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Sustainable landscaping

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sustainable landscaping encompasses a variety of practices that have developed in response to environmental issues. These practices are used in every phase of landscaping, including design, construction, implementation and management of residential and commercial landscapes.[1][2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • 1) Sustainable Landscaping With Owen Dell Part 1 (HD)
  • Prof. Doug Tallamy on Sustainable Landscaping
  • Sustainable Landscapes: The Road to Healthy Public Spaces
  • Sustainable Landscaping - Megan Says Have Fun In Your Landscape
  • 2) Sustainable Landscaping With Owen Dell Part 2 (HD)


Owen, I relly like your Sustainable Landscaping. What does sustainable mean in backyard landscape designs. It is eco landscaping here. What I have seen says sustainability really works.I have a pretty big place and of spend most of my time mowing stuff down. How do I get some of this? Good question. Most people actually struggle with their landscape. They see it as a battleground and they know what else to do to get themselves out of it. So gardening and maintenance are not that much fun for most people. I call that adversary horticulture which means they're basically doing war with your garden to keep it under control. So why is that? Well... one of the principles of sustainable landscaping is what they call and biology 'homeostasis'. That means that all living system have checks and balances within it to keep it under control, like Congress. But it works a lot better nature. So here is how all works... Take your weed problem for example. Why you have those weeds? those weeds fill a niche that wasn't being filled by anything else. If you take a proactive stance and fill that niche with a desireable plant, it shades the ground & takes up the nutrients the weeds would use. Once the plan is mature, there wont be weeds in that area. Expand that to the whole landscape and created a living Eco-system that is full of those homeostatic qualities then you're not going have to do so much like your mowing, for example, because you've got a system that's working properly most landscapes are not set up as an Eco-system, but set up to be decorative, what I call a 'Saturday morning' syndrome. Go buy a plant and then, when you try to find a place to put it. There's no system, and doesn't make any sense. By doing what I call 'Deep Design' - which is designing a landscape so it is a living ecosystem, so it has homestaic quality to it all its aspects - you're not going have to fight that landscape so much. Your mowing, weeding and pruning are all the result of having a system that isn't working. You're working because the system isn't. So what do want to be? Do you want it to be your work, or the work of the landscape itself? It is a simple question, not asked enough, and it is not answered very well by most landscapes. The question, of couse, is how do we do it? Let's take, for example, pruning If you're planning to control the size of a plant - we all accept advasarial horticulure to be normal This is just what we do. If we have land, we have to fight and struggle every Saturday and work our fingers to the bone, and that is just not true. So let's talk about pruning for a minute. If you try to control the size of a plant there's a reason for that. The reason is that plant is too big for the space it's in. Who picked that plant? Why didn't they pay attention to the ultimate size of the plant at maturity? Its a key question. Let's say you want a 6 foot tall plant. Don't pick a 30 feet tall and cut it back constantly. Pruning is about directing growth in a very subtle way. You shouldn't have to do very much pruning for most plants. Pick a plant that's the right size - 'Right Plant, Right Place' Give it the conditions it needs and leave it alone. This has cost implications as well. Let's say you are actually paying your gardener to prune that plant. Let's say we have a 5 foot tall shrub that the garner is keeping in usual gardener fashion - unfortunately shaered into a square or a shere or poodle or whatever It doesn't really look that good - but everybody expects that. You see landscapes that are all 39 00:04:07,300 --> 00:04:14,566 geometrically sheared - sometimes as an art thing that's nice, but mostly thats done because "these plans are getting too big!" Then the gardener grabs the clippers and turns it into massive green geometry there's really no need for that and cost-wise - check this out - if your garden are spends 15 minutes trimming that shrub and are paying and say $35.00 (the average going rate here for a real professional garner) you're looking at about $10.00 with the hauling and the dump fees and what not to manage the size of that plant. And you don't just do that one time because it can't train plants like you train the dog there to continue to try to get big because they have a genetic destiny to do that. That's what they are going to do. And then a month later you Gotta do it again and another month later, you gotta do it again - throughout the entire growing season. For us that is virtually 365 days a year. In a colder climate that's shorter, but we still pay over and over and over again We calculated here, in Southern California of course, your mileage will differ depending on where you are because of our long growing season if you're trimming a plant 10 times a year as costing you $10.00 per trimming, that's $100 a year. If you do that for 20 years then that's $2000 $2000 to prune a plant that might have cost you $20.00 to put in the first place. Now that's one plant - say you've got 10 of those let's say you got 100 of those, a yard full of plants like that which a whole lot of people do, you don't notice that all these thousands of dollars are leaving your bank account slipping out in your pocket for no good reason. Imagine if all those plants were the right size to begin with. You wouldn't have to do anything except enjoyed them which is what we're supposed to do. When we think of a garden we think of a beautiful place that's like this, serene, peaceful, calm, beautiful and easy to live with. The reality as the oftentimes we're doing War with our own landscaping - fighting it all the time. It's noisy, polluting, expensive and it doesn't have to be that way. By choosing sustainable landscaping - simply doing things right - and as all of sustainable land scaping is - You end-run all those problems - you don't have those problems anymore and your costs go way down. Does that mean you have 0 maintenance? Of course not. There's always some cleanup, always a little pruning, always a little watering or what ever. There is no such thing as a zero maintenace landscape. If you want that move to a high-rise and let someone else deal with it. But we can get the cost down and the effort down to a small fraction - usually about a fifth - and this has been proven And we did talk about this sometime in a real place where they've taken two gardens and compared the two over several years. The sustainable garden, compared to a traditional garden with it's lawn and high water use plants and no mulch to keep the weeds down and so forth, the cost difference is about five times which means a sustainable landscape cost and 1/5 what the traditional landscape does. There's no reason not to do this even if you don't like the environment and eat spotted owls for breakfast just to be spiteful, it doesn't make any difference. Even if you're a cheapskate, you should do this just because it's cheaper. so there's no downside to this whatsoever. There so many positives that it just doesn't make sense not to do it. 77 00:07:41,133 --> 00:07:50,099 Well, I'm a cheapskate. Is there any way 78 00:07:50,100 --> 00:07:53,233 we can change our expensive ornamentals into a food forest? Absolutely. Now let's let's talk from the beginning. You've got something now and you feel... Let's just talk about cost, although obviously all the other benefits accrue as well when you start doing things right and do the right on all levels, you start getting all the benefits but just from the standpont of with costs - you know wwe're all cheapstates days, and the economy right now is full of people into the category who might have spent a lot of money three years ago and that's fine Where do you start? You've got a yard that has a lot of turf, or your yard has a lot of inappropriate plants that use too much water, they need constant pest and disease control, constant care... how you get a grip on this? There's a plan for this. We call it the 'bootstrapping plan' and it starts with the things that are behavioral Let's give an example. Say your water bill is too high. 88 00:08:48,833 --> 00:08:59,166 (Ours was $385 last month, and it rained) As it gets hotter, that's going to bed even higher. So how much of that watering is really necessary for the plants? How much of is waste? Studies have shown that 50% more of applied water in a typical residential landscape is wasted. Its unnecessary. Its wasted through run-off or over-watering or the water drifting oout of sprinkler and blowing away waste, waste, waste - its everywhere. (but 60% of residencial water goes on the ground, so we're wasting 30% of a resource we don't have?) 92 00:09:26,266 --> 00:09:37,799 Exactly. And that's not just rue of southern California - that's true of all over the US and all over the world. 93 00:09:37,800 --> 00:09:48,266 And thats because of bad water management - because people simply don't understand how to water. a lot of fun being out there a hot day with a hose or you turn the sprinklers on. We like everything to be wet. We're not asking the question of 'What do the plants need?' that's the question to ask. Let's go back to the saving money thing. We start with the behavioral things. Why is that lawn controller set for three or four times a week? Those plants probably don't need that much water. Turn the controller off and watch how long it takes the plants to show signs of stress. That when they actually need water, not when you thought they needed water. They might go 5 days, 7 days, 10 days, 20 days... They won't fall over dead instantly just because you turn the controller off. People are afraid to do it. You want to keep an eye on things when you do this. When you turn the controller down you begin to get an idea of what plants need. Your plants will tell you when they need water. There are signs of civil side of drought stress like leaves turning down, or loss of sheen not growing quite as much of losing some of the older leaves - those are the early signs of drought stress and you can actually see that water need coming, and then adjust the controller for appropriate watering. That is 1 simle step that didn't cost a penny. If you don't have a controller, just do it manually and back of fthe water and see what happens. Check your water bill next month, and instead of $300, maybe it will be $200 108 00:11:30,300 --> 00:11:38,466 OK, now this where the boot strap comes in. Take that $100 you saved that's a reasonable thing to expect on a big place like yours. That's an average and adds up to $1,200 dollars a year At the end of the year that 1,200 dollars in your bank account you didn't have before. So instead of spending it on a new car, save it and you have enough money for the end of the second stage of minor infrastructure changes What does that mean? Let me give you a coupe of examples... Suppose you have a sprinker system with spray heads that shoot 15' - a typical system. Replace the nozzles now with the little mini-rotator nozzle that has a much lower precipitation rate That applies the water more slowly - and is a stream - very pretty and the water doesn't blow away or run off the coverage is more even and it goes on more slowly so it's not running off on the sidewalk and into the street You'll have still further reductions in your water use. You spend a little money, maybe a couple $100 on nozzles oout of the dollars you saved then maybe smart controller - an automated controller, different from the onr you may have on your new property now that you set Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and comes on the morning with valves for the lawn for an amount of time. The smart works completely different, and actually gets signals from a weather station,on the eaves of the house or somewhere else in the property or it could be a community weather station sending signals to a central computer then those signals are translated into a watering program tha is beamed up to a satellite and down-linked to your controller which has an antenna on it - real space-age stuff - watering from outer space and it reducess like 25%, 50% or more in some cases. That means if you spenda few hundred dollars on this controller that means your costs will come down still further. Thees are examples of second stage, minor infrastructure changes. Now bank that money you save, and you bootstrp or pay for a way to make more ambitious changes like reducing in lawn area or eliminate it entirely or doing something with those areas that you're mowing and weed-whacking. Get them in production, get some fruit trees growing, plant something will take up the water and sunlight that are now growing weeds. All the sudden they're really rocking with a whole new landscape that hasn't cost you anything if you're willing to wait it out and bootstrap it with these changes. Even if you're a cheapskate or broke, you can still do this step by step, it pays off in the long run. And it is not just about money - there's a whole lot more. The environmental benefits, birds love it, bees love it and your water comapny loves it because you're not using as much water, and your family loves it because you're getting food out of it. Plant native plants that become habitat for wildlife. There are so many other benefits and you get them all in one place because when you start to do things right, as I say, the benefits go through the whole system...


Issues of sustainability

Sustainability issues for landscaping include:

Non-sustainable practices include:

Progressive thought includes: Effects of non-sustainable practices

[citation needed]

Some of the effects of non-sustainable practices are: Severe degradation of the surrounding ecosystem; harm to human health, especially in the case of degraded drinking water supplies; harm to flora and fauna and their habitats; sedimentation of surface waters caused by stormwater runoff; chemical pollutants in drinking water caused by pesticide runoff; health problems caused by toxic fertilizers, toxic pesticides, improper use, handling, storage and disposal of pesticides; air and noise pollution caused by landscape equipment; invasion of wild lands by non-native weeds and insect pests; and over-use of limited natural resources.

Sustainable landscaping solutions

Some of the solutions being developed are:

  • Reduction of stormwater run-off through the use of bio-swales, rain gardens and green roofs and walls.[3][4][5]
  • Reduction of water use in landscapes through design of water-wise garden techniques (sometimes known as xeriscaping) [6][7][8][9]
  • Bio-filtering of wastes through constructed wetlands [10]
  • Landscape irrigation using water from showers and sinks, known as gray water [11]
  • Integrated Pest Management techniques for pest control
  • Creating and enhancing wildlife habitat in urban environments [12]
  • Energy-efficient landscape design in the form of proper placement and selection of shade trees and creation of wind breaks [13][14]
  • Permeable paving materials to reduce stormwater run-off and allow rain water to infiltrate into the ground and replenish groundwater rather than run into surface water [15][16]
  • Use of sustainably harvested wood, composite wood products for decking and other landscape projects, as well as use of plastic lumber [17]
  • Recycling of products, such as glass, rubber from tires and other materials to create landscape products such as paving stones, mulch and other materials[18]
  • Soil management techniques, including composting kitchen and yard wastes, to maintain and enhance healthy soil that supports a diversity of soil life
  • Integration and adoption of renewable energy, including solar-powered landscape lighting [19]

[20] [21][22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]


A sustainable landscape is designed to be both attractive and in balance with the local climate and environment and it should require minimal resource inputs. Thus, the design must be “functional, cost-efficient, visually pleasing, environmentally friendly and maintainable" [30] As part of the concept called sustainable development it pays close attention to the preservation of limited and costly resources, reducing waste and preventing air, water and soil pollution. Landscape Maintenance practices greatly influence the waste produced and the cost of the maintenance itself; such as using electric or gas hedge trimmers which degrade plant material rather than using hand shears which create plant longevity, reduce the amount of waste over time, and prevent the misshaping of plant material and eliminates the "Balls and Boxes that unskilled gardeners create.(James Deagan, Prof Cal Poly Pomona Lecture 1980), In addition, compost, fertilization, grass cycling, pest control measures that avoid or minimize the use of chemicals, integrated pest management, using the right plant in the right place, appropriate use of turf, irrigation efficiency and xeriscaping or water-wise gardening are all components of sustainable landscaping.[24]


The geographic location can determine what is sustainable due to differences in precipitation and temperature. For example, the California Waste Management Board emphasizes the link between minimizing environmental damage and maximizing one’s bottom line of urban commercial landscaping companies. In California, the benefits of landscapes often do not outweigh the cost of inputs like water and labor. However, using appropriately selected and properly sited plants may help to ensure that maintenance costs are lower than they otherwise would be due to reduced chemical and water inputs.[31]


There are several programs in place that are open to participation by various groups. For example, the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses,[32] the Audubon Green Neighborhoods Program,[33] the National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Habitat Program,[34] and the Northeast Organic Farming Association Organic Land Care Program,[35] to name a few.

The Sustainable Sites Initiative, the cooperative effort between the American Society of Landscape Architects, the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center and the United States Botanic Garden, began in 2005 and will provide a points-based certification for landscapes, similar to the LEED program for buildings operated by the Green Building Council. The Sustainable Sites Initiative now has a document titled Guidelines and Performance Benchmarks.[36] The credit system is expected to be completed in 2011.

Proper design

The primary step to landscape design is to do a "sustainability audit". This is similar to a landscape site analysis that is typically performed by landscape designers at the beginning of the design process. Factors such as lot size, house size, local covenants and budgets should be considered. The steps to design include a base plan, site inventory and analysis, construction documents, implementation and maintenance.[30] Of great importance is considerations related to the growing conditions of the site. These include orientation to the sun, soil type, wind flow, slopes, shade and climate. The goal of reducing artificial irrigation (such as preventing irrigation of landscapes leaving the Los Angeles Basin a Desert again), and reducing use of toxic substances and requires proper plant selection for the specific site.


Composting is a way to recycle kitchen and garden waste while creating inexpensive organic fertilizer for the garden and landscape. Earthworms, microbes and other soil flora and fauna feast on such organic matter when provided adequate nitrogen and proper temperatures and moisture. The ideal size for a compost pile or bin is one cubic yard (3' x 3' x 3'). It should be placed in a partly shady location to avoid intense sun and drying out, as this will delay the decomposition process. The pile heats up during the decomposition process, then cools as material is transformed, this is a good time to turn the pile, so that undecomposed materials on the periphery of the pile can be moved to the center to complete the process. With adequate moisture, nitrogen, proper temperature and correct timing of turning the pile, compost can be made in about a 30-day period. Left alone this process will still occur, but may take three to four months under less-than-ideal conditions.

Compost can be added as an amendment to poorly draining soil, as a fertilizer on flower and vegetable beds, to fruit trees or used as a potting soil for potted plants. Trimmings from lawns, trees and shrubs from a large landscape site can be used as feedstock for on-site composting. Reusing on-site organic materials will decrease the need for purchasing other soil additives.


Mulch may be used to reduce water loss due to evaporation, reduce weeds, minimize erosion, dust and mud problems. Mulch can also add nutrients to the soil when it decomposes. However, mulch is most often used for weed suppression. Over use of mulch can result in harm to the selected plantings. Care must be taken in the source of the mulch, for instance, black walnut trees result in a toxic mulch product. Grass cycling turf areas (using mulching mowers that leave grass clippings on the lawn) will also decrease the amount of fertilizer needed, reduce landfill waste and reduce costs of disposal.[24]

A common recommendation is to adding 2-4 inches of mulch in flower beds and under trees away from the trunk. Mulch should be applied under trees to the dripline (extension of the branches) in lieu of flowers, hostas, turf or other plants that are often planted there. This practice of planting under trees is detrimental to tree roots, especially when such plants are irrigated to an excessive level that harms the tree. One must be careful not to apply mulch to the bark of the tree. It can result in smothering, mold and to insect depredation.

The practice of xeriscaping or water-wise gardening suggests that placing plants with similar water demands together will save time and low-water or drought tolerant plants would be a smart initial consideration.

A homeowner may consider consulting an accredited irrigation technician/auditor and obtain a water audit of current systems. In the event that the situation is difficult to manage, drip or sub-surface irrigation may be most effective. If the system has been in use for over five years, upgrading to evapotranspiration (ET) controllers, soil sensors and refined control panels will improve the system. Often irrigation heads are in need of readjustment to avoid sprinkling on sidewalks or streets. Business owners may consider developing watering schedules based on historical or actual weather data and soil probes to monitor soil moisture prior to watering.[30]

Building materials

When deciding what kind of building materials to put on a site it is important to recycle as often as possible. Reusing old bricks from sidewalks as patio pavers is one way to provide an aesthetic appeal to an area while reducing what goes to the landfill.

But it is also important to be careful about what materials you use, especially if you plan to grow food crops of any kind. Old telephone poles and railroad ties have usually been treated with a substance called creosote that can leach into the soils and make any food grown there toxic enough to cause harm to anyone that eats it. In general, you should avoid any kind of treated material, especially wood, that could leach into the soil with rain.[37]

The Forest Stewardship Council ( was formed in 1993 "to change the dialogue about and the practice of sustainable forestry worldwide." Sustainably harvested lumber - also called certified wood is now available, in which ecological, economic and social factors are integrated into the management of trees used for lumber.[38] A chain of custody document is used in the certification process.

Planting selection

One important part of sustainable landscaping is plant selection. Most of what makes a landscape unsustainable is the amount of inputs required to grow a non-native plant on it. What this means is that a local plant, which has adapted to local climate conditions will require less work on the part of some other agent to flourish. For example, it does not make sense to grow tomatoes in Arizona because there is not enough natural rainfall for them to survive without constant watering. Instead, drought-tolerant plants like succulents and cacti are better suited to survive. Also, by choosing native plants, one can avoid certain problems with insects and pests because these plants will also be adapted to deal with any local invader. The bottom line is that by choosing the right kind of local plants, a great deal of money can be saved on amendment costs, pest control and watering.[37]

Plants used as windbreaks can save up to 30% on heating costs in winter. They also help with shading a residence or commercial building in summer, create cool air through evapo-transpiration and can cool hardscaped areas such as driveways and sidewalks.[39]

A house surrounded by local trees or bushes enjoys multiple benefits. Plants release water vapor in the air through transpiration and water has the ability to reduce temperature extremes in the areas near it (as it boasts very high heat capacity). The larger and more leafy the plant, the most water vapor it produces. Additionally, the presence of trees is crucial in the creation of stable, healthy and productive ecosystems (such as forests). In fact this is an important principle of permaculture.

If the surrounding trees are chosen to produce edible fruit they can provide a sustainable food source for the occupants of the house. Even if some are fairly demanding (especially in the summer), irrigation is an excellent end-use option in greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting systems, and a composting toilet can cover (at least) some of the nutrient requirements. Research suggests that diluted human urine might be as effective as chemical fertilizers.[citation needed] Not all fruit trees are suitable for greywater irrigation, as reclaimed greywater is typically of high pH and acidophile plants don't do well in alkaline environments.

An intelligent choice for direct energy conservation would be the placement of broadleaf deciduous trees near the east, west and optionally north-facing walls of the house. Such selection provides shading in the summer while permitting large amounts of heat-carrying solar radiation to strike the house in the winter. The trees are to be placed as closely as possible to the house walls but no closer than 1 meter - otherwise the roots can cause substantial foundation damage. A sustainable house will most likely be equipped with south-facing (north-facing in the S. hemisphere) photovoltaic panels and a large, south-facing glazing as a result of passive solar heating design. As the efficiency of both systems is very sensitive to shading, experts suggest the complete absence of trees near the south side.

Another intelligent choice would be that of a dense vegetative fence composed of evergreens (e.g. conifers) near that side from which cold continental winds blow (usually north in the N. hemisphere) and also that side from which the prevailing winds blow (west in temperate regions of both hemispheres). Since north winds are most cold and westerlies blow most often, such choice creates an effective winter windbarrier that prevents very low temperatures outside the house and reduces air infiltration towards the inside. Calculations show that placing the windbrake at a distance twice the height of the trees can reduce the wind velocity by 75%. It then follows that, with some planning, both arrangements (deciduous and evergreen) can be applied simultaneously.[40]

The above vegetative arrangements come with two disadvantages. Firstly, they minimize air circulation in summer (although in many climates heating is more important and costly than cooling) and, secondly, they may affect the efficiency of photovoltaic panels, thus prompting the need for a shading analysis. However, it has been estimated that if both arrangements are applied properly, they can reduce the overall house energy usage by up to 22%.[40]


Pest Problems

Maintaining plant health will eliminate most pest problems. It is best to start with pest-free plant materials and supplies and close inspection of the plant upon purchase is also recommended. Establishing diversity within the area of plant species will encourage beneficial organism populations (e.g. birds, insects), which feed on potential plant pests. Because plant pests vary from plant to plant, assessing the problem correctly is half the battle. The owner must consider whether the plant can tolerate the damage caused by the pest. If not, then does the plant value justify some sort of treatment? While pesticide is often chosen to solve the problem, physical barriers and repellents may help. If pesticides are the chosen method, selective organic or natural pesticide is often better because it has less impact on non-target species.[30]


Proper pruning will increase air circulation and decrease the likelihood of plant diseases. However, improper pruning is detrimental to shrubs and trees.[30] Hedging, topping and shearing of landscape plants causes excessive plant growth. In addition, topping is a hazardous practice which creates a hazardous tree which is highly susceptible to wind damage. Natural pruning techniques during the proper season, on the other hand, promotes healthier, more stable plants.[31] In temperate areas, deciduous plants should be pruned during dormancy. Plants should never be pruned at the end of a growing season because growth is stimulated and such new growth will be too tender to survive winter freezing temperatures.

Pollution Prevention

Landscape managers should make use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to reduce use of pesticides and herbicides and reduce non-point source solution.

Campuses with sustainable landscaping projects or programs

See also


  1. ^ Loehrlein, M. Retrieved November 2009.
  2. ^ Loehrlein, M. et al. Retrieved November 2009.
  3. ^ Rowe, B., J. Andersen, J. Lloyd, T. Mrozowski and K. Getter. The green roof research at Michigan State University. Viewed 7/30/2007.
  4. ^ Robinette, G. O. and K. W. Sloan. 1984. Water conservation in landscape design and management. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. NY. 258pp.
  5. ^ PennState Center for Green Roof Research. Viewed 9/23/09.
  6. ^ Carver, S. 2008. Water-wise landscaping can improve conservation efforts. Landscape Mgmt. May/June Suppl Livescapes. P. 8.
  7. ^ Eberle, W. M. and J. G. Thomas. 1981. Some water-saving ways. Kansas State Ext. 4pp.
  8. ^ Krizner, K. 2008. Smart water solutions. Landscape Management May/June. p. 31-2
  9. ^ White, J.D. 2008. When the well runs dry: managing water before it becomes a crisis. GrowerTalks. Aug. pp. 42-43.
  10. ^ Campbell, C. S. and M. H. Ogden. Constructed wetlands in the sustainable landscape. 1999. Wiley & Sons. NY. 270pp.
  11. ^ Melby, P. and T. Cathcart 2002. Regenerative design techniques : practical applications in landscape design. Wiley. New York. 410 p.
  12. ^ Harker, D., G. Libby. Harker, K. Evans, S. Evans, M. 1999.
    • Landscape Restoration Handbook, 2nd ed. Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton. 865pp.
  13. ^ Fizzell, J. A. 1983. Landscape designers must put energy conservation in their plans. Amer. Nurseryman. 157:65-71.
  14. ^ Pitt, D. G. J. Kissida and W. Gould. 1980. How to design a windbreak residential landscaping. Amer. Nurseryman. Vol. 152(10): 10-11.
  15. ^ Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute. Permeable interlocking concrete pavement: a comparison guide to porous asphalt and pervious concrete. Viewed June 2008.
  16. ^ Kerkhoff, K. L. 2006. How to capitalize and reduce stormwater runoff in your landscapes. Grounds Maint. P. 70.
  17. ^ Thompson,W. J., K. Sorvig and Farnsworth, C. D. 2000. "Sustainable Landscape Construction". Island Pr. Washington, D.C. 348p.
  18. ^ EPA. 1998. Landscaping products containing recovered materials. USEPA Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 8pp.
  19. ^ Bramwell, J. 2006. Power with a conscience. Amer. Nurseryman. 203(3):33-37.
  20. ^ Dixie chopper –Propane. Viewed 7/22/2008.
  21. ^ Weber, M. 2006. Cutting edge: fuel efficiency and productivity are driving innovation in equipment design. Grounds Maint. 13-24
  22. ^ Welterden, M. and C. Ratcliff. 2004. Pulse of the industry. Grounds Maint. Dec. p.9-32.
  23. ^ University of Minnesota: Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series.
  24. ^ a b c California Integrated Waste Management Board.
  25. ^ Ecoscapes: Sustainable Landscaping Viewed 11-15-09.
  26. ^ Tufts University: Office of Sustainability. Viewed 11-15-09.
  27. ^ Fine Gardens: Sustainable Urban Landscape. Viewed 11-15-09.
  28. ^ Boulder County: Sustainable Landscaping Information. Viewed 11-15-09.
  29. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Viewed 11-15-09.
  30. ^ a b c d e Colorado State University Extension. Viewed 11-15-09.
  31. ^ a b California Integrated Waste Management Board. Viewed 11-15-09.
  32. ^ http://Audubon International. Viewed 9/23/09.
  33. ^ Green Neighborhoods Viewed 9/23/09
  34. ^ Garden for Wildlife. Viewed 9/23/09.
  35. ^ NOFA Organic Land Care Program. Viewed 11/2/11.
  36. ^ The Sustainable Sites Initiative. Viewed 9/23/09.
  37. ^ a b Sustainable Landscape Design's Custom Design Philosophy. Viewed 11-15-09.
  38. ^ Viewed 12-07-09.
  39. ^ Farmstead Windbreaks: Planning. Retrieved 12-12-09.
  40. ^ a b "Green from the ground up" by D. Johnston and S. Gibson
  41. ^
  42. ^
This page was last edited on 10 December 2017, at 00:08.
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