuʃnɔsib/ Good luck (Sylheti: God's Authority)
ভালো করে খান।
Bhalo kore khan.
ভালকৈ খাওক।
Bhalkoi khauk.
ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠇꠞꠤ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ, ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠑꠤꠇꠦ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ।
Bala xori xaukka, Bala tike xaukka.
/bala xɔɾi xaukka/, /bala ʈike xaukka/ Bon appetite
স্ত্রী, পত্নী
StrI, Pôtni
স্ত্রী, ঘৈণী, পত্নী
Stri, Ghôini, Pôtni
ꠛꠃ
Bou
/bou/ Wife
স্বামী, বর, পতি
Shami, Bôr, Pôti
স্বামী, গিৰি, পতি
Swami, Giri, Pôti
ꠎꠣꠝꠣꠁ
Zamai
/zamai/ Husband
শ্বশুর
Shôshur
শহুৰ
Xôhur
ꠢꠃꠞ
Hôur
/ɦɔuɾ/ Father-in-law
শাশুড়ি
Shashuṛi
শাহু
Xahu
ꠢꠠꠣ
Hoṛi
/ɦɔɽi/ Mother-in-law
শালা
Shala
খুলশালা
Khulxala
ꠢꠣꠟꠣ
Hala
/ɦala/ Brother-in-law
শালী
Shali
খুলশালী
Khulxali
ꠢꠣꠟꠤ
Hali
/ɦali/ Sister-in-law
শেখা
Shekha
শিকা
Xika
ꠢꠤꠇꠣ
Hika
/ɦika/ Learn
সরষে
Shorshe
সৰিয়হ
Xôriyôh
ꠢꠂꠞꠢ
Hoiroh
/ɦoiɾoɦ/ Mustard
শিয়াল
Shiyal
শিয়াল
Xiyal
ꠢꠤꠀꠟ
Hial
/ɦial/ Fox, Jackal
বিড়াল
Biral
মেকুৰী
Mêkuri
ꠝꠦꠇꠥꠞ, ꠛꠤꠟꠣꠁ
Mékur, Bilai
/mekuɾ/, /bilai/ Cat
শুঁটকি
Shuṭki
শুকান মাছ
Xukan mas
ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ, ꠢꠥꠇꠂꠘ
Huṭki, Hukôin
/ɦuʈki/, /ɦukoin/ Sundried Fish
আপনার নাম কী?
Apnar nam ki?
আপোনাৰ নাম কি?
Apûnar nam ki?
ꠀꠙꠘꠣꠞ ꠘꠣꠝ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?
Afnar nam kita?
/aɸnaɾ nam kit̪a/ What's your name?
ডাক্তার আসার পূর্বে রোগী মারা গেল।
Daktar ashar purbe rogi mara gelo
ডাক্তৰ অহাৰ আগতেই ৰোগী মৰি গ’ল।

Daktôr ôhar agotei rûgi môri gôl

ꠒꠣꠇ꠆ꠔꠞ ꠀꠅꠣꠞ ꠀꠉꠦꠃ ꠛꠦꠝꠣꠞꠤ ꠝꠞꠤ ꠉꠦꠟ।
Daxtôr awar ageu bemari môri gelo.
/ɖaxt̪ɔɾ awaɾ ageu bemaɾi mɔɾi gelo/ Before the doctor came, the patient had died.
অনেকদিন দেখিনি।
Onekdin dekhini.
বহুদিন দেখা নাই।
Bôhudin dêkha nai.
ꠛꠣꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ ꠖꠤꠘ ꠖꠦꠈꠍꠤ ꠘꠣ।
Bakka din dexsi na.
/bakka d̪in d̪exsi na/ Long time no see.
ভালো আছেন?
Bhalo Achen?
ভাল আছে নে?
Bhal asê nê?
ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠀꠍꠂꠘ ꠘꠤ?
Bala asôin ni?
/bala asoin ni/ How are you?
আমি তোমাকে ভালোবাসি।
Ami tomake bhalobashi.
মই তোমাক ভাল পাওঁ।
Môi tûmak bhal paû.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠔꠥꠝꠣꠞꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠙꠣꠁ।
Ami tumare bala fai.
/ami t̪umare bala ɸai/ I love you.
আমি ভুলে গেছি।
Ami bhule gechi.
মই পাহৰি গৈছোঁ।
Môi pahôri goisu.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠙꠣꠅꠞꠤ ꠟꠤꠍꠤ।
Ami faûri lisi.
/ami ɸaʊɾi lisi/ I have forgotten.
মাংসের ঝোলটা আমার খুব ভালো লেগেছে।
Mangsher jholṭa amar khub bhalo legeche.
‍মাংসৰ তৰকাৰীখিনি মোৰ খুব ভাল লাগিছে।
Mangxôr tôrkarikhini mûr khub bhal lagise.
ꠉꠥꠍꠔꠞ ꠍꠣꠟꠘꠐꠣ ꠀꠝꠣꠞ ꠈꠥꠛ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠟꠣꠉꠍꠦ।
Gustor salonṭa amar kub bala lagse.
/gust̪ɔɾ salɔnʈa amaɾ kub bala lagse/ I liked the meat curry.
শিলচর কোনদিকে?
Shilcôr kondike?
শিলচৰ কোন ফালে/দিশত?
Xilsôr kûn falê/dixôt?
ꠢꠤꠟꠌꠞ ꠇꠥꠘ ꠛꠣꠄ/ꠛꠣꠁꠖꠤ/ꠝꠥꠈꠣ?
Hilcôr kun bae/baidi/muka?
/ɦil͡tʃɔɾ kun bae, baid̪i, muka/ Which way to Silchar?
শৌচাগার কোথায়?
Shoucagar kothay?
শৌচালয় ক’ত?
Xôusalôy kot?
ꠐꠣꠐ꠆ꠐꠤ ꠇꠥꠘꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠥꠘꠣꠘꠧ/ꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠁ?
ṭaṭṭi kunxano/kunano/xano/xoi?
/ʈaʈʈi kunxano, kunano, xano, xoi/ Where is the toilet?
এটা কী?

Eṭa ki?

এইটো কি?

Êiṭû ki?

ꠁꠉꠥ/ꠁꠇꠐꠣ/ꠁꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Igu/Ikṭa/Iṭa kita?

/igu, ikʈa, iʈa kit̪a/ What is this?
সেটা কী?

Sheṭa ki?

সেইটো কি?

Xêiṭû ki?

ꠢꠤꠉꠥ/ꠢꠤꠇꠐꠣ/ꠢꠤꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Higu/Hikṭa/Hiṭa kita?

/ɦigu, ɦikʈa, ɦiʈa kit̪a/ What is that?
শেষ
Shesh
শেষ
Xêx
ꠢꠦꠡꠦ, ꠡꠦꠡ
Hesh, Shesh
/ɦeʃ/, /ʃeʃ/ End, finish

References

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sylheti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Sebastian M. Rasinger (2007). Bengali-English in East London: A Study in Urban Multilingualism. pp. 26-27. Retrieved on 2017-05-02.
  4. ^ Glanville Price (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. pp. 91-92.
  5. ^ Edward Gait, History of Assam, p. 274
  6. ^ George Grierson, Language Survey of India, Vol II, Pt 1, p224
  7. ^ Chalmers (1996)
  8. ^ James Lloyd-Williams & Sue Lloyd-Williams (Sylheti Translation and Research/STAR); Peter Constable (SIL International) Date: 1 November 2002
  9. ^ Grierson, George A. (1903). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume V, Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. Eastern group. Specimens of the Bengali and Assamese languages. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. 
  10. ^ Banglapedia
  11. ^ Archive
  12. ^ Sylheti Alphabets
  13. ^ Syloti Nagri alphabet
  14. ^ Sylheti unicode chart
  15. ^ Sylheti Literature
  16. ^ Sylheti Literature
  17. ^ Anne J. Kershen (2005). Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1660–2000. Routledge. pages. 148–150

External links

Sylheti phrasebook travel guide from Wikivoyage

This page was last edited on 7 November 2017, at 23:52.
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