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Turgesh chieftain
Reign706 - 711
Battle of Bolchu

Suoge (Chinese: 娑葛; Kazakh: Сақал Соге) was a Turgesh chieftain and khagan. It was stated, by Yuri Zuev, that he was a Manichaeist. According to Manichean belief, his name means "Creator of the World " and was derived from Sakla.[1]

Early reign

Suoge succeeded his father, Wuzhile, to the Turgesh throne. However, the Tang court did not acknowledge him as a Khagan, and instead, appointed him as Commander of the Walu Province (嗢鹿州都督). They gave him the title of Prince of Huaide (懷徳郡王), which made him a subordinate of Ashina Huaidao (who was Shixing Qaghan).[2] Later, the deputy of Guo Yuanzhen, Jie Wan (解琬), was sent to bestow him with the title of Prince of Jinhe (金河郡王) in 708.

Conflict with Tang

Eventually, the relationship between Suoge and the Tang court deteriorated. Suoge's subordinate, Juechuo Zhongjie (闕啜忠節),[3] rebelled to his command, but was unable to prevail. At the suggestion of Guo Yuanzhen, in 708, he was set to give up his military forces and return to Chang'an, the Tang capital. The Tang general Zhou Yiti (周以悌) persuaded Juechuo to bribe chancellors Zong Chuke and Ji Chuna into launching an attack against Suoge. Juechuo did so and succeeded. Zong, after Juechuo's bribery, proposed to Emperor Zhongzong the idea of attacking Suoge in alliance with the Tibetan Empire, to which Emperor Zhongzong agreed, despite Guo's opposition. The Emperor appointed Ashina Xian (a son of Ashina Yuanqing) as Shixing Qaghan and sent him to capture Suyab.[4] The attack did not succeed. Zhongjie was captured and Xian was defeated by Suoge.

Suoge's brother, Zhenu (遮努), gathered an army of 20,000 members and successfully attacked several Tang outposts – Kucha, Bohuan (modern Aksu, Xinjiang), Yanqi and Yingzhan. As Guo was hesitant to send an army to Shule, Suoge grew more self-reliant and declared himself as Khagan. Later, Suoge sent an envoy to Chang'an to demand that Zong be executed after wreaking havoc to Anxi. As a response, Guo was replaced by Zhou Yiti. Meanwhile, Suoge sent a letter claiming his innocence to Guo. In turn, Guo reported the facts of the situation to Emperor Zhongzong, which led to the Zongs accusing him of treason. However, Emperor Zhongzong agreed with Guo and sent an envoy to make peace with Suoge and make him Shisixing Qaghan (Chinese: 十四姓可汗; literally: 'Khagan of Fourteen Tribes') in 709. Meanwhile, he also sent Zhou Yiti to exile in Baizhou.

End of reign

According to Takeshi Osawa, the mediator that sent in the peace envoy to Suoge was Kyrgyz Khaganate's ruler, Bars Bek[5] – a Khagan closely controlled by Qapaghan Qaghan, who was a brother-in-law[6][7] to future Bilge Qaghan. Bars Bek secretly plotted a triple alliance with Tang and Turgesh, but Tonyukuk heard his plans, with help of Zhenu (遮努), Suoge's brother, who rebelled against him and deserted to the Second Turkic Khaganate.[8] Tonyukuk made a surprise attack on Kirghiz at night in the year 710.[9] Bars Bek was killed and Tonyukuk later headed on to Turgesh. However, Qapaghan's khatun died soon, which caused the khagan to order a halt to the attack. Suoge used this opportunity to move ahead, only to see Tonyukuk change his mind and disobey the order, ambushing Suoge. After a disastrous defeat at Bolchu, he was executed by future Bilge Qaghan. His lands were given as an appanage to Inal, son of Qapaghan.


  1. ^ A., Zuev, I︠U︡. (2002). Rannie ti︠u︡rki : ocherki istorii i ideologii. Almaty: "Daĭk-Press". ISBN 978-9985441527. OCLC 52976103.
  2. ^ Saito, T. 1991, Rise of the Türgish and Tang's Abandonment of Suiye. Shiteki 12: 34–53 (in Japanese)
  3. ^ The New Book of Tang, followed by the Zizhi Tongjian, referred to this person as Juechuo Zhongjie, but the Old Book of Tang referred to him as Ashina Zhongjie (阿史那忠節).
  4. ^ Moriyasu, T. 1984, L'Expansion des Tu-fan (Tibétains) en Asie centrale. Studies and Essays (The Faculty of Letters, Kanazawa University): pp 24-25 (in Japanese).
  5. ^ Osawa Takeshi, 1996 Jenissei-Kirghiz in the Early Eighth Century. Shihō 28: 1–24 (in Japanese)
  6. ^ Kul Tegin stele, Eastside, 20th row: 𐰉𐰺𐰽: 𐰋𐰏: 𐰼𐱅𐰃: 𐰴𐰍𐰣: 𐱃: 𐰉𐰆𐰦𐰀: 𐰋𐰃𐰕: 𐰋𐰃𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐰾𐰃𐰭𐰠𐰢: 𐰸𐰆𐰨𐰖𐰆𐰍: 𐰋𐰃𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐰇𐰕𐰃: 𐰖𐰭𐰡𐰃: 𐰴𐰍𐰣𐰃: 𐰇𐰠𐱅𐰃: 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣𐰃: 𐰚𐰇𐰭: 𐰸𐰆𐰞: 𐰉𐰆𐰡𐰃: 𐰚𐰇𐰏𐰢𐰤: 𐰘𐰃𐰼: 𐰽𐰆𐰉: 𐰃𐰓𐰾𐰕: 𐰴𐰞𐰢𐰕𐰆𐰣: 𐱅𐰃𐰘𐰤: 𐰕: 𐰴𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕: 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣𐰍: 𐰖𐰺𐱃𐰯: 𐰚𐰠𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐰾𐰇𐰭𐱁𐰓𐰢𐰕: [...]: 𐰃𐰠𐰃𐰤:
  7. ^ Bilge khagan stele, east side, 16th row: 𐰾𐰇𐰚𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐰉𐱁𐰞𐰍𐰍: 𐰘𐰰𐰇𐰦𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰏𐰾: 𐰴𐰍𐰣: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰𐰢: 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣𐰃𐰢: 𐰼𐱅𐰃: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰢𐰓𐰇𐰚𐰤: 𐰇𐰲𐰇𐰤: 𐰋𐰃𐰕𐰭𐰀: 𐰖𐰭𐰞𐰑𐰸𐰃𐰤: 𐰖𐰕𐰃𐰦𐰸𐰃𐰤: 𐰇𐰲𐰇𐰤: 𐰴𐰍𐰣𐰃: 𐰇𐰠𐱅𐰃: 𐰉𐰆𐰖𐰺𐰸𐰃: 𐰋𐰏𐰠𐰼𐰃: 𐰘𐰢𐰀: 𐰇𐰠𐱅𐰃: 𐰆𐰣: 𐰸: 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣: 𐰢𐰏𐰚: 𐰚𐰇𐰼𐱅𐰃: 𐰲𐰇𐰢𐰕: 𐰯𐰀𐰢𐰕: 𐱃𐰆𐱃𐰢𐰾: 𐰘𐰃𐰼: 𐰽𐰆𐰉: 𐰃𐰓𐰾𐰕: 𐰴𐰞𐰢𐰕𐰆𐰣: 𐱅𐰃𐰘𐰤: 𐰕: 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣𐰍: 𐰃𐱅𐰯: 𐰖𐰺𐱃𐰯: [...]: 𐰉𐰺𐰽: 𐰋𐰏:
  8. ^ Stark, Sören. "Türgesh Khaganate, in: Encyclopedia of Empire, ed. John M. McKenzie et al. (Wiley Blackwell: Chichester/Hoboken 2016)". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Bain Tsokto inscriptions, Northside, 3rd and 4th rows : 𐰣𐰃: 𐰽𐰆𐰉𐰍: 𐰉𐰺𐰞𐰢: 𐰆𐰞: 𐰽𐰆𐰉: 𐰸𐰆𐰑𐰃: 𐰉𐰺𐰑𐰢𐰕: 𐰽𐰣𐰍𐰞𐰃: 𐱅𐰇𐰾𐰇𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐱃𐰍: 𐰃𐰴𐰀: 𐰉𐰖𐰆𐰺: 𐰼𐱅𐰢𐰕: 𐰝𐰇𐰤: 𐰘𐰢𐰀: 𐱅𐰇𐰤: 𐰘𐰢𐰀: 𐰘𐰠𐰇: 𐰉𐰺𐰑𐰢𐰕: 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕𐰍: 𐰆𐰴𐰀: 𐰉𐰽𐰑𐰢𐰕:
This page was last edited on 13 December 2019, at 12:46
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