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Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance

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The cover of the 2009 edition of the Inventory, showing the Zytglogge in Bern and the blue shield of the Hague Convention.
The cover of the 2009 edition of the Inventory, showing the Zytglogge in Bern and the blue shield of the Hague Convention.

The Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance (German: Schweizerisches Inventar der Kulturgüter von nationaler und regionaler Bedeutung; French: Inventaire suisse des biens culturels d'importance nationale et régionale; Italian: Inventario dei beni culturali svizzeri d'importanza nazionale e regionale) is a register of some 8,300 items of cultural property in Switzerland. It was established according to article 5 of the second protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, which provides for the establishment of national registers of cultural property.

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>> From the Library of Congress in Washington, D. C. >> Mary-Jane Deeb: Good morning. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. And welcome to the African and Malaysian division of the Library of congress. I'm Mary-Jane Deeb, chief of the division. And I'm delighted to see you here today for this exciting symposium on the ancient city of Tyre. I want first to thank Dr. Maha Chalabi, the founder and president of the International Association to Save Tyre, for her proposal to hold this conference at the Library of Congress. I want to thank Congressman Charles Boustany who supported this initiative from the start to finish. I also want to recognize all those who have worked tirelessly for the past year to make this event possible, including the entire board of the American Committee for Tyre and its president Ambassador Killion. His wife is here to represent him and to represent the association. I want to thank Randa Hudome of Hudome International. I want to thank Rim Chalabi who's been an incredible force behind this event. And the honorable Esther Coopersmith, the goodwill ambassador to UNESCO, who has opened her home for us to meet. Jan Jiplan [spelling assumed], who created a buzz around this event with a great media event at the National Press Club in February. And many others. And of course I want to thank my own division for all they have done. They have been fantastic. So have our media office. So have our videotaping office and everybody else. When Dr. Maha Chalabi approached me over a year ago about holding a conference at the library on Tyre, I was thrilled. It had been one of my goals while at the library to do a series of symposia on ancient cities of the near east. So what better place to start than with Tyre? One of the oldest cities in the world that is still inhabited and perhaps still inhabited by some of the descendants of the original denizens. What better place to start than with a Phoenician civilization that gave the world its first phonetic alphabet, without which there would be no books, there would be no libraries. At least not in the form that we know today. Let me conclude with a quote from the introduction to the catalog of the most important exhibition on Phoenicians ever held. It was held in the Palazzo Grassi Museum in Venice in 1988. This quote could apply to our symposium today. The conveners of the conference wrote, "It is not our intention to present merely documentary evidence and with that carry out a work of diffusion and burgeoning of knowledge. We believe that reproposing the splendor of this distant civilization means a return to the continuity of a culture which is deeply Mediterranean. Certainly civilization is progress. It is continual modification, permanent advancement. But we cannot act in the present without an awareness of our roots that penetrate deeply into the past." And now, to welcome you to welcome you to the Library of Congress is our chief of staff Robert Newlen. Robert Newlen was appointed chief of staff on December 14th, 2014. In this capacity he has led library-wide programs in management responsibilities and also oversees the offices of communications, congressional relations, development, the office of the chief financial officer, contracts, grant management, general counsel and special events and public programs. Robert Newlen joined the library in November, 1975. In more than 39 years at the institution he has served in a wide range of areas and roles. He assumed the position of assistant law librarian 2010 and as such he oversaw the collection, development, research and reference services and outreach to the law library's diverse constituency. He also managed the law library's development and fundraising initiatives. And last year oversaw the library's Magna Carta exhibition and its related events. Princess Ann participated in these events. And Robert really did a fantastic, fantastic job. I don't want to go any further. I want you to hear from Robert. So thank you again. Thank you, Robert. [ Applause ] >> Robert Newlen: Thank you, Mary-Jane, and good morning. And on behalf of the Librarian of Congress, James H. Billington, it's my pleasure to welcome you to the Library of Congress. I have the honor and privilege of serving as chief of staff here. When Mary-Jane mentioned the date, I started in December 2014. I thought she almost said 1914. [ Laughter ] I'm old, but not that old. So I'm delighted to see so many people here today for this historic symposium on the ancient city of Tyre. Although the library has sponsored innumerable conferences over the years, it's my understanding that this is the first conference that has been held on the Phoenicians and the ancient cities they founded on the Mediterranean. So we have a historic moment here. For this initiative I would like to join Mary-Jane in thanking the American Committee for Tyre, the Tyre Foundation and Dr. Maha Chalabi, the founder of the International Association to Save Tyre. I'd also like to thank the honorable Charles Boustany, Jr. for his support of the symposium. Ambassador David Killion, the president and chairman of the American Committee for Tyre. And the honorable Esther Coopersmith who is an honorary chair as well as one of the original founders of the committee. And among our very treasures here in the Library of Congress, none is greater than Mary-Jane Deeb, the chief of the African and Middle East Division. [ Applause ] Thank you, Mary-Jane for your vision and leadership. It's most fitting that we hold this conference in the northeast pavilion of the Thomas Jefferson building. As you entered the African and Middle Eastern reading room of the library, I hope you noticed that Tyre is inscribed above the very decorative door. Carthage, another Phoenician city, appears on its left as well. So it's very fitting that the founders and creators of the library were very much aware of the ancient civilizations of the near east and had the names and symbols of these civilizations fixed to the walls and ceilings of this great Jefferson building. So I'm going to end and just wish you a very enjoyable day. As we hear from a whole range of celebrated scholars. And we thank all of the scholars for their participation today. I would now like to introduce our next speaker, the distinguished member from the third district of Louisiana, Representative Charles Boustany, Jr. Again, Congressman, we're enormously grateful to you for your support. And I had the privilege of just speaking briefly with a congressman this morning about his ancestors and how they came to America from Lebanon. And it's a fascinating story and I hope we'll hear more about it in the future. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Charles Boustany, Jr.: Well thank you, Robert. And good morning to all of you. Thank you, Mary-Jane, for the great work you're doing here at the library. And I want to thank all who have been involved in putting this very important symposium together. It's so relevant to what's happening today. It's so important for us to reflect back on important history and the lessons to be learned. I come here with a little bit of humility because there's tremendous expertise in this room and in this very important room. In a section of the library which is an incredible repository of knowledge that cannot be replaced anywhere. So this is a fitting place to hold this type of symposium. And again, this is daunting just for me to stand here in front of you and offer a few humble remarks. Let me just start by saying I've been a longtime reader of history. I love history. And this came about because of my grandfather who at the ripe old age of 15 arrived alone from Lebanon, trying to find his sister in the state of Louisiana who married someone here. I don't know how she ended up in Louisiana to begin with. We need to find that out. But I learned a lot from my grandfather, who went from having nothing when he arrived to becoming very successful in business and banking and giving me, two generations later, this tremendous opportunity to stand before you. First as a very successful cardiac surgeon and now with a career in public office. And I owe so much to him. But one of the most important things he told me and imbued in me was not only a love of reading and reading history. But he taught me about my heritage. I might not have known. And the first time I ever heard about the Phoenicians was sitting on the lap of my grandfather when I was a young child. And his intense sense of pride was amazing. And I remember he told me after the first World War, he went back to Lebanon to find his mother. His father had passed away in the interim time. He found his brother who was on the verge of starvation. And this is just one of many, many stories I'm sure have been repeated across America with a Lebanese diaspora. But when you reflect on the Lebanese diaspora, it's quite amazing. Because there are people all across this country who have reached the pinnacle of their professions or chosen line of work, whether it's the arts, sciences, or professions in medicine and law, education and so forth. It's quite amazing. And I wasn't really aware of this until I actually got into public office and began to meet so many across this great country. But my grandfather taught me about history. And that love of history never went away. And I embarked on reading and studying ancient Mediterranean history. And fast forward, I took a course on ancient civilizations in college. And there was a history professor there, long deceased, who had a profound impact on me despite all my education science. This one class furthered my love of history, took it to a different level for me and taught me one thing that I have never forgotten, that history is a living thing. It's not old dates and artifacts that have gone away and they're collecting dust. History is living. It affects us today. And I think that is incredibly relevant. That's why this symposium is so important. Just take for a moment, I'll give you just a few more reflections on that before I close. First of all, we all know what's happening across the Middle East with the tremendous chaos and the difficulties, much of it playing out in Lebanon. Well, antiquity is being destroyed across the world as a result of some of this. This is something that's not getting the kind of attention it needs. And hopefully this symposium with publicity surrounding it will put that into the public domain. We are having conversations about that in Congress. But it's so important to preserve these antiquities because they have impact on us today. Let me just reflect for just a moment on the city-state of Tyre and what is now Lebanon but was a Phoenician empire in days past. Tyre is regarded as the greatest maritime trading civilization in the world. And you all know the stories about how the alphabet and so forth. Trade is critically important and it's relevant today. This is a heated debate we're having in Congress today on whether America will embark on a very aggressive trade policy and provide that kind of leadership to bring us together through commercial relationships. I think an avenue for peace. Or will we back away from trade, become more isolationist in our own views and basically give up American leadership globally? So what happened in ancient civilization when the understanding of the importance of trade was not quite so well understood, the creativity of the Phoenician civilization was quite amazing. And it was centered upon Tyre. So we have a lot to learn by studying the history, learning from the mistakes that were made, but also the great advances that were made. So I want to thank you all for putting this together. It's a very important symposium. I wish I could spend the entire day with you. I've got duties calling at 10:00. But thank you for your insights. Thank you for your willingness to put this together. And I look forward to learning a whole lot more from all of you as you embark further on making this information public knowledge. Thank you very much. It's great to be with you. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: Before I go any further, I would like to recognize the two ambassadors of the two parts of the Phoenician world. The ambassador of Lebanon, Ambassador Shadig [assumed spelling] is with us. So thank you very much for being here. And then the colleague ambassador of Tunisia. [ Applause ] So we are delighted to have them both here, our two worlds. So now we are going to have a very special person, Ms. Rodi Kratsa, who is the president of the Konstantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy in Greece, and the former vice president of the European parliament. Rodi Kratsa started sociology at the University of Geneva and continued her post-graduate studies at the Institute of European Studies of the same university. She has rich experience and long tenure in European politics and in Euro-Mediterranean relations. She represented the European parliament in high-level summits and ministerial conferences worldwide. She is a member of the European parliament committee on economic and monetary affairs, on the committee of employment and social affairs, and other committees. Rodi Kratsa has always been very active at the international level. She has worked systematically for the deepening of EU relations with significant areas of the world. Especially the caucuses and the south shores of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Shh. You have to lower your voices because of the echo. You see, we can hear everything here. So I would like to invite her to address us. And thank you, Ms. Kratsa, for being with us. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Rodi Kratsa: Thank you very much for the kind words. Excellencies, honorable members of Congress, Mrs. President of the Tyre Foundation, ambassadors, Mr. Vice President of the American Committee for Tyre. We are friends of Tyre, ladies and gentlemen. It is with great pleasure and honor that I am participating in this symposium dedicated to Tyre. In an atmosphere from the legacy of the historic metropolis of Phoenicians. As an active member of Tyre Foundation I believe that it is an excellent privilege and important opportunity to share with this distinguished American and international audience all the concerns and commitments for the protection of the cultural heritage and the highlights of the legacy of Tyre. For this reason I would like first of all to thank those of you responsible for the Library of Congress and the members of the American Committee for Tyre who give us this possibility. I'm sure that the symposium will provide us valuable information for the rich history of Tyre, the role that it played in the international community of that period, the Mediterranean and the near coast of the Atlantic. We become more aware of the importance which the world carried for ancient people for the next generations. And we will also understand that the challenges are for the conservation of the civilization. The last few years we have become witnesses to extreme violence, mainly for interim classes and obscurities mentalities with destructive inconsideration for monuments and symbols of world heritage. There could be other destructive actions in cases of occupation or even during periods of peace due to indifference, ignorance or natural disasters. We can also recall where there has been destruction of religious monuments which belonged to minorities. There has been of course legal instruments for the protection of cultural assets, such as the NESCO engagement, or the Hague Convention and its protocols. As well as the decisions for the security consul of the United Nations for emergency cases of foreign conflict. The most important issue though is the prevention of the destruction and the activation of the domestic population and the politician actors. I know that the American society shares this political and moral globalist possibility. I have opportunity to collaborate with the American Congressmen and the American institutions in this area as vice president of the European Parliament. I feel obligation to mention that already from April 1863, President Lincoln announced the general directive for the protection of cultural assets of war zones. Later on, on April 1935 in Washington, there was signed the Convention for the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments. But it also determined about the cases of protection for armed conflict. This addition interprets sensitivity and the active interest for the world heritage, in particular for the unique history for Tyre and Lebanon. From today's symposium we will also ascertain the inspiration that the heritage could give us for modern creative projects. This is another dimension of the fantastic roles of the Tyre Foundation and the international association to save Tyre. Here I would like to congratulate the president and the founder, my friend Dr. Maha El-Khalil Chalabi. As well as the partners and members of the foundation of that association for their commitment, their creativity and their efficiency. We mentioned further on the labels of the symposium those projects such as the institute, the library and the Virtual Museum for Canaanite, Phoenician and Punic Cities in Beirut. The Lisa Dedoun Prize, the Hangukuk village in Tyre. The revival and the reclamation of the ancient civilization of the Phoenicians contribute to the radiance of Tyre and Lebanon in general. This is also very important to mention the league of Canaanite, Phoenician and Punic Cities which is constituted of islands and cities in the Mediterranean. Stations in the role of Phoenicians. Greece, my country. A country with a great naval tradition civilization with historic interaction with the Phoenicians. Participates actively and we are in the process to create the Greek committee for the enforcement of these activities. These initiatives offer many opportunities for research into the past, but also dialogue, exchanges and collaborations for common development projects of mutual interest. In conclusion, ladies and gentlemen, I would like to share with you my feelings that today we will have an exceptional day for the exceptional Tyre. Thank you very much. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: And now we are going to have really the star of this event. Dr. Maha Chalabi is the initiator. She is the mover and shaker, not only in Washington but in Paris, in London, in Lebanon and everywhere she has been. She is the person who has put Tyre once again on the map historically and culturally. A native of Tyre in south Lebanon, Dr. Maha Chalabi grew up surrounded by the prestigious vestiges of this ancient city on which eight successive civilizations have laid their imprint. For almost 30 years, Maha Chalabi has dedicated herself to making Tyre better known. And I have to tell you she has succeeded and succeeded very well. She graduated with a degree in political science from the faculty of [inaudible] University in Beirut. And earned her doctorate in history from the Sorbonne. Starting in the 1970's, she worked hard to get Tyre recognized as a world heritage site in order to ensure its protection. Soon thereafter, starting in '78, UNESCO recognized the necessity of civ guarding the whole of the archaeological site of Tyre and its surroundings. She received those recognitions by the United Nations Security Council, the European Parliament, the American Senate, the House of Lords, the World Federation of Twin Towns followed and all unanimously agreed to declare Tyre a world heritage site. Strengthened in her resolve by this support emanating from the world's highest political organizations, Maha Chalabi created the International Association to Save Tyre. Which assembled eminent personalities from the worlds of culture and science, all deeply concerned about the future of this ancient metropolis. On the 5th of May, 1980 during the Day of Tyre, held at UNESCO's Paris headquarters, the International Association to Save Tyre received official recognition. And Maha Chalabi was elected secretary general. In February 1986 the French president awarded Maha the [French term], a medal for exceptional services. In March 1986, the French minister of culture named her [French term]. In 1988 the Lebanese president named her officer of the Natural Order of the Cedar. There is much, much more to say about this fantastic lady. But I would like her to say a few words. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Maha Chalabi: My dear distinguished audience, Mr. Ambassador of Lebanon, Mr. Ambassador of Tunisia, ladies and gentlemen. It's a great honor that we launch the memorial day for Tyre. Paying tribute to this very old city within the premises of the eminent cultural monument, the Library of Congress. Culture has always been a solid bond between Lebanon and the US. With this series of Lebanese-American writers and poets from Ameen Rihani, Ria Aboulmadi [assumed spelling], Michael Nami [assumed spelling], and the famous Gibran Khalil Gibran. Today we go further back into the past to celebrate the Phoenician city of Tyre. It's also with great delight that we will comb the broad spectrum of distinguished friends who came from around the world to take part in this glorious meeting celebrating Tyre, the queen of the seas, the ship of perfect beauty and the mother of civilizations. Some might wonder if it's still timely to speak about this Phoenician city. What can we add to all that has been related since ancient times to present day? Despite the significance of what has been written and published, we are confident that a lot is yet to be revealed. All the discoveries remain below what the future may unveil about the history of this city-state that has led the basis of faithful globalization, connecting ports and cities of the ancient world around the Mediterranean. Seeking for, establishing a faithful exchange. Tyre was also the homeland of great scholars who left their marks on the human past and contributed to its progress at a time when the ancient world was still primitive. Eminent philosophers like Thales, Pythagoras and [inaudible] contributed to the glory of Tyre. Kingdom of great kings and builders like Hiram and Hiram Abiff. Motherland of Cadmous, Elissa and Ropa. Tyre has yet to unveil its countless hidden treasures. Scientists are still monitoring recent archaeological excavations which promise to disclose more wonders. Here in the new world, the Library of Congress recognized a long time ago the prominence of Tyre and its role in the development of human civilization. It's by no coincidence that the name of Tyre tops the main door of this hall. Today knowledge and wisdom take its roots from the glorious ancient world and Tyre was one of its pillars. It's a great honor for us people of Phoenician descent, a source of noble pride. Our gathering on this very day, dedicated to Tyre within the Library of Congress would not have been possible without the concerted efforts of the head administrator of this institute, Mr. James Billington, the librarian. And Mrs. Mary-Jane Deeb, head of the African and Middle East division. Our appreciate goes also to all present, loyal speakers who are supporting our action by their research and studies. You are the real engine for moving forward. Honorable Congressman Charles Boustany, we are very grateful for his tremendous support, sponsorship and commitment to give Tyre such a memorable day. And finally, I wish to thank all the participants for their great work and dedication. You are the real custodians of culture and committed promoters of knowledge. God bless you. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: And you have heard really from the person who has made all this possible. And now last but not least I would like to introduce Richard Arndt. Richard Arndt has a bio which is so long that it was very difficult for me to cut it down. But anyway, I'll try briefly to say he has been the chair of the US Committee for the Preservation of Ancient Tyre from 2000-2014. He is the vice president, co-chair, advisory council of Americans for UNESCO. He's the vice president of the Fullbright Association. He's the founding editor of the journal Prospects and Retrospects. He is the chair of a five-nation selection committee for the Fullbright Prize for international understanding. He is the founding chair of the Lois Roth Endowment. He has been a member of the steering committee for Fullbright legacy lecture trips and professorships at Pembroke College at Oxford. He has been the chair of the National Peace Foundation between '92 and '95. And the co-chair of the Peace Builder Award. He has also been the advisor of the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research, the East-West Center in Hawaii. Over and above this he has also had a long and successful career in the US foreign service where he worked between '61 and '85 with the United States Information Agency and the Department of State in Washington, D.C. He also served in the Department of State Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs where he was deputy director for Latin America. But he has served at the American embassies in France, Italy, Iran, Sri Lanka, Lebanon among others. So I would like to invite him to round up this first panel. [ Applause ] >> Richard Arndt: We're running out of time. I brought some notes here, but I don't think I'll read them. As Mary-Jane has told you, I've led a very peculiar life, scattered all over the place. But my original job was to greet you and to welcome you on behalf of the American committee, which I have been asked to re-chair in the absence of Ambassador David Killion who is somewhere between Korea and Los Angeles at this very moment on a plane which is heading this way. And we hope he'll be there in time for dinner tonight. But that's the diplomatic life for you. The thing that I wanted to reflect on very quickly, very quickly, because we have lots of interesting things to do, is that we are living today in the presence of one of the great mansions of the American mind. This house here, as it were, was founded by Thomas Jefferson I suppose among others. And there's another one down the street which was founded by an Englishman named Smithson and two professors from Princeton named Henry and Spencer Baird. And these two mansions of American intellect and mind sit here on the mall in a town in which the use of mind is largely turned to other pursuits. [ Laughter ] And the result being that questions like Tyre often get lost in the melee. In contrast, for example, to 1943 when a delegation came to President Roosevelt and said, "You're going to invade Europe. You've got to save the monuments." And the so the monumentsmen, and you've all see I suppose the film now, which is one tiny little fingernail about what the monumentsmen actually did, went along with the troops. And did what they could to preserve, to maintain, to repair in some cases and to restore to their rightful owners some of the works that had been disrupted by war. Surely the same thing is happening in the Middle East now. The war that is raging makes almost anything serious impossible. And yet civilized people -- and I believe we're all that in this room -- should get together to do something in order to save Tyre for posterity. Now I did actually bring this book only to show you that someone is doing something about it. This is the catalog. I can hardly lift it. It's the catalog of the exhibit called Assyria to Iberia. That's just because it rhymed you see. Which took place at the Metropolitan Museum this winter and spring. It was an astonishing show. Something like 130 museums from around the world all pooled their things together to talk about the Hittites and the Meads and all these strange people that we all know about. But we don't quite remember where they belong. But the Phoenicians were right there at the bottom all the way through. You open this book, you look and page after page there is Phoenicia. There is Tyre. There is Sour, Tyre and Sidon and so forth. And so it's all there and yet it hasn't been done. There has to be a book, maybe not quite as thick as this one, but at least a serious book about Tyre one of these days. And I would hope that after the publication that much emerged from this symposium. And by the way, which should probably be prefaced by that remarkable introduction that Ambassador Shadig made last night at the embassy. Which was full of interesting insights and new ways of looking at the Tyre problem. So it's with great hope that in the mansions of mind and America and all over Europe -- I count six or seven different countries who have sent scholars to this symposium. Whereas in the old days we used to fight with the French all the time. Now we're friends with the French. We work together on everything. Including in this show. So let us work hard to see what we can do as human beings, as civilized people for the future of the world insofar as that little pocket of water, rocks and earth called Tyre is able to be saved for humanity. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: So now we've concluded with our introductory panel. I thank you very much. Let's give them a hand. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: So the first panel is entitled Cradle of Civilization. And we will begin with Dr. Leila Badre. Dr. Leila Badre is the director of the archaeological museum at the American University of Beirut. She holds a doctorate from the University Paris Sorbonne. She has excavated numerous sites in Lebanon and Syria, as well as in Dubai, Jamaya in '69-70 and in Yemen as well. She has directed the archaeological work in Tell Kazel, Syria between '85 and 2010. And in Tyre in 2012. She considers her major achievement, despite all these incredible achievements, she considers her major achievement to be the total renovation of the American University of Beirut's museum in 2006. And also the creation of a new crypt museum at the St. George cathedral in Lebanon. She is the founder of the Friends of the AUB Museum and the founder of the Lebanese National Committee for the International Council of Museums. She's also the founding member of the Lebanese National Heritage Association. So Dr. Leila Badre. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Leila Badre: I'm very honored to speak in this prestigious institution, the Library of Congress. Thank you, Maha, for inviting me here. The subject of my presentation is the first Phoenician temple in Tyre, which we have recently excavated in Tyre. By launching a new excavation project in Tyre, the main objective of the American University of Beirut museum team was first to reach the Phoenician levels of the famous Phoenician city of Tyre. The second target was to discover the assumed temple whose possible location was mentioned to us by Mr. Badouwi, the director of antiquities in Tyre. The early temples of Tyre have been mentioned in several historical sources. To mention but a couple, first the legend of Karat from the 14th century when King Karat stopped building his district at the shrine of [inaudible] of Tyre. This temple was probably located on the mainland. Second, Hiram's builders in the 5th century BC gave a detailed description of the temple of Heracles, the main temple of Tyre which had two columns. One of gold and one of emerald. But the most important iconographic source where the city of Tyre is presented in a sculpture believed from the palace of Sennacherib in Nineveh, dated to 690 BC. A temple, probably that of Melkar is depicted above the port with two free-standing columns as you see it indicated by the arrow. The site which we selected to excavate is located on the island of Phoenician Tyre. It's a known fact that ancient Tyre was originally a rocky island, hence it's Phoenician name, Sour. Alexander the Great joined it later to the mainland by a causeway over which sand deposits accumulated through the years, forming an artificial isthmus. This island appears now as a peninsula stretching out to the sea. What did our site of sector seven look like before the investigation? After the departure of Emir Shihab from Tyre at the break of the Lebanese War in 1975, the sector seven which is located within the Phoenician island of Tyre had been abandoned for nearly 40 years. The consequence of this abandonment resulted in the growing of a four-meter high reed forest which covered the entire area to be investigated by the AUB museum team. To our great surprise, some ancient walls began to appear. But the greater surprise was that the site had already been excavated by Emir Shihab some 40 years ago without anyone knowing about it. Not a single report or archive were available to indicate this earlier discovery. Yet in the process of my research I discovered the following lines written by Shihab in 1979 of the first Phoenician and Punic Congress in Rome. He mentioned among other results of his excavations in Tyre in 1973 a large Phoenician monument with a 10-meter long wall that we will show later. It's obvious that Emir Shihab did not recognize then the nature of this vast monument as he mentioned it. Our luck was that this monument clearly refers to the temple we were about to excavate. Our task was therefore to rediscover the site and to complete Shihab's excavation in view of analyzing this important monument, documenting it, interpreting its function and attempting to determine its historical chronology. The temple in sector seven was located under the residential area of the classical period, which extended further to the northwest. What did we actually discover? From the first two weeks and after sketching a working plan of the archaeological remains, we could already assume that we were in front of a temple due to the presence of a massive construction which could clearly and yet tentatively be identified as a podium. The temple has a rectangular shape, 21 meters long and 6.50 meters wide. Its axis is oriented northwest/southeast. Several structures were found within the temple. First of all, the podium which is two meter high structure. It consists of a foundation course, surrounded by three courses of very large blocks in hard sandstone. The setting follows the structure and [inaudible] which is well-known in the Phoenician architecture. The blocks of this podium can be compared in size to those of the podium of the Eshmun temple that you can see on the lower photo. Which are close in length to ours but are double in width and height with a weight of two tons and a half. Those of Eshmun. The Eshmun temple is a gigantic one by its size. It is inspired by the Babylonian Ziggurat. It is 22 meters high, but its podium alone has been preserved. None of the temple has been preserved. Our Tyre temple blocks were constructed in the nearby quarries which are partly under the seawater today. Two sings that are shown on the podium. One letter is M like the McDonald M, and Z, were incised on the upper block. These are probably the signatures of the masons which were used for accounting purpose. Similar signs have been identified on a contemporary documented building in Byblos. On top of the podium, an altar was placed. It is a very large monolithic single-stone slab made out of marine limestone. This altar presents a wavy surface which may suggest hypothetically that it was used intentionally in order to make the flowing of the sacrificial blood possible. A massive structure located on the eastern end of the temple is built opposite and symmetrical to the podium you see on the massive structure. And the podium on the upper part. One could imagine that this structure could have been the foundation of a massive structure, maybe a tower. And that this tower may have had a niche in which the deity of the temple would have been placed facing the podium. This was the case in many oriental temples. The plan of the temple is indicated by a large rectangle. The average preservation of the walls is one course, but sometimes six courses. They are made out of fine sandstone blocks nearly half size compared to the blocks of the podium. And this is how we could immediately identify the podium. Because it's totally much bigger blocks than the walls. The walls are generally set in regular structure pattern as you see in the lower photo. The two long walls of the temple are built against the western wall which is the western limit of the temple. This view shows the inner façade of the western wall. Its external façade is beautifully decorated with a long continuous horizontal phrase of what we call Egyptian courses. It consists of five preserved courses with finely dressed sandstone blocks tightly set together with very thin joints and without any bonding material. The same architectural decorative Egyptian gorges are known from the Phoenician temple in Amrit on the coast of Syria where it decorates the upper part of its towers. Similarly, at the Eshmun temple near Sidon, the same type of blocks with the Egyptian gorges have been noted by our team during a site visit to the Eshmun temple. Some hydraulic installations, wells and basins which are common in the Phoenician temples have been found around our temple. They testified to the important role that water rituals played in Phoenician therapeutic cults as it is emphasized in both Eshmun and Amrit temples. This basin has four steps that leads to its bottom. It could have been used for purposes in relation to the temple. The main problem we faced was to find the temple entrance, which we finally found. About the center of the western wall we found this setup or these structures. The lowest platform which will present the earliest circulation level of the temple built with huge blocks about one meter long. It leads into a two-meter wide opening with a door socket. The width of which exists throughout various areas of the entrance. The middle platform is built directly on top of the earlier one, and it is also dotted with a door socket. A third paved platform entrance was added to the two previous ones. It is set between two walls which were built between the two lateral walls of the temple and which served as arch support for this paved floor. We suppose as a hypothesis that this pavement could have extended with a slight ramp. You can see it on the lower picture. Towards the east to reach the embossed level of the first course of the podium. With this hypothesis it is possible to imagine the entrance of the temple from the west side, not the east as it is usually the case in the Phoenician or oriental temples. This would lead directly to the altar level in view of the execution of the sacrifice. A kiln is built against the eastern façade of the podium. Two oblique altar stands placed in an inverted V shape mark its doorway opening. Black traces can be seen on its upper part. And gray ashes are found near the doorway. An important burn deposit mixed with ashes and small charcoal bits was found opposite the kiln. A small section of this deposit was collected and sifted, producing 17 buckets of small animal bones. It seems pretty obvious that the animals of rather small or medium size, which were sacrificed on top of the altar, were probably thrown directly in the cremation kiln. The presence of a few items found around the temple may be considered as offerings to the temple divinity. Among these, one [inaudible] found by our colleague Dr. Eddie Curel outside the temple. The presence of few items may be considered as offerings to the temple divinity. One [inaudible], as I said, found by Dr. Curel, two large stone anchors, a few lamp fragments, not to forget the burnt animal bones found in the deposit in the vicinity of the kiln. All these are extra evidence that our monument is indeed a temple. Chronological conclusions. As we have indicated earlier, in the total absence of stratigraphic records and the lack of pottery materials found in C2, it's rather difficult at this stage to draw any final chronological conclusions. Because most of the pottery is mixed, we can only draw some post-antiquan periods, the end. From the Persian to the Hellenistic period. On this basis, we may tentatively conclude that the temple itself belongs to the Persian period. This dating is enhanced by the common architectural features and masonry techniques which are known from the neighboring temples of the region, especially from the Eshmun temple in Sidon and that of Armit in Syria as stated earlier. The underwater sounding [inaudible] a group of Phoenician pottery. This explains the large number of iron tools that have been collected in various points, but not in C2. This preliminary assessment of the pottery may hint to a continuous use of this temple retaining its sacral character from the Achaemenid to the Hellenistic period and possibly including the early phases of the Roman occupation as well. As it stands and with all the very good results we have just presented, we may conclude that our newly rediscovered temple is the first Phoenician temple in Tyre and the first complete Phoenician temple in Lebanon. Thank you. [ Appllause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: We will now have a presentation in French, but we have simultaneous translation. And this is a presentation by Dr. Naji Karam, an archaeologist, former director of art and archaeology department of the Lebanese University. The scientific director MCP research institute of Lebanon. Dr. Naji Karam holds a Ph. D in archaeology from the Institute of Archaeology and Human Science University. Former professor of the Phoenician archaeology department and director of art and archaeology in the department of the Lebanese University second division. He is the director of the Church Cultural Heritage Committee in Lebanon. A member of the Lebanese organization [French term]. And he is the scientific director of the institute for research on Canaanite, Phoenician and Punic civilization. So Dr. Naji Karan, if you would like to come up. Thank you. [ Applause ] [ Speaking French ] >> So, ladies and gentlemen, I am going to translate what Dr. Naji Karam is going to talk about today and he will give you a chronological description of the prehistory and history of the city of Tyre. [ Speaking French ] >> So the history of the city of Tyre is rare. We do not know a lot about the city. And Dr. Karam is going to give us a brief description of the various archaeological and stratigraphic layers that are available. [ Speaking French ] >> So the first phase that he will mention is from prehistory to history. So we are talking about the first phase of settlement in Tyre. [ Speaking French ] >> So the first phase that actually has been proven archaeologically to exist goes back to the Chalcolithic period which is around 4000 BC. And the Lebanese University was given in the '70's an archaeological find that dates to that period. [ Speaking French ] >> So a site known as [French name] proves this archaeological find which is a pottery remain, pottery base. And he will describe it for us. [ Speaking French ] >> So the second phase is the bronze age period, the early bronze age period. Which fits together with the ancient Greek historian Herodotus and it dates back to the year 2750 BC. [ Speaking French ] >> So an archeological trench was dug that reveals these various phases from the 1970's that goes back to the third millennium BC. [ Speaking French ] >> In that period, Tyre begins to develop its urban character and it has two main ports, an Egyptian one and a Phoenician one. [ Speaking French ] >> There is an inscription in Ebla in Syria in the site known as [French name] and it dates to the year 2300 BC. [ Speaking French ] >> So the next phase that we're moving to is the middle bronze age, the new bronze age. Which indicates that in the second millennium BC there was an invasion of Amorites in Tyre. Which indicated that the city was plundered and attacked heavily by the Amorites. [ Speaking French ] >> After the departure of the Amorites, the city of Tyre and especially the port goes through a peaceful phase of existence. [ Speaking French ] >> So the third phase is the late bronze age, which is in the 15th century BC. [ Speaking French ] >> So during that period in the 15th century we have an Egyptian invasion that begins and several phases of it and they last for several centuries. [ Speaking French ] >> So during this phase there is evidence of a continuous change in the life of Tyre between a peaceful and a war phase. And in [French name] there is evidence on tablets of the life of the correspondence that took place between Tyre and this other city in Syria. [ Speaking French ] >> The next phase is the early iron age which is right at the beginning of the invasion of the sea people in the year 1200 BC. [ Speaking French ] >> The local people will begin to develop an incredible economy and this would be the golden age of the Phoenicians. [ Speaking French ] >> The dominance of Tyre in the year 1000 BC rises to such a degree that it expands towards Sidon and there's a fusion between the cities and Tyre dominates the coast in that region. [ Speaking French ] >> So we move towards the 7th century where there is an invasion on [French name] on Tyre with remains in Tyre itself. [ Speaking French ] >> And then we have the Persians who invade the region and invade Tyre in the 6th century BC. And leave their traces all the way down to Egypt. [ Speaking French ] >> So we move towards the Greek period, the 5th century BC, the 4th century BC until we reach the phase of Alexander the Great, who besieged the city of six months and it took him six months to be able to take Tyre, to take the city. [ Speaking French ] >> And then we move towards the Roman period where Tyre becomes very prosperous with the Pax Ramona. And during that phase Tyre adopts urban characteristics of a Roman city, including a hippodrome, an aqua duct, theater and so on and so forth. [ Speaking French ] >> And we move then to the early medieval phase to the Byzantine phase, where the economy of Tyre continues to rise. And it becomes a very important port for the city of Damascus and there's a very strong connection between both cities. [ Speaking French ] >> During the Crusader Period, we have an increase in the rise of the prosperity of Tyre and there are 93 villages surrounding the city and there is a Byzantine church that was built there. And the port itself becomes a very important strategic location for the crusaders in communication with their original homeland. [ Speaking French ] >> And by the end of the Crusader Period, in the year 1291, we have the expelling of the crusaders and arrival of the Arabs, who take over the city. And the city goes down in liturgy and decay. [ Speaking French ] >> And so we continue all the way 700 years in time towards the 20th century and we would like to mention Earnest Renol in the 1860's who described the city has having had a very prosperous past, but for some reason it has completely fallen into decay. [ Speaking French ] >> And so in the -- could you repeat the year please? 1943 with the independence, Tyre begins to appear once again. And a focus on the history is taken into action. [ Speaking French ] >> Tyre requires urgent and a lot of attention in order to take its place in its history and to be given the right degree of importance that it deserves. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: Thank you very much. And thank you for the translation. That was spontaneous and wonderful. So we really appreciate your help, Aliya. And now we move to our third speaker, Dr. Francoise Briquel Chatonnet, research director at the [French name]. She's a deputy director of the Eastern Mediterranean Laboratory in Paris. She works on the Phoenician history in the first millennium BC and on the country of eastern Christians. She's a member in the [French name] in Paris. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Francoise Briquel Chatonnet: Hello. First allow me to thank everyone. I am very honored to be here. I'm very pleased. And so I want to thank everyone either in the Tyre committee or here in the library who have made this event possible. Speaking of the Phoenician African diffusion that I was asked to do is a huge subject that could well have occupied the whole day. So I will only be able to give a few insights on this phenomenon. The diffusion of the Phoenicians is well known. We are used to speaking of the Phoenicians as the inventers of the alphabet. The subject of this naturally takes place in a series of talks about Tyre. But I need first to give some details on how I see this issue. The alphabetic system was invented in the northwest [inaudible] somewhere between Egypt and [inaudible] in the middle of the second millennium BC. The exact place, time and circumstances are still objectively questioned. But anyway, it is a period before what we call Phoenician engineering. And in the span of time and evolution, took place before we can call the oldest properly Phoenician inscription, that is the royal inscription of Byblos. One is that of Elabal. It's a good representation. You have the Phoenician inscription around the [inaudible]. Here I will use this inscription as a starting point and I will not take into account the diffusion of the alphabetic script before the first millennium BC. That is for example south Arabian branch of the alphabet tree. The second point I wanted to stress is the meaning and purpose of this diffusion. And of the form it took. What is clear is that purpose of the inventor or inventors of the alphabet was to conduct local exchange without translation and convey local myth and literature in their own language and script. In a region where Egyptian and Acadian languages and scripts had been used for centuries, it was a question of identity. Which was the origin of the invention and use of the alphabetic script. Language as the expression of a culture. But also of a collective identity of a group. The diffusion of the Phoenician alphabet witnesses the same phenomenon. It can be interpreted in terms of promotion of identities, but also of meeting of cultures. It is this phenomenon that I will illustrate through three issues. First, diffusion of Phoenician writing outside Phoenicia. Second the question of bilingualism and bigraphism, writing with two scripts. And then the birth of new alphabets stemming from the Phoenician alphabet. So first, diffusion of Phoenician writing outside Phoenicia. When speaking of the expansion of the Phoenician world, people only think of the Mediterranean area. But this expansion went all around Phoenicia and it can be illustrated with these inscriptions made by Phoenicians or by others. And my first example will be this inscription in Gingerly from the 9th century in the Luwian world. A local king. So it's south of modern Turkey. A local king of the culture [inaudible] culture. And the local king with the Luwian [inaudible]. It's a witness of the adoption of the Phoenician language and script. The inscription is in Phoenician language and Phoenician script. Probably for questions of prestige. A local language in script existed and we will see it, but was not used there. So we are still wondering why this king did write in Phoenician and not in his local language and script. A totally different example is this seal with Phoenician -- as shown by his name. And this seal was found in Khorsabad, Assyria. It shows the presence of a Phoenician individual of very high rank in society having his own seal. It was found underneath a [inaudible] in Khorsabad. And was probably not lost accidentally but put intentionally as a trace of the presence of the owner. So here it's really Phoenician script done by a Phoenician and left in Assyria. This diffusion of Phoenician script went through the Mediterranean. This example is an old Phoenician inscription which attests links to the homeland with the evocation of Lebanon [inaudible] from the 8th century. And then to the west Mediterranean. This inscription of [inaudible] in Sardinia is a strange inscription and the meaning is still a matter of debate. But anyway, it is Phoenician language and script from the 8th century. And to [inaudible] all the way in the 8th century before Christ, in Sardinia it's important. It was probably not to be read, because who would read that? I mean there were very few people who could read Phoenician in Sardinia at the time. It would more be to affirm Phoenician presence through it. It was a question of a Phoenician presence. And once more, a question of identity. Then the Phoenician culture was inserted in west Mediterranean especially in [inaudible] and the culture and script became Punic. This is a scale of [inaudible] and on the right an official inscription of the city of Katago. This pretty variant of Phoenician can be compared to have a comparison more speaking to what [inaudible] French is to French from France. In this case, a link is preserved between language and script. So there was an evolution, but early within the Phoenician ambience. After the fall and destruction of Katago, Punic language and scripts were preserved for several centuries in the Numidian regions of Tunisia and Algeria, in Sardinia and in Libya. It was also there and an admission of local identity within the Roman Empire. But I will illustrate it with something less known. An inscription on an [inaudible] found near a shipwreck near St. Tropez in France. With a name probably of the owner of the ship still inscribed in Punic in the first century BC. What you have at the bottom is a copy of inscriptions of some sailors. And all these words were inscribed in different languages in script. Notably, these in Punic. Which shows that crews were as cosmopolitan as they are now. So that was the diffusion of Phoenician scripts. Then I come to my second point, bilingualism and bigraphism. That means inscriptions in two different languages and two different scripts. Here we have another phenomenon. The meeting between cultures and affirmation of a double identity. This inscription I go back in time and go back to [inaudible]. Very near one we saw before. A confrontation between Phoenician and Luwian inscriptions in a strictly Luwian context. So we have very big inscription. As for the moment this particular inscription is the longest Phoenician inscription ever found. But it was bilingual and at the bottom you have the Phoenician inscription and at the top part the Luwian inscription. And it was this inscription that led to the decipherment of Luwian. So here we have someone in the strictly Luwian environment who wrote the longest Phoenician inscription every known. Why? That's a good question. Another inscription well known, whose context is better understood. The Persian inscription, which three tablets, gold tablets. Two in Etruscan and one in Punic. It was in the context of a political alliance between the king of Chiri and Katago. So the king of Chiri made an inscription and also said that he was a devotee of Eshdat. And then Greece was also a place where there were meeting of two cultures. Here is a [inaudible] epitaph of a private person. A Phoenician died in Greece in Athens. The inscription is in Athens. So that is a double inscription in Greek to be led by locals. And in Phoenician to be read by his own community. But what you see is Phoenician is first at the top and is longer than the Greek counterpart. And then in Malta a dedication for two different cultures. [ Inaudible ] Here also Phoenician comes first and is longer. It was dedicated by Phoenician's brothers who wrote everything in Phoenician and Greek. The third part, the birth of new alphabets stemming from the Phoenician Alphabet. Either through systematic and [inaudible] process of adaptation and innovation or through a progressive and natural evolution. I will only concentrate on two main branches which were very productive and gave all the main modern alphabets. On the first part, the creation of the Greek alphabet, symbolized by the history of Cadmous bringing the Phoenician letters, Phoenician gramata, to the Greeks. A Greek tradition which Phoenician adopted on their coins. And I think we will see them later. What we can see now is the possibility of a fusion intermediate is now a subject of this fusion among specialists. So it goes to the oldest Greek and we only show this oldest Greek inscription from the 8th century. What we see is that the form of the letters is very close to the letters of Phoenician alphabet. It didn't have any evolution at the time for those Phoenician letters. But the system is already a new one with vowels. That was the main invention of the Greeks. And for example, from right to left you can see [inaudible] with an O and this aleph already as an R. And this alphabet was the origin of the Etruscan alphabet, ancestor of our modern Latin alphabet. So that is well known. I will go quickly to the other branch because I don't need to explain the Latin alphabet here. The second branch which is also very interesting, perhaps less known, is the evolution to the Aramaic alphabet. Here we don't have an innovation, a fundamental change, as there was in the Greek alphabet. It's a progressive evolution from the Phoenician alphabet without any revolutionary change. Here are inscriptions of the 9th century. So about the same time as the inscriptions of Byblos of which I showed one at the beginning. An inscription of Hazal and the second one of Zaku mentioned in Baghdad. Hazal and Baghdad are well known from the Bible. So this way we can give dates to these inscriptions. 9th century. The alphabet is exactly the same as in Phoenician inscription. I mean, we can distinguish the language, but not the script of that time. Then the alphabet was used by Assyrians within the Assyrian empire. It was diffused in the near east through the deportation of Aramaic population. And this fresco from [inaudible] is very symbolic of the fact that the Assyrian empire used both a system -- cuneiform on clay tablets on the right and Aramaic alphabet on raw material on the left. And then what was the Phoenician alphabet was even written on tablets within the Assyrian civilization. This from the Louvre. Yes, I am going quickly. So it diffused all around Asia. And I will just give you examples with these inscriptions which were found quite recently on the antiquity market. And it's Aramaic inscription from [inaudible] region corresponding with north Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. And it's an illustration of the [inaudible] empire. So four centuries before Christ. And around 300 BC Aramaic was used by Ashakur, founder of the first Indian Empire, the Maurya Empire that he converted to Buddhism and it's written in Aramaic. A later variant of Aramaic, this script from Odessa diffused to central Asia. You have the [inaudible]. And up to China. The very famous [inaudible] from the 8th century written in Chinese and Syriac, so Aramaic with what was the original for that. At the end of antiquity, the alphabetical system of script was used from the Atlantic coast of Europe and North Africa to central Asia and then China and India. And at the end I want you to see also this alphabet coming to other languages and scripts. Alphabetic Aramaic used in the Iranian context in the 1st century AD in central Asia. And so that is the Aramaic alphabet writing Iranian. Then transferred to write an Indian language and becoming an Indian [inaudible]. And it's normal in alphabets, but it's stemming from Phoenician alphabet through Aramaic. And last but not least, the birth of the Arab script. With this inscription which is also this picture tribute to a friend Eric Gubal, because this monument is in [Foreign name] in Brussels. This is an inscription 512 AD on the lintel of a church. And it was first dated Arabic inscription. So you just see on the top a Syriac inscription but just on the lower part. That is the oldest dated Arabic inscription every known. Dated I mean. A trilingual inscription [inaudible] Greek. So with this diffusion from Phoenician to Arabic we come to the fact that Phoenician was really the origin of what is very important in our civilization. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: So now Dr. Elizabeth Fontan, the honorary chief curator of Heritage in France, will be speaking. After a stint at the National Ceramic Museum of Sevres and the generally respected museums, the bulk of her career has been in the department of eastern antiquities of the Louvre Museum. Where she was responsible for collections on Assyria, Phoenicia, Palestine -- thank you. Jordan, as well as those on Syria and Cyprus in the 1st millennium BC. She was a scientific exhibition curator from Khorsabad to Paris. And the discovery of Assyria at Louvre Museum in 1993. And from here to Carthage, the Mediterranean of the Phoenicians and the Arab World Institute in Paris in 2007. She is one of the editors of the catalog traditional Phoenician sculpture at the Louvre, and the department of eastern antiquities. She has worked in the international cooperation program of the museum with Jordan, Syria and Palestine, with a lecture at the Louvre. Her publications in preparation include the Ivories of [inaudible], Syria and the consuls, collectors and traders in Sidon. And we will have a big presentation after which we will have a break. Okay. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Elizabeth Fontan: Ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor for me to speak in this place. The first pieces from Phoenicia entered the Louvre in the middle of the 19th century. They came from Amrit, Byblos and Sidon. The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar was presented to the Louvre by [inaudible] in 1855. The collection from Tyre was assembled a few years later into three different ways. Scientific missions, acquisition from local dealers and antiquaries and official excavation. The most important of the scientific missions and the most famous is of course the one led me Earnest Renan [French word]. Renan was given by Emperor Napoleon III a scientific mission for the purpose of conducting epigraphic and archaeological research in Palestine and in Syria. This mission happened to take place right at the same time as the French military expedition sent to protect the Christians. Renan sailed on October 21st, 1860 and left Beirut the following year on October 10th. He decided to split his research into four campaigns from north to south, Rad and Amrit, Byblos, Sidon and Tyre. He wishes to include in each campaign the most important places and to survey as completely as possible the surroundings. With the help of the French army, especially the marine, this program was achieved within six months. Renan started the exploration of Tyre on March 4th 1861. He knew it would be difficult to reach the deepest levels. The ancient city was covered by the modern town. And he was afraid having no reward in this prestigious site. The oldest item found in Tyre is this [inaudible] head of a [inaudible] discovered in an eight-meter deep trench on the location of the old Tyre. This head was inserted in the body made on the [inaudible]. See for comparison figurine now in the Louvre, dating from the iron age too. That is 8-7th century BC. Renan wished to explore continental town on the mainland called [inaudible]. But he was not successful in the surrounding area. At Naphid he discovered a fragmentary marble sarcophagus decorated with figures in the Phoenician tradition. Caesar on the lid, mixed with Roman motifs. [ Inaudible ] In April, Renan started excavating Umel-Ahmed, or as they said, Umel-Ahamed, ancient [inaudible] situated at 19 kilometers south of Tyre. He found there a lot of fragments of sculptures. Human heads, lower part of a standing man wearing a shunted skirt, bodies of sphinxes. A throne, status throne. And some pieces of architecture, a [inaudible] and fragments of [inaudible] as well as winged [inaudible]. Among the finds were three pieces. Dedication to the god Baalshamin, a fragment of a [inaudible] dedicated to the god [inaudible]. And there is her statue also dedicated to [inaudible] god of [inaudible]. One of the master pieces of the [inaudible] is the floor mosaic from St. Christopher church dated 575 AD. It was recovered in very good state of conservation. And it was retrieved from its original location by a specialist from [inaudible] to be sent to Paris. Since 2012 it is on display in the new late antiquity galleries for the first time in its complete composition. Another scientific mission provides the Louvre with a piece from Tyre. Albert Immanuel Gilbreth called [inaudible] realized three missions. During the third one in 1864-1865 he brought a stain showing a veiled woman. It was supposed to come from Tyre, but from the stylistic point of view it was [inaudible]. Two families from Southern Lebanon played a significant role in the constitution of the Phoenician collection of the Louvre in the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th. [ Inaudible ] At the end of the 18th century when he was a consul for several countries. France, Spain but also the United States. His son moved to Sidon in 1853. Vice consul of Franc, he was very active in the search of antiquities. And he discovered the sarcophagus of Eshmunanzar. Later, he went to work for the [French name] and gave this marble relic from [inaudible] depicting a Phoenician theme. [Inaudible] in front of one incense burner with [inaudible]. His youngest son [inaudible] was a [inaudible] in Sidon and later in Paris. In 1882 his own marble [inaudible] got to be reused in the wall of the house in Sour. Five members of the family, two brothers [inaudible] and three of the sons, Michel, Sigmund and Ferdinand, were involved in the antiquity market, mostly in their hometown. They didn't claim to be scholars. Their trade was a way of earning their living. They provided [inaudible] with small artifacts. Glass flasks, [inaudible] a fragment of a stone basin which is said to have been collected on the seashore in the vicinity of the Egyptian harbor. It is inscribed with a Phoenician name. They also saw [inaudible] characteristic of the Tyre with the twisted columns. [Inaudible] was led to work at [inaudible] by the French scholar [French name] to continue the site exploration. They found a series of male statues in Egyptian style presumably [inaudible]. Unfortunately, all headless. These figures are set against [inaudible] except for one. The bottom left. Two of them are dedicated on the back of the pillar to Baalshamin. One to the got El, the other to Ozaris. They also sent to the Louvre several limestone [inaudible] depicting priests wearing Persian cloth. Veiled woman and a couple facing each other. This type of structure was unknown to Renan. And we still do not know the precise location they were found in the site. [ Inaudible ] And assembled a fine collection. He bought in the village of Mashuk an inscription dated to the 53rd year of Tyre and he sold it to the Louvre in 1885. In Sour they discovered pieces of an inscribed monument looking like a [inaudible] which was sent to the museum by [inaudible]. At the beginning of the last century, the Jesuit father Sebastian [French name] was able to buy some pieces with fund supplied by [French name], pieces which were transferred to the Louvre later. An inscribed [inaudible] on the right from [inaudible]. And two [inaudible] showing [inaudible]. [ Inaudible ] And also lead weight showing on one side and the sign of [inaudible] on the other. After the first World War, official excavations were organized in Lebanon by [French name] during the French mandate. [French name] was in charge of excavating Tyre and its surrounding in 1921 and 1922. [French name] conducted a [inaudible] at [inaudible] in 1921. In the 1930's the Jesuit father [French name] realized a survey and submarine excavation in the Tyre harbor. Later [French name] resumed excavation in [inaudible] in 1943-45. But at the time there was no longer any sharing of the records of the excavation. And the pieces discovered are now in the National Museum in Beirut. Since the end of the French mandate, the collection in the Louvre was completed by a few purchases. [ Inaudible ] Which is said to have been found on the seashore at Sour, and is inscribed with dedication to [inaudible] in Tyre. A marbles stone with a full line dedication to [inaudible] also. And [inaudible] statuettes from a deposit at the bottom of the sea. To conclude this brief overview we can see that in the Phoenician collection of the Louvre very few pieces were found on the island of Tyre itself. Many more come from its surroundings, notably from [inaudible]. Thank you for your attention. [ Applause ] >> Okay, good morning ladies and gentlemen. And welcome to our second panel. Phoenician commerce and exchange. Our first speaker, Dr. Frederique Duyrat is the director of the department of coins, metals and antiques of the Bibliotheque Natiaonle du France. From 2001-2009 she was assistant professor in Greek history at the University of Elyon from France. And a member of the Institute University de France between 2006 and 2009. From 2010-2013 she was curator of Greek coins in the department of coins, metals and antiques at the Bibliotheque Nationale du France. Until she was offered the position of director of this department in September 2013. She has been an associate researcher at the [French name], a physics laboratory specializing in the elemental analyses of the metal of coins from 2002-2013. And is now associated through the research team of [French name] at the University of Paris Sorbonne. And the [French word] of the University of Paris. She presented in [French name] at the Sorbonne in 2010 to be published by the American Numismatic Society. Lost and Found: Monetary Behavior in Acaminit and Hellenistic Syria. She is the editor of the [French name] published by the Bibliotheque Nationale du France. And is one of the directors of the Review Numismatique. And a member of the board of the Societe Francaise du Numismatique. She has published a book and 28 articles and edited four conferences related to numismatics or economic history. Please welcome Dr. Frederique Duyrat. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Frederique Duyrat: Well, first of all, I wanted to thank the association for the invitation of speaking at the Library of Congress. Being myself a member of staff of a national library, it's a great honor to be here. But I'm here to speak about the coinage or Tyre in antiquity. Tyre was one of the most prominent cities during antiquity. Its coinage reflects its power. One of the first names active in its coinage is an important tool to write the history. Beginning a little before the middle of the 5th century BC, it did appear during the 3rd century AD. Before using coinage, Tyre like other cities in the east used commodity money or what we call hack silver. That means fragments of silver. Either pieces of jewelry or any silver. Weight to now the values. On this you can see that even coins, Greek coins, were used like that. Cut as if it were just silver [inaudible]. From the latter half of the 6th century BC silver coins started circulating in the east. The oldest coin known was found in the [inaudible] north of the mouth of the [inaudible] river and was buried around 525-520 BC. It only contained foreign coinage struck in Macedonia, Thrace and Cyprus. So foreign coins. By the end of the 5th century, [inaudible] bear witness to the first strikes of finished coins from Sidon and Tyre. Tyre built a complete monetary system from the beginning. The major denomination was the shekel, weighing around 13.5 grams. And it has a complete succession of diffusion from the quarter shekel, the thirty-second of shekel and even tiny coins that weighted only 0.06 grams, so really tiny, tiny silver coins. During the 4th century there were even brown coins. Compared to the variety of the Phoenician city coinage during the same period, Tyre's typology is limited to two main groups. The [inaudible] shows a dolphin jumping above a wave with a shell in the [inaudible] on the rivers. [ Inaudible ] This first group was spread during the 5th century. On the second group, the largest by far, struck during the 4th century BC. A bearded god rides a winged seahorse to ride above waves and on a dolphin. The rivers is represented the same way as in the 5th century group. This 4th century group has totally different profile from the 5th one. The Phoenician coins gain an increasing place in circulation during that period. They even constituted [inaudible]. Sidon vastly dominates with nearly half of [inaudible] and the area of circulation that goes beyond the limits of its home regional zone of influence. But Tyre has produced nearly of 10% of whole specimens and its coins circulate rather widely. The image chosen by the Tyrians too strike their coins provides indication of what the city wanted to be considered as its official banner. The [inaudible] during the whole Persian period is a hawk with a hawk body wearing the Egyptian insignia of power, a scepter and a flame. The Egyptian influence reminds us of the long-lasting commercial and political relationship of the Phoenician cities with Egypt. Which is peculiar to Tyre, but also sometimes from [inaudible] and Sidon is the importance given to the sea. A dolphin jumping above a wave, the shell, the bearded god riding a seahorse are all related to the sea power of Tyre. The interesting thing is that the seahorse is winged. It is at the same time a sea and sky animal. Such an [inaudible] which is completely abnormal in the Greek context is not puzzling since the Phoenicians gods can have at the same time power of earth and sky. Therefore such an animal is a convenient mount. At the end of 333 BC, Alexander the great won the battle of Issus and entered Phoenicia to consolidate his victory by the diminishing of the Mediterranean coast. The control of the coastal cities of Cyprus would guarantee him that the Persian fleets would be kept away when it could have [inaudible]. Raddus, Byblos and Sidon almost immediately submitted to the Macedonian king. [ Inaudible ] To the considerable benefit of Alexander. He acted quickly, prompting the [inaudible] of the city and their fleets. Rapidly thereafter, fleets of [inaudible] and Cyrus joined his camp. But Tauria and Giza remained the only cities to resist. The siege of Tyre lasted from January to July 332 BC. However, after he had conquered the city, it seemed that Alexander didn't change the regime, the political regime. At this part of the resistance, Tyre kept a king designated by order of Alexander from among the members of the former royal family. All the formerly Phoenician cities, Raddus, Byblos, Sidon and Tyre, already issued coins in 333. They quickly started to strike with Alexander's type. The head of Heracles. Alexander sitting on the throne, an eagle in his right hand on the reverse. You can see on that coin, few Phoenician coins on the reverse of the coin, just in front of those. It is the name of the reigning Tyrian king. It's the first and the last letter in Phoenician in the name of the king. Phoenicia was the theater of an essential [inaudible], the monetary history of Alexander. The creation of a gold coinage after July 332. And the surrounding of Tyre. This will explain the novel reverse type he chose. A [inaudible] holding what we call a stylus, a long tool she's got on her left shoulder. The stylus was the banner for [inaudible], usually taken as a trophy by the winner. And it is here a keen reminder of his victory on the city of Tyre. After Alexander's day in 323 BC, the [inaudible] was at war due to the competition between Alexander's companion. [Inaudible] silver and gold coins with Alexander's types and his name in very large amounts. And Tyre was one of the main mints. The circulation of these coins was very wide, as far as Alexander's treks in the east. After 301 Phoenicia was part of a wider region called Syria and Phoenicia in the hands of Ptolemy I, new king of Egypt, and former companion of Alexander the Great. He and his son, Ptolemy II, completely transformed the monetary system of the kingdom and its dependencies by introducing a standard [inaudible] and the [inaudible] standard with have been widely used as Alexander chose it for its coinage. Ptolemy I created a closed monetary system with mandatory exchange at borders, excluding all foreign coins. In Egypt, the sole mint was Alexandria, but in Syria and Phoenician several mints were opened, one of them Tyre. From 260 the local mints seem to have supplied most of the needs of the area. Tyre signed its prediction with a monogram written with Greek letters. But you can see the front of the eagle on the rivers. And the club. Distinctive attributes of the god protector of the city, Melqart. At the beginning of the second century, [inaudible] king of Syria grabbed Syria and Phoenicia. However, he didn't change the monetary system. It is only at the end of the second century BC when the [inaudible] dynasty weakens that Tyre started its own autonomous coinage. From 126 BC Tyre issued this autonomous coinage. That means coin with its own type and the name and titles of the city. From the iconographic point of view, the coinage of Tyre was relatively poor. These symbols were most common during the Persian period. [Inaudible] and shells are secondary symbols. A palm tree and Melqart were all common. This god patron of the city was represented young, wearing a laurel reef. His identities of use thanks to the associated club that you can see here on the reverse of the. And the appearance of the god himself with a stout neck, strong chin, his head occupying all the available surface of the [inaudible]. It is a mighty god whose power comes from its physical strength. [ Inaudible ] And then a symbol of an economically reliable coinage. A monogram of the city and its name in full letters appear on the reverse. Sometimes on other coins a Atike goddess of the city fortune is represented on autonomous bronze with a palm tree on the reverse. She's probably the Greek representation of Serte, protective goddess of the city. All other deities of city, skills and politics are absent from the coinage. A political object, coins bear the image of gods in charge of the political activity of the community. Syria would transfer into a Roman province in 64 BC. Syria brought change to the coinage. Tyre kept its autonomous types and its issues of autonomous silver coins continued during the first century AD. So real change occurred during the 2nd century AD with in particular the development of references to founding myths and local cults. The latter were evoked through a picture [inaudible] positional [inaudible] objects related to religious festivals and comparisons. Agonistic palms of victory and so on. [ Inaudible ] During the Hellenistic period detailed depictions of founding myth. So you have here one example of the coin in the 1st century. Here you can see the change because the reverse -- on the obverse you have the emperor. On the reverse you have a very detailed scene depicting what we call the Ambrosian works. They were erected in the shrine of Heracles Melqart under an olive tree. They were associated with the foundation of the city though the particulars of the foundation remain unknown. They are presented as Talas on bronze coins spread during the 3rd century AD. So identification is clear since the name is written on them, Ambrosia Petra. Under the exit line, a dog and a [inaudible] remind us of the myth explaining how the [inaudible] were discovered. The famous Tyrian purple was extracted from this shell. Another coin struck between 244 and 249 AD shows Cadmous. I'm sorry for the quality, but this is a very, very rare coin and this is the one we've got in the library in Paris. So you can hardly see it here, but it's very clear when you read it directly. So it shows Cadmous, king of Tyre on the right, giving a [inaudible] to three men on the left. If it's not just with emirs. You've got a legion and there's the exit line. Because you have the first letter of the work Elanos at the feet of the three men. And there's a man on the right. You have cad for Cadmous. The scene represents Cadmous giving the alphabet to the Greeks. An eastern heritage for the Greek civilization. Then the 2nd and 3rd century AD coin designs of Tyre are multiple educational and political. They contrast strongly with the more enigmatic sobriety of the issues of the Persian and Hellenistic periods. They bear witness to changes in the religious practice from the 2nd century AD in contrast to the preceding long-lasting religious rights. They are also a political program enhancing the central relationships and heritage between Phoenicia and the Greek world at a time when Phoenicia was deeply influenced by Greek culture. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Thank you, Dr. Duyrat, for a very intriguing presentation. Our next presenter is Dr. Patrick McGovern, who direct the biomolecular archaeology project at the University of Pennsylvania museum in Philadelphia. Where he's also an adjunct professor of anthropology and consulting scholar in the near east section. Over the past two years he has pioneered the exciting interdisciplinary field of biomolecular archaeology which is yielding whole new chapters concerning human ancestry, medical practice and ancient cuisines and beverages. He has excavated extensively in the Middle East, including Lebanon, Canaanite and Phoenician Sarafond. He is the author of Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture, published in 2003-04. And most recently Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer and other Alcoholic Beverages. Without further ado, Dr. Patrick McGovern. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Patrick McGovern: Thank you. I'm very happy to be here. And I'm thankful to the Tyre committee for inviting me to talk about two of the technological and artistic creations of the Phoenicians. I mean, the Phoenicians are responsible for a great deal. We've heard about the alphabet, we've heard about some coinage, ship building. There's metalworking, glass making. And I'm going to talk about royal purple and wine. My first experience in archaeology was actually in Lebanon at a site not too far from Tyre called Surepta, or Sarafond which is only about 11 kilometers as the crow flies north of Tyre. So I have a great affinity for Lebanon and what it really represents. Because I think it took technology and art and transferred them across the Mediterranean and eventually to the whole world. So it's a very special country and I think we need to find out a great deal more about it. I mean, I'm really saddened by the events since the civil war and so forth, and how difficult it is to excavate in that country. But I think it holds secrets that we really can't imagine. I think architecture too. We've heard about the Tyre temple and we're going to hear more about that this afternoon. So I think architecture and temple worship, religion, theater, music. There's a whole series of contributions that the Phoenicians and the Canaanites, the predecessors of Phoenicians, contributed. So I'm going to talk about royal purple as a good example, or Tyrian purple we can call it. Because there's a Greek myth you could say that the Phoenicians are the ones who developed purple initially or even back to the Canaanites. And that the words for Phoenicia and Canaan do derive from ancient words for purple. So this is very integral to the Canaanites and the Phoenicians. Now here we see this myth of Heracles walking along the shore of Tyre with his dog. And the dog is biting into different shells. And this is the Greek idea of how maybe it could have been discovered. The dog bites into a murex shell which has the purple dye gland. And I'll show that to you a little bit later. And that inspires Heracles then to take the dye and make up textiles for his consort goddess. And so begins the royal purple dye making. But we have more definitive archaeological evidence. And it comes from the site of Surepta where I worked in 1974 as Israeli jets pounded the local Palestinian camp. You had to be very intrepid to work at Surepta in those days. And Leila Badre can attest to that because she was there at the same time. And it is a site that's located between Tyre and Sidon, about halfway in between. And when they started getting down into the late bronze, early iron age levels, this is from about 1300 BC to 1100 BC. This is one of the few homeland Canaanite/Phoenician sites that has been excavated. Now Sidon is getting a lot more information and we hope that Tyre will as well. We came down onto an industrial area. This is done by the University of Pennsylvania Museum under James Pritchard who some of you may know or have heard of. We started finding Canaanite jars. I was a graduate student at this time, so I was working on the pottery and going through it very carefully. And you'll see here that this industrial area had kilns for making the pottery. But in addition it also had purple colored shards on the inside of amphoras or Canaanite jars. And also processing vats for making the dye. And when we saw these purple colored shards, our immediate instincts was that these were possibly real Tyrian purple. Now they could be from an inorganic coloring like manganese or iron. But if they were the real Tyrian royal purple, they would be an organic compound. And we had just started in on doing organic analyses at the University of Pennsylvania museum. First I'd work on pottery and glass and so forth. And then I was always very interested in organic chemistry. And we were just developing the techniques 20 years ago to be able to analyze organic compounds and see what the ancient dye might be or ancient food or whatever. And so this is a very small shard that we worked with from Surepta that had the purple color on the inside. It was from an amphora. And for those who are chemically challenged among you, I'm not going to give you all the details. We've published extensively on the chemical results. And we have used spectroscopic techniques. Mass spectrometry works very well. And there's a particular vat dye test that you can do that almost certainly shows that we're dealing with what's called 6-6-prime dibromoindigotin. It's an indigo compound that has two bromines, one on each side of the molecule. And the indigo of course gives blue. But if you put the bromines on, it switches the color over to purple. And there's a lot of fascinating details about this dye and I'll refer you again to some of the articles I've written about. It comes from a gland, as I mentioned, in the murex mollusk that's found in the Mediterranean. There's three different species. And this is an example where you can see it's a yellowish fluid that comes out of this gland, called the hypobranchial gland. And when it's exposed to light and air, it changes to purple. So it's something that people could have discovered quite easily. And there's related species of mollusks all over the world. So the ancient Mayans, Chinese, Incans and so forth discovered related species. And if you're using it as a food source and you start to handle the Murex, you're going to get it on your fingers. And it is a very fast dye. It's very hard to remove. So people would have realized it was a good textile dye and started using it for that purpose. Okay, so that is a little glimpse of the royal purple. You know, there's lots more I could say about it. But now I want to move on to another luxury good which also has technological and artistic ramifications, and that's ancient wine. Which I've written a book about. So you're welcome to ask me about. And I also hope we'll be having -- on that first slide at the beginning I showed a view of the Baca valley where winemaking has probably gone on for thousands of years. Now this is a map that shows in purple, appropriately enough, and I'm glad that some of you are wearing purple today. Where the wild grapevine, the wild Eurasian grapevine, vitis vinifera, grows today. And we think that basically it's the same region. And you'll notice that the area -- well before I do that, you'll notice that Lebanon is at the most southerly extent of the wild grape vine. So when humans came out of Africa say 100,000 years ago and they crossed over the Sinai and up into the near east, they would see the grape for the first time in Lebanon. And I think that they would be quite interested in this fruit. [ Laughter ] And so they would maybe start experimenting with it. But now so far we have a project now up in Georgia in the Caucuses looking at the earliest evidence for winemaking and for the domestication of the grapevine. It appears that the domestication occurs somewhere in the mountainous region of the near east. It could be up in the Caucuses, but it could also be near eastern Turkey and the Taurus mountains, over to the Zagros mountains. But even down into Lebanon. And unfortunately we've had no real gathering of grapes and DNA analyses in Lebanon to test you know, whether it could have first merged there. But we do know that the Canaanites and then the Phoenicians are very much involved in spreading the wine culture, wherever it emerges. And by wine culture mean something like Lebanon today, where wine can become very much -- of course you have Ararack and what have you. Wine can become very central to the economy, the social life, the religion. And sort of embeds itself right into the culture in a very profound way. But we do see in later periods how this wine culture then spread principally from the Canaanite Phoenician area. So around 4000 BC -- we probably had the emergence of the wine culture around 6000 BC in the mountainous areas of the near east. Then by 4000 BC it had spread down to the Jordan valley. And we have grape seeds of domesticated grape that have been found about that time. And then ultimately it goes on to Egypt where you'll notice Egypt did not have the wild grapevine. You had to bring in the domesticated grapevine. And who did that? Well it was the Canaanites and the Phoenicians. And I'll show you a few more slides to illustrate that. But then the Phoenicians also took the grape and wine culture across the Mediterranean. And we've done a lot of analyses now on vessels from Crete and other parts of even the western Mediterranean that show that at least by 2200 BC wine was being made on Crete. So the Greeks are absorbing the wine culture. And the earliest shipwreck in the Mediterranean from Uluburun, which is just off the southern coast of Turkey, dated about 1350 BC, is a Canaanite ship. So here the Canaanites were transporting all sorts of goods and spreading out into the Mediterranean, establishing colonies and so forth. And you'll see there are some amphoras. This is a reconstructed view of what the Uluburun shipwreck would have looked like. Because a lot of the goods were spread out along a very steep slope. So they tried to figure out what the weight, the ballast would have been on certain parts of the ship and the different sizes of amphoras. And we are just publishing an article that shows that they had wine on board this ship. This has been sometimes controversial. [ Laughter ] I think if you're Canaanites you have wine on board your ship. And then we did an analysis of other amphoras that were found in shipwrecks from the 8th century BC off of Ashkelon. And they were carrying an enormous number of amphoras. This is a photograph by remotely operated submersible. But it showed hundreds of amphoras in the ships. And there were two ships. And they were given the ships Tanit, and Elissa or Dido. And they were carrying, according to our analysis, wine. Now the wine in this case also has a resin in it. It could be pine resin or terabinth resin. And that helps to keep it from spoiling. So they then went out across to Greece and Crete as I mentioned. And I think ultimately, according to another article that we've done in the proceedings from the National Academy of Sciences -- and these are available on my website if you're interested. The French ultimately got winemaking and the wine culture through the Etruscans. This occurs around the 8th, 7th, 6th century BC. But my belief, and I think it will be shown as more shipwrecks are excavated, is that the Phoenicians are really the ones that transferred the wine culture and the domesticated grapevine to the Etruscans. And then ultimately to the French. So the beginnings of winemaking in France go back to the Phoenicians, which is not all that surprising. I hope I'm not upsetting anybody. [ Applause ] And just to give you some examples from Egypt of how important the Canaanites were there, one of the earliest tombs of a pharaoh is one of Scorpion I at Abidos around 3150 BC. And he had 700 jars of wine, about 4,500 liters of wine put into his tomb. So the king was buried on a bed on the back there with his mace in hand. And then there was beer and bread and so forth in the middle chambers. And then there were three sort of wine cellars, you know, stacked up with these jars. And we were able show that this again was a resinated wine that had figs put into it. It also had thyme and savory. You were eating zatar this morning. We have shown that some of the earliest wine -- and this was probably, according to the neutron activation analyses of the pottery, it comes from the Jordan valley in this case. And the surrounding hill country where the wine was then exported to Egypt. And that gave the Egyptians the impetus to set up their own wine industry around 3000 BC. And we have these beautiful depictions of course as probably some of you have seen in Egypt of how the winemaking was done. Well, this is a pretty sophisticated system that goes back to the beginning of the old kingdom. I mean, I'm showing a fresco here from the new kingdom. But there's equal examples from the old kingdom. It shows how they were able to have arbors or pergolas with grapes growing up high, which blocks the sun. Because you're in a very hot climate in the Nile delta. So it's the Canaanites who are transplanting the grapevine to the delta, setting up the winemaking industry there. And using very advanced horticultural methods. They even had irrigation of single plants we see in some of the illustrations. And of course doing the stomping operation, putting it into jars, knowing how to seal it, how to do the fermentation and how to keep it. And this influence ultimately comes from Lebanon. We know from the textile evidence of the Greeks and so forth that Lebanese wine, especially Bybline or Byblos wine, was renowned in the ancient world as being the equal of any Greek wine. They said it was comparable to the Lesbos wine. And it was very much a part of ceremonies in Lebanon. We have from the Ras Shamra texts that they had special worship and meals and ceremonies for the ancestors, which features lots of wine. Which also the gods Baal and Hel sometimes overindulged in. So we've got a culture there that is definitely a wine-based culture. And yet we know very little about it because we have not done any analyses of vessels from the homeland of Phoenician area that we can really rely on. Or at least there might be some in progress that suggest Cartamum, but I kind of wonder about that. But we've got these spectacular vases, the mushroom-lipped juglet and the amphora and so forth that need to be analyzed. And on this particular sarcophagus of Hiram of Byblos, we see him holding a cup in his hand. And what was that cup filled with? Well, we would think it would be with wine. But we still have yet to prove this. And we really need a lot more work and protection of the antiquities in Lebanon. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Thank you very much, Dr. McGovern. Our next speaker is Dr. Peter Von Dommelen. He's an archaeologist studying cross cultural interactions and colonial connections in the ancient Mediterranean. Especially in the Phoenician and Punic worlds. His research concerns topics like migration, rule of households, ancient agriculture and landscapes in the western Mediterranean in both ancient and more recent times. They also structured long-term field work and ceramic studies on the island of Sardinia, Italy. He's the Dukowski family professor of archaeology and professor of anthropology at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. And has held visiting professorships at University of Valencia in Spain, [Spanish name] in Spain and Cagliari in Italy. Recent publications have appeared in the Journal of Roman archaeology, [foreign name] and the Annual Review of Anthropology. They also include rural landscapes of the Punic world, and the Cambridge prehistory of the bronze and iron age Mediterranean. He also serves as co-editor of the Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and World Archaeology. Dr. Dommelen. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Peter Dommelen: Thank you very much for your kind introduction. And of course also, my thanks to the committee for Tyre. Because it's an honor to speak here, but also a great pleasure here to talk to you about Phoenician archaeology. As you heard in the introduction, I'm an archaeologist and working particularly on cultural interaction. So what happens when people migrate, go and work somewhere else and how they learn things from others, how they start doing things in different ways? And in the process sort of come up with novel ways of doing that or consuming things as well. And most of my research over the past 25 years has been involving Phoenicians. But without going into Lebanon myself, which is still a place where I have to go, I must confess. Because all of my work in fact has been concentrated in the west Mediterranean and that is what I will be speaking about here. So it's under the heading of material connections. Because the fate of Tyre is, as we've heard and as we've seen to some extent or a large extent, based on the city itself. But not just and not only that, but it's also on the overseas connections, what Tyrians were doing overseas and what they were up to in those faraway places. And archaeology is actually crucial for understanding these things. Archaeology is about stuff, about things that you find, and hence they make up these material connections. Because this is obviously a huge and vast topic, I'm only going to be touching on a couple of points today because of the constraints of time. And what I want to highlight is to take you on a kind of whirlwind tour across the Mediterranean and highlight some of the rapid advances that the discipline of archaeology has been making in this regard as well. And really in sort of recent years. And I'm beginning here straight away with this sort of introductory slide which I'm not going to say much more about, other than you're looking at this wonderful view, which is on the island or just off the island of Sardinia where the peninsula in the background is the colonial site of Bitia, southeast Sardinia. And we're looking at it from the Tophart, which is one of those weird sites that were created in the wester Phoenician colonial world. And again, one of the things -- I don't have time to go into detail, but we might touch on it here or there. Tyre and its overseas connection. Because it's not just archaeology that gives us information about these. Of course, as we've already seen in previous talks, there's all sorts of iconographic sources, illustrations of various kinds as we see here in these reliefs or in this bronze plate. That was originally fixed on a gate in Balawat in neo-Syrian period. And of course there's all kinds of literary sources. But even when we look at these epigraphic and iconographic sources, we can see very well that they show us lots of stuff, lots of things in the archaeology. We see trees, timber being transported in forms of tribute that we just heard a lot about, these Canaan amphorae being transported. And to some extent the amphorae themselves, the clay vessels. But of course it wasn't just about the vessels. It was clearly, as we heard, all about the contents of them. So there's a lot of these. Even if we look at nonmaterial sources, it's sort of the material that sort of makes up those connections that's paramount there. But with archaeology we can actually do something more. And that's more what I want to talk about, sort of these material connections. They give us insight in everyday life. We can talk about what was life in those colonial oversea settlements? And what were people up there -- how were they building a life in faraway places? So the places I want to sort of briefly touch on here is of course Carthage. How could we not talk about Carthage when we talk about the west? But as you can see there the concentration on the island of Sardinia, which has all to do with that as a place where I conduct my fieldwork. But very important of course is the Spanish peninsula, the Iberian peninsula where we haven't heard much about so far today. But the city Cassis situated just outside the Mediterranean, on the Atlantic shores. That is a key element of this Phoenician/Tyrian expansion. So first Carthage. Carthage, famously founded by Dido Elissa, and we'll hear much more about it in a later talk as I gather from the program. And we have from our literary sources, historical sources, traditional foundation date of 814 BCE. And there has been a long discussion whether that would be reliable. Because most of the archaeology was coming up with somewhat younger dates. But in fact it is excavations that have been carried out first by University of Hamburg and then more recently by the Universities of Amsterdam and Ghent in Belgium. At the site of the so-called [foreign name] that have actually come up with all different kinds of evidence. Particularly from the [foreign name] site that recent radio carbon dates have actually been pushing back to sort of the first presence of settlement at that site to the end of the 9th century. So that sort of brings us within touching distance as it were of that sort of traditional foundation date. So that's sort of one important achievement that I would like to highlight. But what you see in the larger photo, which is sort of not particularly enticing or sort of attractive you might think. But in many ways it is, because in one of those industrial or artisanal areas. And in this case a fairly early ironworking site at ancient Carthage. Another important settlement site where Phoenicians settled down very early is on the southeast, of the southwest, sorry, of the isle of Sardinia. In fact on a little island just off the island of Sardinia itself. The little Island of Santiago where the ancient site of Sulkey was established right in the middle of the modern town, as you can see on this aerial. There you can see most of the remains are Roman period or Punic later and so on. But it's within that highlighted area there. That's why there's one area where much older foundations of a house were found. And particularly, zooming much more in detail at those remains, we've actually got foundations of a house probably possibly two houses here that were established in the early or mid-8th century. So that's a little bit later than the sort of evidence that we've been getting from Carthage. But here what was very important to establish as well, these were new foundations. There was nothing before that. These were established on an empty site. And the life from the materials as we can find, that people were living here. The kind of houses that they were building there, they seem to be sort of fully fledged Phoenician houses. And some of the pottery sort of illustrated in that drawing there actually find some very close matches to material known from Tyre. But what also should be noted here, Sardinia wasn't empty of course. The island was already inhabited by local Sardinians, people of so-called Nuragic culture. And some of their material culture, some potsherds have been found within this early Phoenician context as well. Moving further west, really sort of into the far west of the Mediterranean, if not just beyond, as we're just outside the Strait of Gibraltar in Cadis on the modern Lucia. And here we are overlooking the area, the salt marshes. The vast wetlands that sort of make up that part of the coast. This has been long an archaeological problem here. Because stray finds we're turning up, like this little Phoenician statuette that was actually dragged up from the sea, so without any precise foundation. So if you look it up in literature of on web sources, you will find widely varying dates for this little statuette because by and large it cannot be dated with any precision. Various kinds of Phoenician amphorae clearly recognizable as such were turning up from various places. But not with any sort of clear contexts. But all of this has now sort of been changed in a very dramatic way because of what really has been commercial excavations, salvage interventions going on to do with building within the historical town of Cadis over the last ten years or so. And evidence that has sort of only just been published really. Now what's been found there at the site called [foreign name] because it's actually under this historical theater in downtown Cadis, that a whole Phoenician neighborhood basically has been brought to light. There's eight houses contained in three separate buildings with a street and a small side alley connecting to it, sort of connecting them up. From the nature of the evidence, it's actually very clear that several of the buildings at least had several stories as you can see in this reconstruction here. And the site has actually recently been made accessible to the public under the theater. So if any of you would happen to go to St. Lucia, Cadis should definitely be a place to go there. The excellent state of preservation and excavation of this evidence has clearly, very clearly demonstrated the people here were living Phoenician style. There's no less than five or six bread ovens really to make this flatbread that have been found in those places there. Again, all of this dating to the very end of the 9th century, sort of early 8th century. So we're back at the very early dates, coinciding roughly in time with the foundation of Carthage. And what's remarkable therefore, at that very early date, people were already going as far as the very edges of the Mediterranean, venturing out at least into the opening up of the Atlantic. So what we have here clearly therefore is a Phoenician migrant community setting themselves up not just for making a few bucks on the shoreline or exchanging something on the beaches or so. This is something totally different. This is a very substantial, well-established trading and migrant settlement. What's interesting though, and that's a little fragment you see in the very middle of my slide there, is it's not just Phoenician material culture that's being found here. This pot that you see there is a vessel from the island of Sardinia and interestingly not a Phoenician one. But this is one, a so-called Nuragic jug that belongs within the Nuragic/Sardinia culture. So the island of Sardinia, sort of situated centrally in the west Mediterranean, is one of those important places. A very large island, one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean that really played a key role in Phoenician expansion and its contacts. The creating of those contacts across and spanning over the entire Mediterranean. And you're looking here at this wonderful bay which is one of the best anchorages in this part of the Mediterranean. This site and the next one that I'll be talking about, these two dots that you see here, the sites of St. Bernia and Suraki actually have come up with evidence. And again in the last 5-10 years with evidence of a different mode of being. A different mode of migrating and a different mode of commercial interaction within the Phoenician world that we have seen. Because these two sites, St. Bernia and Suraki are not Phoenician settlements. These are indigenous Nuragic Sardinian settlements. But we've got clear evidence here of Phoenician activities and in fact sort of fairly permanent presence in those sites. And in fact, the amphora that you see here is a local production. It's not a Canaanite jar. It's not a Phoenician amphora. It's locally produced. The type is sort of specific to Sardinia. But it is clearly sort of based on the Phoenician prototypes. And this type of jar is called St. Bernia jar because that's where it was first recognized, has actually been found in Carthage itself as well. And probably now in Spain too. And all of this goes together with all of those other elements that make up these material connections. There's some Greek pottery, some very early Greek pottery as you can see as well. We're talking near the end of the 9th century. So again we're back to the very early horizon Phoenician expansion in the west. And of course those sort of shapeless blocks that are lying at the foot of the amphora. These are broken up bronze ingots. So again, sort of trade in metal very well demonstrated here. This slide gives you an indication of that site of St. Bernia which you clearly see this is totally alien in a way to Phoenician architecture. Because in fact it isn't. It is what the site of St. Bernia looks like. Typical late bronze age, iron age architecture with all the specificities that I won't be going into. But what we're looking at is therefore present Phoenician context that's in this case difficult to say within a well-established local complex. For better understanding of how that sort of embedding of the Phoenician complex could work in a Nuragic Sardinia context, we need to look at this other side. Suraki, sort of lower down the west coast of Sardinia, which is in fact the site where I am directing the excavation project. At the moment we have got very extensive evidence of Phoenician material, like this mushroom lipped jar which actually comes from this site. And some other Greek and local material. But it is mostly through -- and again sort of connecting to the previous paper, through archaeometric, technical, scientific investigation where the pottery was made. But also through X-ray analysis understanding how handles are shaped, how the pot itself was shaped, how rims were connected. That gives us an insight into the very small details of the skills of artisans, of the ceramic artisans. This shows us actually that even if pots look they are Sardinian style or they are Phoenician style, we can see that we must have had masters and trainees of different cultural backgrounds. Because we can see a mixing up, the body of the pot made in a Phoenician style. The pot made to look like a Phoenician cooking pot for instance. But the handle or the rim made with Nuragic indigenous techniques. So it's really the kind of interactions that you can only get when people are sort of living and working together on the same place for quite a while. And it would land here, this brief survey, with another material dimension of what those connections are. It's actually the ships themselves. We've heard about the Uluburun wreck. We've heard a reference to the [inaudible] wreck earlier. This is another sort of one that's just beginning to make the literature because it's so recent. This is one of two ships that were found just off the beach of [inaudible] south of [inaudible] in [Spanish name] on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. This has been excavated and that actually dates to the 7th century and it gives us some material evidence as well. And it's associated with the sort of pottery that you see there. But the other object that you see on this slide is actually -- it's a model as you can see on this slide. It's a bronze model. That is typically Sardinian Nuragic model. And I want to use this to connect back to what I've been reminding you of, is all this interaction that I've been talking about. Yes, the Phoenicians clearly were sailing the whole of the Mediterranean. They were setting up shop, literally in many cases on the other side of the Mediterranean. But they were not the only ones doing that. They didn't venture into a Mediterranean where they were the first ones. And you can just remind yourself when you're going into those sometimes dangerous seas, particularly the Strait of Gibraltar, some of those places, the Straits of Sicily, these are not easy seas to navigate. Local knowledge, local pilots, local advisors must have been very important. And although we don't have any concrete evidence of Nuragic or Iberian shipwrecks yet, I should add, I would hope to add, it is bronze models like this one that give us a little glimpse of those other indigenous native seagoing skills that must have existed. And with whom Phoenicians must have worked as well. And it's easily imaginable that just as has been demonstrated for the Uluburun wreck in an earlier period, the crew was very much sort of culturally mixed and international. The same must have been true in these later periods as well. So what I want to conclude therefore on two points is that this brief survey of archaeological finds sort of with the shipwrecks -- again underscores this conventional representation of the definitions of skilled sailors and navigators. And particularly the evidence of the [inaudible] spells it out in great detail. But at the same time, the Sardinian evidence of the local embedding of those Phoenician traders, travelers and sailors as well as recognizing those Phoenicians within Carthage and Spain shows that it is highly unlikely that these Phoenicians were the only ones plying the seas of the Mediterranean in the early 1st millennium BC. As we take all this together therefore, the new evidence has just been coming up in these last decades and richly established accounts considerably by both detailing and by complicating our understanding of Phoenician overseas connections and interactions with west Mediterranean communities. Thank you for your attention. [ Applause ] >> Thank you Dr. Van Dommelen. Our next speaker, Mr. James Fitzpatrick is a senior partner at the Washington Law Firm of Arnold and Porter. For many years he was the responsible partner for the legislative public policy group in the firm. He was involved in major legislative proceedings dealing with the auto safety issues, revision of national standards for copyright protection, for the recording industry and professional sports. As well as the congressional hearings defending officials of the Clinton administration. Senior officials of major universities and corporate leaders under fire from Congress. For 25 years Mr. Fitzpatrick represented art dealers, museums and collectors in legislative and judicial proceedings establishing fundamental rules of law at federal and international level. Relating to the movement of antiquities and cultural properties around the world. For 10 years he has taught a course at Georgetown Law School entitled Indiana Jones and the Elgin Marbles: Dealing with the Legal System relating to Cultural Properties. Mr. Fitzpatrick received his law degree from Indiana University Law School. He read economics at Corpus Christie College, Cambridge. And taught at the London School of Economics and Trinity College Dublin. He has been a central player in the 1990's culture wars, in which critics attempted to shut down federal support for the National Endowment of the Arts. Those battles were fought in the congress, the courts and the press. Mr. Fitzpatrick has led a number of civil rights, civil liberties and human rights organizations pressing for essential liberties under the law. Mr. James Fitzpatrick. [ Applause ] >> James Fitzpatrick: Thank you so much. This has really been an intellectually engaging morning. We've had wine. All of us can go home now and have that third glass of wine feeling that you had history on your side. We've had the Bible, we've had archaeology, we're going to have numismatics. This has been really a quite strikingly engaging set of lectures. I must say that this presentation -- the movies are over, folks. This is not going to be a slide presentation. We're going to go back to the 19th century where we converse verbally rather than visually. Now one of the basic laws of lawyering and advocacy is particularly when you're last on the program, you never want to talk too long to a group of hungry judges and a hungry jury. And I'm sure that, Mary Jane, that's the same thing here. I'll try to be quick. My assignment is not, in contrast to everyone else, Tyre-specific. What I have been asked to talk about is in a broader vector law and antiquities. And this is a sprawling subject involving international law, national law, US law. Patrimonial laws around the world. Criminal and civil law and the standards that are created by museum associations and architectural associations. To get the full play of all this, you're going to need to have to come to Georgetown University and take my class. And I welcome you all there. I'm going to talk about basically two issues in this quite comprehensive field. One is the law as it relates to or doesn't relate to this heartbreaking destruction in the mid east by ISIS, the Islamic State, of antiquities. And does the law -- what can the law do about that? The second thing I want to talk about briefly is the law and repatriation of items that are found in museums and collections around the world. Both of these are matters of significant contemporary import. One of the joys of teaching this class at Georgetown is that I can clip the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal and the art newspaper every week and have something to talk to my students that is this week's news. So these are two topics that I think illustrate the interplay of the law and the broad issue of who owns the past. That ultimately to me is one of the most challenging issues. And it's played out in the legal literature in two elements. One approach to who owns the past is what is thought of as an international approach. The whole world has a stake in the culture of the world. This is not narrowly national. The second view is a source country, a country that produced material, had first dibs to those materials. And they are not part of the common heritage of mankind. This is a tough ongoing issue. And I would tell you my bias, having worked on the museum side of this issue and the collector and dealer side of this issue -- I have a bias and I will try to as we go through here tell you what's bias and what's fact. In this debate which essentially pits the museum and the collector community that supports the view that the world has a right to antiquities on the one side. And essentially the archaeological community and the community of source countries, this is very energetic debate that plays out and has played out in Congress. Has played out at the State Department, plays out in the courts, plays out in the press. And plays out very dramatically in professional organizations. And my admonition to my students when we start this course is be very skeptical of anything anybody says in this area. Because everybody is coming at this question as to who owns the past with a point of view? I do when I bring in archaeologists to speak. They have a point of view. This is an area to me that one has to impose healthy skepticism about anyone's view. I don't think in this debate between the museum community -- let the borders be open. Let's have free trade in objects. And an archaeological community which has a legitimate opposite view -- I don't think anybody's 100% right and no one's 100% wrong. Let's talk about these two issues. First, the issue of the return of iconoclasm with the emergence of ISIS and Taliban. And this isn't an abstract question. You pick up the papers, particularly in the last two months. And in one sense your heart breaks at what's happened at some of these treasures in Iraq and Syria. In Mosul, the tomb of Jonah. The museums where you had pictures of ISIS fighters going in with sledgehammers breaking down objects. The Negal Gate where the ISIS people were taking jackhammers to these beautiful statues which you see also happily, safely in the Met. In Syria, five of six world heritage sites have been significantly damaged. ISIS has just gone into Palmyra and there is no indication of specifically the damage that has already happened there. But at a moment's notice, some of the great treasures of humanity could be destroyed. Earlier you had the same issues played out in Kabul where the Taliban went into the museum there with hammers and destroyed non-Islamic items. And then you had this totally unbelievable moment where rocket launchers were aimed at the majestic statues of Bamiyan and destroyed. Statues of Buddha that were 160 and 140 feet high reduced to rubble. The rationale is that this is -- my light at least -- this is the rationale of a zealot. This short quote came from a transcription of a YouTube -- a transcription of a tape that described the destruction. "The ruins that are behind me, they are idols and statues that people in the past used to worship instead of Allah. The so-called Assyrians and others looked to gods for war, agriculture and rain to whom they offered sacrifices. The prophet Muhammed took down idols with his bare hands when he went into Mecca. We were ordered by our prophets to take down idols and destroy them. When God orders us to remove and destroy them, it becomes easy for us and we don't care even if they care millions of dollars." I don't think that this is anything other than the narrow view of the people wreaking the hammers. Huge numbers of scholars and wise commentators from the Muslim community have deplored this destruction. But this is the animating sense behind what they are doing. In an acumenital sense they are doing the Lord's work by destroying these items. The question is -- oh, one point. Nobody in the west can be overly sanctimonious about this. We all recall Cromwell going into Ireland and desecrating and destroying statues in Catholic churches. And we all recall in the 19th century the British and French armies going into Beijing and absolutely destroying the Summer Palace. So this sense of idolatry and sanctimony is not limited to any one group. But it is an animus, an impetus that has to be resisted. This sort of bigotry and absolutism is the most potent element in destroying the world's culture. You know, there are three issues by my lights. There are three issues going on in this fight. One is the religious impetus. Second, I think this is the element of destruction: is a way to exercise power and to terrify the populace that is being overtaken. One is beheading statues just as one is beheading individuals. It is a power play to press into submission the people in the territory which you have overtaken. The third element is an economic element. There has been a lot of press about the fact that ISIS has taken small items, small objects and put them into the black market. But I don't think that the reality is that that's what's funding ISIS today. There's oil, there's money coming from supporting countries. We all know that in the commerce, the black market of antiquities, the people that got it out of the ground and the people that gave it to the first traders get a pittance. It ain't got big dollars until it gets to the west end or the upper eastside. So I think though economics is one rationale. To me that is not the critical issue. Now the question is, what can the law do about this? Can it stop the destruction? The sad reality is that legal institutions, international legal institutions have little power to stop this destruction. There are some high-minded international conventions -- the Hague Convention in 1954, a UNESCO convention talking about every nation has the responsibility to guard cultural properties. That is really in this situation cheap talk. There is no effective enforcement mechanism to go in and stop this destruction. It ultimately is going to be, and this is not the kind of world we would like it to be -- it ultimately is going to be a matter of who wins the hearts and minds and the military. This is going to be a military and political solution, not a legal solution. There are some things that can be done by the law. One thing is you can have either an international or a national embargo against the import of any of these items that might be smuggled out of Afghanistan or Iraq or Syria. That will only work if it's international. With an international market it does no good to close down the markets on 57th Street in New York if there's a thriving market in the Emirates or in London or in Paris. There has to be an international response. But there can be some efforts beyond rhetoric to try to deal after the fact with the consequences of the destruction and looting. And once something is found, then it's clearly a candidate to be sent back. If something is actually intercepted by customs, it isn't the easiest thought in the world where you send it back. Do you really want to send something back to Syria at this point? Or do you hold it? My preference would be you make clear this is Syrian or this is Iraqi and you hold it for the moment until one's assured that it can go back to a safe venue. There are also some extralegal steps. And though this is not directed to the specific geography of what we're talking about, this is a step that any nation which is endangered with the kind of override that we've seen in the mid east. It requires a very careful inventory of what's in the museum. That wasn't in the Baghdad museum when it was looted. No one could really figure out what was there. One needs a process of inventory and one needs an emergency plan. Many museums have found their treasures have been saved because they've been taken out of the museum and sent to some safe place. It's much like the Louvre in the second World War. Where the treasures in the Louvre were removed and sent around the French countryside to safety. So that part of my discussion ends on sort of a cautious note. The law is great in terms of principle. The law in this particular area is not very good in terms of execution and stopping. Very quickly I just want to note about the reparation issue. I'm sure many of you have read and followed the great controversy between the Met and the Getty and Italy and Greece on some objects that were bought in very shady circumstances by both the Met and the Getty. Where it was essentially look the other way and don't worry too much about provenance. These are such beautiful objects, that justifies their buying. The basic legal rule, the basic legal rule as set down by international conventions is the nation where an object is found has control over it, has ownership over it. And that's very easy to define as a matter of policy. It's not that clear it's the right rule. What if the nation where something is found has no cultural connection with the object itself? It's found in the mid east which is the product of political boundaries that were designed right after the first World War. What if there is no connection between Turkey and Ephesus? There's an economic connection, but there's no cultural connection between the Ottoman Empire and the Greek and Roman treasures in Ephesus. Does Turkey have first dibs to those objects? What happens where you have a county that doesn't have the capacity to take care of an object or has no interest in taking care of an object? For a long time the Elgin marbles debate turned on the issue of whether there was an adequate resource in Athens to take care of the Elgin marbles. That's all been preempted now with the construction of a magnificent 21st, 22nd century museum there. Third and finally, what happens where a nation -- should a nation have control and ownership of an object or objects which are abhorrent to the people that are living there? Do they really have first dibs on those objects? My own view on repatriation, and this is bias, this isn't fact, is that one ought to approach questions of repatriation cautiously and work through the issues of whether or not the country where one is sending it has authority. The hook has come. I've got to stop. I've enjoyed talking to you. If anybody wants to continuing arguing or archaeologists want to punch me in the nose, we'll be around at lunchtime. Thank you all very much. [ Applause ] >> You've been a tremendously patient and very fine audience. And we are now in our third panel in this extremely interesting conference on the ancient and medieval and Byzantine city of Tyre. Most people in the United States at least know of Tyre through the Biblical narratives. And so it's only fitting that we have our last panel on the Bible and on art. Now our first speaker is Professor Mhammed Fantar who is an expert in western Semitic languages and Middle East civilizations, especially Phoenicia and its colony of Carthage. He is the former director general of the National Institute of Archaeology and Art of Tunis from 1982-1987. He is the director of research at the [French name] and NIMP, and the director of the Phoenician Punic Civilization Studies Center and Libyan Antiquity Center. Professor Fantar is the founder of Repal Magazine that publishes the research papers of that center. He is also a professor of ancient history, archaeology and religious history at the Tunis and Zitouna Universities. I'd like to welcome Professor Mhammed Fantar who will be delivering his lecture [French term] and the lecture will be translated. Thank you so much. [ Speaking French ] >> It's time for the break. [ Speaking French ] >> The Phoenician's dream and they pull us into their dream as well and it is necessary to dream with them to enjoy the trip, I think. [ Speaking French ] >> I will try to present Tyre to you in all its importance in the Mediterranean. On one side in relation to the mythology and on the other side on the archaeological evidence of the sites in the Mediterranean. [ Speaking French ] >> And so before I start my discourse I would like to thank this sacred library for inviting me to do this lecture. [ Speaking French ] >> And I mostly would like to thank Ms. Chalabi for having invited me to this place and for having joined the north and the south and hopefully this joining will lead to a marriage. [ Speaking French ] >> So Tyre and the mythology during the period when we were still talking about Canaanites and not Phoenicians. [ Speaking French ] >> So the first evidence goes back to [French name] who is the first reference for the Phoenician presence and for the Canaanite existence. [ Speaking French ] >> So we are discussing two characters, two brothers [French names]. And these two brothers managed to start the first phase of Phoenician exploration in the Mediterranean. [ Speaking French ] >> So it's the first step of a Mediterranean ship travelling from east to west. [ Speaking French ] >> So we witness the kidnapping of a Tyrian princess called Europa and she is lured and kidnapped by Zeus the god because of her beauty. [ Speaking French ] >> And so I am not going to go through the entire love story that is related to both Europe and Zeus. But it is a symbol for the joining, for the connection between the east, Europa, the Tyrian princess, and Zeus representing Greece. So the joining between east and west. [ Speaking French ] >> So the kidnapping of Europa towards Greece led to a myth and to a story around this beautiful princess. And so it represents this connection and it is of high importance to all the upcoming historians. [ Speaking French ] >> So Agenor the king asks his son Cadmous, the brother of the princess, to follow her and to look for her and never to return to Phoenicia without finding her. [ Speaking French ] >> So the word Cadmous actually presents the oriental man or the orientalist and the word comes from the Hebraic Cadum. And Europa on the other hand represents Europe, and so the rise of the sun from the east and towards the west. The sunset is very symbolic of this story. [ Speaking French ] >> So this myth, this legend became the subject of many ancient historians and thinkers and even poets such as Vid. And it even continued to be a subject of study towards the late periods until the 20th century. [ Speaking French ] >> So Herodotus in the 5th century introduced Cadmous to his readers because he brought the alphabet to the Greeks. [ Speaking French ] >> So the fact that Cadmous left Phoenicia and went to Greece on his own and was away from his fatherland for a very long time meant that he adopted a different mentality. That he became an individual and the fact that he is a unique individual and that he created a whole process by introducing the language is something extraordinary. And there is no country without the effect of one individual. [ Speaking French ] [ Applause ] >> So to translate and make it as short as possible, in the Old Testament we have proof of the importance of Tyre through the fact that the Old Testament mentions the temple of Solomon being built by cedar wood that was given by David. And I got mixed up now. So the wood is coming all the way from Lebanon and Tyre has a very important role in that process. [ Speaking French ] >> So the Phoenicians and the Tyrians have a very important role as well by travelling from Tyre to Jerusalem in order to bring gold from the temple. [ Speaking French ] >> So basically they not only travelled the Middle Eastern coast. They also travelled towards Spain, towards Cadiz and towards Carthage. And they dispersed the Phoenician tradition. [ Speaking French ] >> So as we heard my predecessors talking about the inscriptions, the Phoenician inscriptions that are spread all over the Mediterranean, we see the similarity between the Phoenician language in the first three letters versus the Greek language and the first three letters which are A, B and C. As well as the same in the Greek version. So we have an incredible assimilation of Phoenician culture and Phoenician language. [ Speaking French ] [ Applause ] [ Speaking French ] >> So with the Phoenician travelling they arrived to Carthage. And Carthage is a very unique site because it is one of the first democracies or the first democracy in the world. And even Aristotle himself supposedly said that he prefers the political system of Carthage because it is more balanced than his own. [ Speaking French ] >> So what we find in Carthage is not only a Phoenician tradition but a mid eastern tradition including the traditions that come from the Mesopotamian world. And what happened in Carthage proves that the Middle Eastern world had its expansion there. Contrary to what is happening now with the Islamists and how they are destroying it. [ Speaking French ] >> And so if we are talking about Mesopotamia he would like to highlight the evidence found in Ebla and the site of Ebla and the tablets that are found there. And their importance and the danger that they are inflicted to, because the loss of these tablets would be a loss for humanity. [ Speaking French ] [ Applause ] >> So our next speaker, Dr. Eric Gubel who's the general director of the Royal Museums of Art and History. He has authored more than 150 contributions to the history, art history and archaeology of the Phoenician civilization. He was the co-editor of the Studia Phoenicia Collection, as well as the [French name]. And coordinator of the publication of Phoenician sculpture in the Louvre. As an expert for UNESCO he repatriated several antiquities stolen during the civil war back to Beirut. He is now coordinating several international scientific projects, preparing the edition of the final reports of the American University of Beirut excavations led by Dr. Leila Badre at Tell Kazel. And more recently Tyre. Besides a monograph on Phoenician seals and a second one on Phoenician art and how to read it. And he has found time nevertheless to come to us to speak. Please. >> Dr. Eric Gubel: I would also like to thank the authorities of the Library of Congress and of course Maha for bringing us here. So thank you all very much. This lecture is about Kind Solomon's temple in the Jerusalem, belonging to the first temple period. It was constructed in honor not of YHWH but in honor of the name of God in line with the biblical allegorical tradition. It's iconology of value stands out as one of the mightiest metaphors of the pre-classical world. On its stern, the Free Masons' tradition also emphasizes the role of Hiram, son of the widow, as the Tyrian king Hiram's tradition. An architect who eventually realized one of the most ambitious building projects, which lasted seven years. In doing so he also introduced the asper masonry technique of Phoenician architects that used it as a legacy of the past since several generations. Both biblical sources as well as Judeo-Christian iconography have yielded lots of representations of the temple and its furnishings based merely on the descriptions in the book of Kings. Invariably in the absence, total absence of actual remains. So most of them entirely fictitious. In the present paper I would like to emphasize the importance of the archaeological representation from Hiram's homeland. It's time to bring this into the discussion. Documentation pertaining to the engineering and designing skills of his specialized labor. The [inaudible] no doubt travelled overland. The cedar logs had to be shipped via cabotage from southern Phoenicia straight to the biblical land of Kabul, present day Galilea. And where 20 settlements were later granted by Solomon to Hiram of Tyre as part of his investment in the project. In this context the archeological site of [foreign name] is a very likely candidate indeed for the location with Kabul and Israel as a halting place for the cedar beams' transport to Jerusalem. This is not only suggested by the layout of a fort or small sanctuary in Sidil, but as well by the presence of cedar logs, numerous Phoenician oil containers and several Phoenician artifacts. Now in order to supply new data on today's topic we will now review several items documenting a plausible reconstruction of the Jerusalem temple. These fall into three main groups, namely architectural elements. The core differences. And last but not least, the temple's cultic furnishings. I start with, as you can see on your slide, [inaudible]. So as for the first case example I refer to the description of the Solomonic temple windows. And those of this nearby palace called the House of the Forests of Lebanon. The latter specifies the [French term] pardon my French. In other words, the windows to be -- and here we go again -- [French term]. Etymologically three times. Which resulted in very confusing and contradictory translations of the Old Testament. But if we are indeed allowed to translate triple instead of three times and the description becomes straightforward reference to the typical Phoenician window base with their [inaudible]. Such windows are depicted on dozens of 9th-8th century Phoenician ivories, serving as some equivalent for the Egyptian window of appearances. Here however reserved for Phoenician goddesses of the [foreign word] like Jezebel about whom Isaiah said, "Thou hast the forehead of a whore." She did not have a hole in her forehead, but she was wearing these jewels on her forehead which characterized her as a priestess. A priestess of Baal of course. So it's fitting that Solomon would already have windows decorated in the ancient style of the Tyre Sidonian kingdom with straightforward reference to the cult of Baal. Poor YHWH. The false window of a Sidon [inaudible] -- sorry, no. I was just calling your attention to the fact -- you see the plasters have the form of floral curling, drooping leaves. A detail also characterized in set of bronze accessories not only used as you can see here as lampstands and torch holders, but also as braziers for roasted meet, libation and incense offerings. Within the walls of sanctuaries and banquet halls all over the Phoenician Mediterranean. The false window of a Sidon born deceased buried in part of Cyprus is of the same type and although less detailed, we should add the depiction of Sidon's windows. Buildings at the time of Sennacherib's campaign. In 1 Kings 6:29 we learn that Solomon and I quote, "Decorated the walls of the house, the temple, roundabout with carved figures of cherubim and palm trees and open flowers." This description clearly points to sculpture and possibly also to painted freezes. Since one picture tells more than a thousand words, I am showing you here the typical 9th century, 8th century Phoenician ivory strip. Which represents exactly in all details what the biblical text refers to. And I will add it to the argument, when the text further expands on the open flowers, the open flowers are of course the lotus flowers opening up and used for freezes again in 9th, 8th century Phoenician art. There is also Ezekiel who learns us that the temple's door jams were decorated with [inaudible] on either side. Such capitals nicknamed proto-aoic are abundantly attested in many sites south of Caramel, including Jerusalem. But also at Ramit-Rahel in combination with Asper masonry and triple recessed windows. And I think I have here some slides. Considering the fact that the same combination is attested in Phoenician realm as attested here, more precisely at the entrance of a royal tomb [inaudible], Cyprus. The often repeated qualification of the proto-oic capital as a typical Israelite invention can no longer be sustained. You all remember of course from the book of Kings the detailed description of the seraphim whose wings overlapped. These of course are the typical winged sphinxes used in Phoenician cabinet making. And a nice example is of course the coffin of Hiram king of Byblos. Who reused a relieved sarcophagus of the 12th century BC around 1000 BC. His forefather is represented on the throne which is flanked by the two winged sphinxes who were actually the [inaudible] of the cherubim of the Solomonic temple. Now also place your attention for -- oh no, I can't point this out to you. No, it's on the touch screen. Sorry. On the footstool, the footstool. If you have a look at the footstool you will say, "Hey, this resembles these proto-ioc capitals." For yes indeed, there is another prototype of what we find some generations later in the Solomonic temple because it was constructed by a Phoenician architect. And then we also have this tripod table and this tripod table was still used in the third temple of Jerusalem. And now we are in the 1st century BCE. This is a [inaudible] coinage of [Foreign name] the Great and you see a tripod table. A typical Phoenician invention which was still connected with all kinds of temple furnishings. And already in the early 1st millennium BCE, as can be seen on these pieces, inspired on the Phoenician prototype. The sphinx throne, the cherubim throne was always associated with a footstool and a tripod. And this gives us the origin of a type of cultic item used through that 1st millennium by Phoenician artists as a typical Phoenician. And now we are going to present another cultic item which is associated with the temple, namely the cupboards. Cut boards. Here we have a tiny ivory plaque from 9th century BCE, which can be perfectly well dated because of the form of the black on red juglet which is represented at the top of it. Classical Egyptian type. On the right you have the Egyptian prototype. Well, this type of cupboard, which was used to chest libation vases used for ritual libations, also figures on one of the reliefs of [inaudible] around 700 BC. [Inaudible] already Phoenician inscriptions. It was indeed a site in Phoenicia of the very strong Phoenician influence. So here we have this cupboard. And what is funny about cupboard is that it is placed upside down. You see the round, the whole round segment which actually should be the roof of a tent, like the tent of the tabernacle. It's placed upside down. One might think that this is due to the hands of an inexperience sculptor, were it not that on the theory of [inaudible] in the eastern delta. A priest, an officiating priest, is standing on a cupboard of exactly the same type and it's reversed once again. [French term] as we say in French. So this means that we are dealing here with a Phoenician reproduction of an Egyptian cupboard which is datable to roughly 700 BC. And the question is if cupboards of this type were already used in the temple. And here I'm going to skip a chapter. Not to raise any suspicion, just know that the last part will be a bit more what was in the cupboard. Well what was in the cupboard was, as I told you already, a set of vessels used for liquid offerings for libations. And the prototype was the Egyptian situla. My colleague and good friend, the Syrian archaeologist [Foreign name] just found a series of the situlae during his excavations at Amrit. And I was asked to prepare a publication. They were found together with small amulets showing a priest in the middle of a libation. It always goes together in the 7th, 6th century BC -- situlae and these Egyptian bronzes. The same set was found in Ashkelon which is normal because our friend Patrick McGovern showed us the town with shipwrecks. These are saucer jars from Tyre which they were on the road for Ashkelon and not the other way around. The biggest such cluster of situlae was found at Memphis, Egypt. More precisely in the necropolis of the sacred animals. And this necropolis was situated in the shadow of the temple of Fah. And this brings us to Herodotus who described at this very spot near the temple of Hapshepsut, the camp of the Tyrians. Thus for the first time we have proof of the presence of these Phoenician artists in Memphis. If we look at some of these situlae, certain details are completely un-Egyptian, such as a scarab with two pairs of wings. You have to look for them, but if you look for them you find them. We know already of three situlae with Phoenician inscriptions from the 7th, 6th century BC. The one in the Louvre alas un-deciphered as yet. This brings us to another of the context [inaudible] of the temple. The sea of bronzes. Sources agree upon the fact that the sea of bronzes is actually a reference to the wheeled carts of the late bronze age. Most of them produced in Cyprus, but other ones in the [inaudible]. And here I'm showing you an example just to make a point. In Phoenician mints, and I'll show you the late 9th century seal of Shina. Here we have a gold statue, and if you look closely you see that the god is standing with his feet on a wheeled cart. And this brings us to a kind of [inaudible]. We speak of a tabernacle. Looking around during ceremonies in Sidon on local coinage of the period. And you see that the top of the [inaudible] you have these four palm branches. If you go to the Shina cemetery in Tyre for example during the age people also placed these four palm branches on the graves of their deceased. And actually such real [inaudible] have been excavated at Beirut and other places in the near east. A couple of months ago, almost a year ago, there were a couple of shrines [inaudible] in Israel. And were immediately described as the prototypes of the temple of Jerusalem. You can actually see a little model reproduced or enlarged to the right. Shows for the first time a very important element of the temple of Jerusalem upon which I am going to end this presentation. Namely the curtain. The temple's veil. A kind of a barrier which was hiding the most sacred place, the innermost holy of holies in the temple. I still have 10 minutes, perfect. Oh, I have five minutes? I have to rush a bit. What you see here is -- well the curtain you don't see because it's wrapped around a rail upon which it was hung. Okay, wrapped around. That is a very, very, very simple way of getting rid of your curtain. Then you just let it down. And Maha of course recognizes one of the shops in the site of Tyre, more precisely in the Sidonian harbor. Okay, this is the idea, the curtain. Please, please, please follow me. Although tablets, cuneiform tablets from 13th century BC, there is question about the violation of something and about people getting the asylum right because they touched the veil of the temple of Sidon. This is the very first time that we hear about the asylum right and a veil in the temple. A prefiguration of the veil in the temple of Jerusalem. And once again we're in Phoenicia, in what was to become the Tyre Sidonian kingdom. Now I cannot show you a photograph at the end of this expose of the temple of Jerusalem. In that case I would be a National Geographic billionaire. But I can show you a document, a contemporary document, contemporary with the temple. Which is as good as the best photo will ever get. A Phoenician bull. And the Phoenician bull which represents by four times not a zoo with exotic animals. But the structure of the innermost of the Jerusalem temple with its veil as described. And now going back to my text, 2 Chronicles 3. What we are looking at is a veil embroidered with figures of falcon-headed winged sphinxes. The cherubim of 2 Chronicles 3. Fixed by means of what you see here on the drawings. Fixed by means of a trail-less fringe with tassels in the form of pomegranates. Pomegranates also adorned the robes of the priests officiating in the Jerusalem temple. And once again this is preceded by the outfit of priests in Ugarit where even the mold for the gold pomegranates has been found in the course of the excavations. And in 2 Chronicles 14 it is said, "He, Solomon, made interwoven chains and put them on top of the pillars." So forget all about these representations of Jakan and Baals in the temple of Solomon. There is no question of capitals in the form of the pomegranates. Here the pomegranates are here at the top of the curtain which represents these cherubim as I showed you, as I pointed out on this slide. Now finally, as a special present for Maha, three more minutes, Mr. President. As a final present, a couple of years ago the Spanish excavation brought to light this model of a shrine and everyone thought that, what could this possibly be? Well, now that I told you about the temple, about the importance of the temple and the temple's veil and about the tradition, the Phoenician tradition of veils, embroidered veils in the temple, what if I showed you this model as a model of temple with a temple veil blowing out of the inner space? And if you don't believe me, I have you by a recitation, quoting. This has everything to do with the lost temple, the third temple. The letter of Istaios, one of these said -- and I cannot translate this into English because the French is so beautiful. So you will ask for some of your colleagues afterwards. [ Speaking French ] The veil of the temple. [ Speaking French ] So much for the temple. So much for the song of the widow or Hiram. For the first time now illustrated with archaeological documents from the homeland. And this is something we should have done a generation or two generations ago. Because we were given a pair of ears, we were given a pair of eyes. And in the best of cases also, like my compatriots, [inaudible] called the gray little cells. Let's use them. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> I have to say a personal note about how all of these speakers are taking me back to graduate school days. And people like Javier Texador and Morton Smith talking about these same sites. Thank you for opening, reopening my eyes on this. We are coming to the end of this marvelous symposium with a very intriguing speech if I may say so. A topic that is only coming into the fore the last decade or two. And that would be by Mrs. Rodi Kratsa who was born and brought up on the Island of Zakynthos, Greece. She studied sociology at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. Her post-graduate studies followed at the Institute of European Studies at that same university. She has riche experience and long tenure in European politics, having acquired important high-level positions as a member of the European parliament and vice president. She handled a significant portfolio such as the conciliation procedure with other institutions. The EP communication information policy, and the Euro-Mediterranean relations. She represented the European parliament in high level summits and ministerial conferences worldwide. She is a member of the EP, European parliament, obviously. Committees on economic and monetary affairs, employment and social affairs, transport, budgetary control and women's rights and gender equality. With important initiatives in rich parliamentary work. In parallel, Mrs. Kratsa has always been very active at international level. She has worked systematically for the deepening of European Union relations with significant areas of the world, especially the Caucuses region, the south shore of the Mediterranean, the gulf area countries and Latin America. She participates in major initiatives for peace in the Middle East and has taken an active role in protecting the rights of Christians and religious minorities where there is discrimination and violence as well as the protection of the Jordan River. She is an ardent advocate of the Civil Society and actively participates in various organizations within Greece and beyond. Elected municipal council of Athens, 1998, as she is president of the International Association for the Promotion of Women of Europe, Women of Europe Award, AIPFE. Board member at the European Center of Culture Geneva. Member of the honorary committee of the Tyre Foundation. A board member of the Euro-Mediterranean University of Fes, Morocco. Mrs. Kratsa has been honored by heads of state, religious leaders and international bodies. She is an honorary doctor of two fine universities. She is also one of the four laureates of the Elissa Dido Award for 2014. And this afternoon she finishes the conference by addressing Elissa Dido. Mediterranean women. Mrs. Kratsa. [ Applause ] >> Rodi Kratsa: Thank you for your kind and generous words. Ladies and gentlemen, let me at first thank you once again for your continuous presence and attention. Perhaps some people will wonder why is this cultural and historical symposium ending on an issue regarding women in the Mediterranean? I believe that the organizers and the designers of the program had the correct thought and choice with this issue, which has value both historical and contemporary. It would be a deficient presentation of Tyre as a center for culture for the Phoenicians and of the Mediterranean and if we do not mention the women figures which played a vital role. Homer mentions that women of the Phoenicians were fantastic warriors and supplied the merchants throughout the Mediterranean with their fabric, which were a symbol of the culture of the Phoenicians particularly in purple color. But Tyre also gave to the world figures of women which played a role in genealogies and alliances which determined the ancient world and which continue to this day. I mentioned at first Europe. A mythological but fatal figure as mentioned by Professor Fantar. As he said, the god Zeus to Europa to arrive in Crete where they had children like king Minos, founder of the Minolian civilization. And as he also said, the myth continues. Cadmous, Europa's brother, came to Greece searching for her. And just I would like to add that during his stay he built a city, Thebes. Which existed till today, which is about an hour from Athens. Ladies and gentlemen, the Phoenician princess Europa came from the orient, gave her name of course to the continent which welcomed her. And I would like to say that the myth of adoption of Europa symbolized the globalized world of that period. And throughout time, the close relations of the European countries and the European Union today with the countries from the south and base of the Mediterranean. The institutional framework of these relations is called today Euro-Mediterranean partnership and constitutes the union for the Mediterranean. I come now to the main subject, Princess Elissa of Venetia is associated with the myth of the creation of Carthage in today's Tunisia. The myth is a mix of historical evidence for the environment of Phoenicia, and with literary evidence from the Hellenic and Roman world. In the epic work of Vergil, Elissa is mentioned by the name Dido. The center person, Elissa, Dido for the Romans, and Didon coming from the barbaric tradition for the Tunisians. She incorporates the courage, the initiative, the determination, the creativity and the fidelity. Displays from Venetia due to domestic disputes which deprives the life of her [inaudible], she managed to take those faithful with her as well as young women from Cyprus towards Tunisia. She builds Carthage in contradiction with the domestic powers. She sacrificed herself to [inaudible] who had lost life. Building on the symbolic reference of this, a legendary area, Tyre Foundation launched in corporation with Med 21 the program of the Institute for Prize related to Mediterranean Legacy. And Didon goes outward off Carthage, who causes Tunisian women actions in the world with the name Elissa Dido for the promotion of women condition in the Mediterranean. It will be awarded every year to two distinguished ladies. One for the north shore and one for the south shore. Winners are selected based on a significant contribution they made to promote principles and values and complete achievements in all sector areas. Culture, economics, education, politics and the promotion of the status of women and equality. An important condition of the award is the promotion of cooperation with the north and the south of the Mediterranean. Linking people and actions. The award will be attributed every year during the festivities of the League of Canaanite, Phoenician and Punic Cities. [ Inaudible ] There has already been the first award ceremony in Athens, the previous October at the Acropolis Museum. I have the honor to be one of the Laureates for this first edition, due to the long-term advocation of the promotion of the Euro-Mediterranean relations and the role of women. The other Laureates, which were four in total, only for the case of the first edition are Lady Cochrane Yvonne Shoushak from Lebanon. Awarded in recognition of her commitment to the protection of the legacy of the Lebanese cultural heritage across different sectors, architecture, art, environment. The second one is Cherifa Kheddar from Algeria in recognition of her commitment to promote human rights, in particular the rights of the victims of violence. And Souhair Belhassen from Tunisia in recognition of her fight for the rights of men and women in international level. The importance of this award is great because it serves many goals. It reminds us of the role of women in history, something that historians often forget. It gives visibility and leadership to the work of women in the modern society, something which the mass media, the political parties and the academic community also forgets. It brings to the surface women as role models and as examples to follow towards the encouragement for action and participation. Not only for other women, but for the society. The Elissa Didon Prize as a directive method emphasizes the human diversity, the equal rights and opportunities between men and women are occurring everywhere and especially around the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean with its countries and its people is not a uniform zone. At some places women suffer from unemployment and the degradation of their standard of living such as in the north shore as the result of an economic crisis. Along the south shore, besides economic problems women are continuing to suffer violence and oppression from fundamentalists. It is important that we promote on the international level these problems and issues. But also that we all know the exceptional women giving a voice and support to the vulnerable women. And who succeed in spite of the difficulties and make important work advancing the society. And the encouragement of peace, cooperation and justice. The Tyre Foundation also has a goal to give the opportunity to the laureates of the prize to meet each other and create networks of cooperation and solidarity. For the success of this goal, your support is valuable. Initially, your participation in the giving of the award Elissa Didon, and other activities, is so that you can honor and meet these women and know their work. You can also support the effort of the Tyre foundation in this field through donations, through the programs of research centers, foundations and international organizations. The Congress which is hosting us today, as well as the American Civil Society supports with passion and generosity the respect of human rights and especially women's rights. We have ascertained these past few years how important education, justice, equal opportunities and the advancement of women are in all countries everywhere, even those that are far. So we can have peace and prosperity globally and in our societies, in each society. In conclusion, ladies and gentlemen, I would like to thank you and express my belief that we will have many opportunities for collaboration in supporting the Tyre Foundation issues and goals for the promotion of women. Thank you very much. [ Applause ] >> I want to thank each one of the panelists for a fitting conclusion to this wonderful conference. Thank you for your patience and your participation. There will be tours I understand after this. And at the moment I would like to finish by inviting the chief of the African and Middle Eastern division, an energetic cosponsor of this conference, Dr. Mary-Jane Deeb. [ Applause ] >> Mary-Jane Deeb: So I just want to thank you all for being here. It's so exciting to see you, to have this special program. I hope that we will continue working on ancient cities that have shared with us and the basis of our civilization as we know it today. Just a word of thanks. Thanks to the participants. You have all been absolutely fabulous. Thank you, Maha, for having made this event possible. Thank you for your team. Thank you for everyone who has come hear from Tunisia, from France, from Belgium, from Spain, from Lebanon and from around the world to be part of this very special event today. So thank you all. >> This has been a presentation of the Library of Congress. Visit us at



The register contains both mobile and immobile items of cultural property including old towns, quarters, squares, villages, sacral buildings, houses, castles, bridges, monuments, archaeological sites and collections. Its entries are classified in two groups: those of national significance (class A – 3202 objects with 3324 entries, including sites shared between two municipalities) and those of regional significance (class B). The selection is based on the significance of the items in the domains of history, aesthetics, art, typology, ethnography, social studies and in other scientific disciplines, as well as on their rarity value. Items of purely local significance are not included; these may be registered separately by the cantonal authorities.

Publication history

The cover of the 1995 edition
The cover of the 1995 edition

The register is prepared by the Federal Office of Civil Protection in cooperation with the cantonal authorities and formally issued by the Federal Council. It was first published in 1988 and re-issued in updated form in 1995 and 2009. The 2009 revision covers only A-class objects, with the B-class objects set to be reviewed and updated at a later time. Until then, the lists of B-class objects published by the Office include the B-class objects of the 1995 inventory, the proposals for new or changed B-class objects submitted by the cantonal authorities, and the former A-class objects not retained as nationally significant in the 2009 review.[1]

The Federal Office of Civil Protection has made the 2009 register of A-class objects (current as of 1 April 2010) available on the Internet as a geographic information system and as a set of PDF documents. A printed catalogue (publication no. 408.980) was published in 2010.

List details


See also

Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites


  • "Revision of the PCP Inventory (Revision des KGS-Inventars)". KGS Forum. Federal Office of Civil Protection (13/2008). 2008.
  1. ^ B-Object list accessed 16 August 2016
  2. ^ Statistik A-Objekte KGS Inventar 2009 accessed 16 August 2016

External links

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