To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Still River (Housatonic River tributary)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mouth of the Still River is traversed by a bridge that carries the Housatonic Railroad near Lovers Leap State Park
Mouth of the Still River is traversed by a bridge that carries the Housatonic Railroad near Lovers Leap State Park

The Still River is a 25.4-mile-long (40.9 km)[1] tributary to the Housatonic River in western Connecticut.

Course and watershed

The Still River headwaters emanate from Farrington's Pond (41°24′15″N 73°32′16″W / 41.4043°N 73.5379°W / 41.4043; -73.5379) at the New York border with Danbury, Connecticut. It meanders through Sanfords Pond (41°23′39″N 73°32′10″W / 41.3943°N 73.5362°W / 41.3943; -73.5362) and Lake Kenosia (41°23′02″N 73°30′11″W / 41.384°N 73.503°W / 41.384; -73.503) before entering a concrete aqueduct near downtown Danbury. It then turns north, becoming a more conventional river as it cuts through Brookfield and southern New Milford before joining with the Housatonic (41°32′45″N 73°24′31″W / 41.5457°N 73.4085°W / 41.5457; -73.4085). The river has a drainage area of 85 square miles, and a mean flow of 377 cubic feet per second.[2][3]

The Still River has a brief but impactful history that has influenced its condition today. The farming industry in Danbury led to extreme pollution in the river.[4] Beginning around the 1860s, the river again experienced significant mercury pollution from the hatting industry that continued for several years.[3] This pollution had both ecological and anthropogenic effects on the surrounding environment, eventually leading to a need for remediation and cleanup.


Even before the hatting industry began in the late 1700s, the Still River[4] was known as a dead river. This was due to pollution from farms in the area surrounding Danbury, CT. Farmers used the river as a site to get rid of waste and other toxic debris. Historical documents from Danbury and surrounding towns cited the river as a sewage dump around the 1880s, and the water was unusable for both agricultural and industrial use.[4] It wasn't until a court case ruling in 1895, along with the Clean Water Act in 1972 that the city of Danbury was required to take responsibility for the state of the river.[5][6] In 1993, Danbury constructed a new sewage treatment plant to help improve water quality. In 2014, the Still River Partners was created with the hopes of rebuilding the watershed,[5] and as of 2019, this group is still responsible for maintaining and improving the river.


Mercury nitrate was discharged to the river by the hatting industry from circa 1860 through the first half of the 1900s. The hat factories used the chemical in the felt making process to remove animal fur from pelts.[3][7] During this time, levels of mercury were found to be 5-10 ppm with extremes up to 100 ppm. These levels were about 500 times higher than background levels.[3][7][8] Although the hatting industry was the main cause of mercury pollution, there were other industries that contributed as well. The P. Robinson Fur Cutting Company was a fur removal company sited on the Still River.

During the peak of the hatting industry, mercury pollution transported via the river's current into the Housatonic River, and into the Long Island Sound.[9]

The mercury pollution was detrimental to the river's life and the surrounding ecosystems, and didn't start to fully rebound until the construction of the sewage treatment plant. Many species of fish can now be found, and kayak ramps have been installed downriver from Danbury.[citation needed]

Cleanup and Remediation

At least three organizations have an interest in preserving the Still River and its watershed. Spearheaded by Danbury's Health Department, the Still River Alliance was organized in 1995 as a consortium of three different groups. The Alliance developed a website (see external links below) which has not been updated for several years. Due to budget cuts, the driving force behind the Alliance, Jack Kozuchowski, retired and the Still River Alliance seems to have floundered since then. Mr. Kozuchowski is currently an environmental consultant.[citation needed] Coordinated by the Housatonic Valley Association and with funding from Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, key stakeholders and municipalities formed the Still River Partners group and launched an EPA approved watershed planning process to improve the water quality of the Still River which is still active today.

Development and Conservation

The Housatonic Valley Economic Development Partnership is striving to develop a 38-mile (61 km) River Trail on the Still and Housatonic rivers for canoeing and kayaking. They periodically organize river clean-ups, using paid contractors and volunteers, to clear debris from the river. They also lobby for kayak put-in/out ramps. The beginning of the trail is located behind the Marriott Courtyard hotel, just off of Route 84 (Exit 8) in Danbury. Rapids interrupt the river trail in Brookfield (no portage is available), and three dams across the Housatonic require portages along the way to Long Island Sound.[10]

The Still River Preserve in Brookfield covers about 80 acres (32 ha) adjacent to the river. The preserve is owned by Weantinoge Heritage Land Trust of New Milford, Connecticut.

The city of Danbury has a $4.85 million bonding package, approved in a February 2008 referendum, for use in building recreational projects on city-owned land. A list of potential projects was prepared. It includes completing the native plant hedgerow at Lake Kenosia (part of the Still River, west of the city) and doing a feasibility study to build a boardwalk and bird-watching site on about 20 acres (8.1 ha) the city owns in Mill Plain Swamp (Lake Kenosia discharges into the swamp, which drains into the Still River). A separate $6.6 million bonding package, approved in the same referendum, could be used to purchase Sanford's Pond and building a trail through it.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived 2012-04-05 at WebCite, accessed April 1, 2011
  2. ^ Hobbs, W. H. (1901). Character of the Drainage. In Still Rivers of Western Connecticut (Vol. 13, pp. 17-26). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America.
  3. ^ a b c d Bronsther, Rachel; Welsh, Patrick. Mercury in Soils and Sediments. Wesleyan University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  4. ^ a b c "Film to Raise Awareness of Still River History". Danbury, CT Patch. 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ Hutson, Nanci G.; Writer, Staff (2011-01-18). "History of Danbury's sewer treatment and water systems makes for a remarkable tale". NewsTimes. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  7. ^ a b Lerman-Sinkoff, Sarah (April 2014). "Transport and Fate of Historic Mercury Pollution from Danbury, CT through the Still and Housatonic Rivers". Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University. Bachelor of Arts thesis.
  8. ^ Varekamp, Johan (2002-06-25). "'Mad Hatters' Long Gone, But The Mercury Lingers On". UniSci. Cape Coral, FL: UniScience News Net, Inc.
  9. ^ Varekamp, JC; Buchholtz ten Brink, MR; Mecray, EL; Kreulen, B (Summer 2000). "Mercury in Long Island Sound Sediments". Journal of Coastal Research. 16 (3): 613–626. JSTOR 4300074.
  10. ^ The dams include the Shepaug Dam that impounds Lake Lillinonah, the Stevenson Dam Hydroelectric Plant that impounds Lake Zoar, and the Derby Dam between Derby and Shelton that impounds Lake Housatonic.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 April 2021, at 16:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.