To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Swale (landform)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A constructed swale or bioswale built in a residential area to manage stormwater runoff
A constructed swale or bioswale built in a residential area to manage stormwater runoff

A swale is a shallow channel with gently sloping sides. A swale may be either natural or man-made. Artificial swales are often infiltration basins, designed to manage water runoff, filter pollutants, and increase rainwater infiltration.[1]

On land

The swale concept has also been popularized as a rainwater harvesting and soil conservation strategy by Bill Mollison, Geoff Lawton, and other advocates of permaculture. In this context it is usually a water-harvesting ditch on contour, also called a contour bund.[2][3]

A natural swale
A natural swale

Swales as used in permaculture are designed to slow and capture runoff by spreading it horizontally across the landscape (along an elevation contour line), facilitating runoff infiltration into the soil. This type of swale is created by digging a ditch on contour and piling the dirt on the downhill side of the ditch to create a berm.

In arid climates, vegetation (existing or planted) along the swale can benefit from the concentration of runoff. Trees and shrubs along the swale can provide shade and mulch which decrease evaporation.

On beaches

The term "swale" or "beach swale" is also used to describe long, narrow, usually shallow troughs between ridges or sandbars on a beach, that run parallel to the shoreline.[4]

See also


  1. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2009). Storm Water Technology Fact Sheet: Vegetated Swales ( EPA Document No. 832-F-99-006) (PDF). Washington, DC. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  2. ^ "Water Harvesting: Microcatchment Contour Bunds". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2009-11-26.
  3. ^ "Soil contour bunds" (PDF). United Nations Office for Project Services. 1998. Retrieved 2009-11-26.
  4. ^ "Wetlands of the Great Lakes Open Shoreline and Embayed Wetlands". Michigan State University Extension. July 31, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2009.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 January 2019, at 17:14
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.