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Stafford Cripps

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Sir Stafford Cripps

Stafford Cripps 1947.jpg
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
13 November 1947 – 19 October 1950
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byHugh Dalton
Succeeded byHugh Gaitskell
Minister for Economic Affairs
In office
29 September 1947 – 13 November 1947
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byNew creation
Succeeded byPost abolished (Trial post)
President of the Board of Trade
In office
27 July 1945 – 29 September 1947
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byOliver Lyttelton
Succeeded byHarold Wilson
Minister of Aircraft Production
In office
22 November 1942 – 25 May 1945
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Preceded byJohn Llewellin
Succeeded byErnest Brown
Leader of the House of Commons
Lord Privy Seal
In office
19 February 1942 – 22 November 1942
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Preceded byWinston Churchill (as Leader of the House of Commons)
Clement Attlee
(as Lord Privy Seal)
Succeeded byAnthony Eden
(as Leader of the House of Commons)

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
(as Lord Privy Seal)
Solicitor General for England and Wales
In office
22 October 1930 – 24 August 1931
Prime MinisterJames Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded byJames Melville
Succeeded byThomas Inskip
Member of Parliament
for Bristol South East
Bristol East (1931–1950)
In office
16 January 1931 – 25 October 1950
Preceded byWalter John Baker
Succeeded byTony Benn
Personal details
Born
Richard Stafford Cripps[1]

(1889-04-24)24 April 1889
London, England
Died21 April 1952(1952-04-21) (aged 62)
Zurich, Switzerland
Political partyLabour
Spouse(s)Dame Isobel Cripps
Children4, including Peggy Cripps
ParentsCharles Cripps
Theresa Potter
Alma materUniversity College London

Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, CH, QC, FRS[1] (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the twentieth century.

A wealthy barrister by background, he first entered Parliament at a by-election in 1931, and was one of a handful of Labour frontbenchers to retain his seat at the general election that autumn. He became a leading spokesman for the left-wing and co-operation in a Popular Front with Communists before 1939, in which year he was expelled from the Labour Party. During World War II, he served as Ambassador to the USSR (1940–42), during which time he grew wary of the Soviet Union,[citation needed] but achieved great public popularity because on being invaded by Nazi Germany the USSR stated its co-operation with the Allies and restoring peace, causing him to be seen in 1942 as a potential rival to Winston Churchill for the premiership. He became a member of the War Cabinet of the wartime coalition, but failed in his efforts (the "Cripps Mission") to resolve the wartime crisis in India, where his proposals were too radical for Churchill and the Cabinet, and too conservative for Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian leaders. He later served as Minister of Aircraft Production, an important post but outside the inner War Cabinet.[2]

Cripps rejoined the Labour Party in 1945, and after the war; served in the Attlee Ministry, first as President of the Board of Trade and between 1947 and 1950 as Chancellor of the Exchequer. In the latter position, Cripps was responsible for laying the foundations of British post-war economic prosperity, and was, according to historian Kenneth O. Morgan, "the real architect of the rapidly improving economic picture and growing affluence from 1952 onwards".[3] The economy improved after 1947, benefiting from American money given through grants from the Marshall Plan as well as loans. However, the pound had to be devalued in 1949. He kept the wartime rationing system in place to hold down consumption during an "age of austerity", promoted exports and maintained full employment with static wages. The public especially respected "his integrity, competence, and Christian principles".[2]

Early life

Cripps was born in London, the son of Charles Cripps, a barrister and later Conservative MP, and the former Theresa Potter, the sister of Beatrice Webb and Catherine Courtney. Cripps grew up in a wealthy family and was educated at Winchester College, where the Headmaster described him as "a thoroughly good fellow"[4] and at University College London, where he studied Chemistry. He left science for the law, and in 1913 was called to the bar by the Middle Temple. He served in the First World War as a Red Cross ambulance driver in France, and then managed a chemical factory producing armaments. He remained a barrister during the 1920s, where he specialised in patent cases, and was reported to be the highest paid lawyer in England.[5] He was appointed a King's Counsel in 1927.

Cripps was a member of the Church of England and in the 1920s became a leader in the World Alliance to Promote International Friendship through the Churches, as his father had been. In 1923 to 1929 Cripps was the group's treasurer and its most energetic lecturer.[6]

Joining the Labour Party

At the end of the 1920s Cripps moved to the left in his political views, and in 1930 he joined the Labour Party. The next year, Cripps was appointed Solicitor-General in the second Labour government, and received the then customary knighthood. In 1931, Cripps was elected in a by-election for Bristol East. During this time in parliament, he was a strong proponent of Marxist social and economic policies, although his strong faith in evangelical Christianity prevented him from subscribing to the Marxist rejection of religion.

In the 1931 general election, Cripps was one of only three former Labour ministers to hold their seats alongside the party leader George Lansbury and deputy leader Clement Attlee.

Cripps in 1930
Cripps in 1930

In 1932 he helped found and became the leader of the Socialist League, which was composed largely of intellectuals and teachers from the Independent Labour Party who rejected its decision to disaffiliate from Labour. The Socialist League put the case for an austere form of democratic socialism. He argued that on taking power the Labour Party should immediately enact an Emergency Powers Act, allowing it to rule by decree and thus "forestall any sabotage by financial interests,” and also immediately abolish the House of Lords.[6]

In 1936, Labour's National Executive Committee dissociated itself from a speech in which Cripps said he did not "believe it would be a bad thing for the British working class if Germany defeated us".[7] Cripps also opposed British rearmament:

"Money cannot make armaments. Armaments can only be made by the skill of the British working class, and it is the British working class who would be called upon to use them. To-day you have the most glorious opportunity that the workers have ever had if you will only use the necessity of capitalism in order to get power yourselves. The capitalists are in your hands. Refuse to make munitions, refuse to make armaments, and they are helpless. They would have to hand the control of the country over to you".[8]

Cripps was an early advocate of a United Front against the rising threat of fascism[9] and he opposed an appeasement policy towards Nazi Germany. In 1936 he was the moving force behind a Unity Campaign, involving the Socialist League, the Independent Labour Party and the Communist Party of Great Britain, designed to forge electoral unity against the right. Opposed by the Labour leadership, the Unity Campaign failed in its intentions. Rather than face expulsion from Labour, Cripps dissolved the Socialist League in 1937. Tribune, set up as the campaign's newspaper by Cripps and George Strauss, survived. In early 1939, however, Cripps was expelled from the Labour Party for his advocacy of a Popular Front with the Communist Party, the Independent Labour Party, the Liberal Party and anti-appeasement Conservatives.

Second World War

Sketch of Cripps commissioned by the Ministry of Information in the World War II period
Sketch of Cripps commissioned by the Ministry of Information in the World War II period

When Winston Churchill formed his wartime coalition government in 1940 he appointed Cripps Ambassador to the Soviet Union in the view that Cripps, who had Marxist sympathies, could negotiate with Joseph Stalin who was at this time allied with Nazi Germany through the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, Cripps became a key figure in forging an alliance between the western powers and the Soviet Union, and incidentally helped the engineer Edward Brisch, trapped in Russian-occupied Latvia, to join the British war effort.[10]

In 1942 Cripps returned to Britain and made a broadcast about the Soviet war effort. The popular response was phenomenal, and Cripps rapidly became one of the most popular politicians in the country, despite having no party backing. He was appointed a member of the War Cabinet, with the jobs of Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Commons, and was considered for a short period after his return from Moscow as a rival to Churchill in his hold on the country.[11]

Mission to India

Cripps meeting Mahatma Gandhi during the Second World War
Cripps meeting Mahatma Gandhi during the Second World War

Churchill responded by sending Cripps to India on a mission ("the Cripps Mission") to negotiate an agreement with the nationalist leaders that would keep India loyal to the British war effort in exchange for self-government after the war. Cripps designed the specific proposals himself, but they were too radical for Churchill and the Viceroy, and too conservative for the Indians, who demanded immediate independence. No middle way was found and the mission was a failure.[12][13]

Minister of Aircraft Production

Later in 1942 Cripps stepped down from being Leader of the House of Commons and was appointed Minister of Aircraft Production, a position outside the War Cabinet in which he served with substantial success. In 1945 he rejoined the Labour Party.

Cripps was unhappy with the British black propaganda campaign against Germany. When Cripps discovered what Sefton Delmer was involved with (through the intervention of Richard Crossman) he wrote to Anthony Eden, then Foreign Secretary: "If this is the sort of thing that is needed to win the war, why, I'd rather lose it." Delmer was defended by Robert Bruce Lockhart who pointed out the need to reach the sadist in the German nature.[14]

After the war

When Labour won the 1945 general election, Clement Attlee appointed Cripps President of the Board of Trade, the second most important economic post in the government. Although still a strong socialist, Cripps had modified his views sufficiently to be able to work with mainstream Labour ministers. In Britain's desperate post-war economic circumstances, Cripps became associated with the policy of "austerity". As an upper-class socialist he held a puritanical view of society, enforcing rationing with equal severity against all classes. Together with other individuals he was instrumental in the foundation of the original College of Aeronautics, now Cranfield University, in 1946. The Stafford Cripps Learning and Teaching Centre on Cranfield's campus is named after him[15].

In 1946 Soviet jet engine designers approached Stalin with a request to buy jet designs from Western sources to overcome design difficulties. Stalin is said to have replied: "What fool will sell us his secrets?" However, he gave his assent to the proposal, and Soviet scientists and designers travelled to the United Kingdom to meet Cripps and request the engines. To Stalin's amazement, Cripps and the Labour government were perfectly willing to provide technical information on the Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal-flow jet engine designed by RAF officer Frank Whittle, along with discussions of a licence to manufacture Nene engines. The Nene engine was promptly reverse-engineered and produced in modified form as the Soviet Klimov VK-1 jet engine, later incorporated into the MiG-15 which flew in time to deploy in combat against UN forces in North Korea in 1950, causing the loss of several B-29 bombers and cancellation of their daylight bombing missions over North Korea.[16]

Also in 1946, Cripps returned to India as part of the "Cabinet Mission", which proposed various formulae for independence to the Indian leaders. The other two members of the delegation were Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. However, the solution devised by the three men, known as the Cabinet Mission Plan, was unsatisfactory to the Indian National Congress mainly its principal leaders, and instead of having to hold together the emerging one nation, Indian National Congress leaders travelled further down the road that eventually led to Partition.

In 1947, amid a growing economic and political crisis, Cripps tried to persuade Attlee to retire in favour of Ernest Bevin; however, Bevin was in favour of Attlee remaining. Cripps was instead appointed to the new post of Minister for Economic Affairs. Six weeks later Hugh Dalton resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Cripps succeeded him, with the position of Minister for Economic Affairs now merged into the Chancellorship. He increased taxes and continued strategic rationing which muted consumption to boost the balance of trade and stabilise the Pound Sterling seeing Britain trade its way out of a real risk of fiscal and economic gloom. He was among those who brought about the nationalisation of strategic industries such as coal and steel.[17]

Amid financial problems from 1948 to 1949, Cripps maintained a high level of social spending on housing, health, and other welfare services, while also maintaining the location of industry policy. Personal incomes and free time continued to rise, as characterised by cricket and football enjoying unprecedented booms, together with the holiday camps, the dance hall, and the cinema.[18] In his last budget as Chancellor (1950), the housebuilding programme was restored to 200,000 per annum (after having previously been reduced due to government austerity measures), income tax was reduced for low-income earners as an overtime incentive,[19] and spending on health, national insurance, and education was increased.[20]

His name once induced an infamous Spoonerism when the BBC announcer McDonald Hobley introduced him as 'Sir Stifford Crapps'.[21]

Personal life

Cripps had suffered for many years from colitis, inflammation of the lower bowel; a condition aggravated by stress. In 1950, his health broke down and he was forced to resign his office in October. He resigned from Parliament the same month, and at the resulting by-election on 30 November he was succeeded as the MP for Bristol South East by Anthony Wedgwood Benn.

Cripps was the sororal nephew of Beatrice Webb and Catherine Courtney. His mother died when he was four years old. His stepmother, Marian Ellis, had a profound influence on him. He was married to Isobel Swithinbank, who became the Honourable Lady Cripps, daughter of Harold William Swithinbank, better known as Dame Isobel Cripps (1891–1979), and had four children

Cripps was a vegetarian, certainly for health reasons and possibly also for ethical reasons. "Cripps suffered from recurring illness which was alleviated by nature cure and a vegetarian diet...".[27] His male-line descendants are in remainder to the barony Parmoor. In 1989, a Blue Plaque was unveiled at 32 Elm Park Gardens, Chelsea to mark the site of Cripps' birth.[28]

Death

Cripps died of cancer while in Zurich, Switzerland. He was cremated at Sihlfeld Crematorium in Zurich. His ashes are buried in the churchyard in Sapperton, Gloucestershire, and his wife is buried beside him.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Schuster, George (1955). "Richard Stafford Cripps 1889–1952". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 11–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0003. JSTOR 769240.
  2. ^ a b Mitchell, Andrew (2002) "Cripps, (Richard) Stafford" in John Ramsden, ed., The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-century British Politics. ISBN 0198601344. p. 176
  3. ^ Peter Clarke; Clive Trebilcock (1997). Understanding Decline: Perceptions and Realities of British Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780521563178.
  4. ^ Edited by Catherine Hurley (2003). Could do Better. Simon & Schuster UK Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0743450256.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Busch, Noel F. (8 March 1948). "Sir Stafford Cripps". Life. p. 134.
  6. ^ a b Keesing's Contemporary Archives, Volume VIII-IX, (April 1952) p. 12158
  7. ^ Cowling, Maurice (2005) The Impact of Hitler. British Politics and British Policies, 1933–1940. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052101929X. p. 215
  8. ^ The Times (15 March 1937), p. 21.
  9. ^ David Marquand, ‘Sir Stafford Cripps’ in Michael Sissons & Philip French, Age of Austerity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 157-175.
  10. ^ Edward Brisch, "From Riga to Rangoon (June-August 1941). A Travelogue" (2018)
  11. ^ Paul Addison (2011). The Road To 1945: British Politics and the Second World War (2nd ed.). pp. 238–39. ISBN 9781446424216.
  12. ^ Addison, Paul (1975), The road to 1945: British politics and the Second World War, Cape, p. 201
  13. ^ Louis, William Roger (2006). Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization. I.B.Tauris. pp. 387–400. ISBN 9781845113476.
  14. ^ Richards, Lee (2007) Sir Stafford Cripps and the German Admiral's Orgy Archived 17 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine, PsyWar.Org
  15. ^ "Venue Cranfield Stafford Cripps Centre".
  16. ^ Gordon, Yefim (2001) Mikoyan-Gurevich MIG-15: The Soviet Union's Long-Lived Korean War Fighter. Midland Press. ISBN 1857801059
  17. ^ Cooke, Colin (1957) The Life of Richard Stafford Cripps
  18. ^ Morgan, Kenneth (1985) Labour in Power, 1945–51. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0192851500
  19. ^ Pelling, Henry (1984) The Labour Governments, 1945–51. Macmillan. ISBN 0333363566
  20. ^ Pritt, Denis Nowell (1963) The Labour Government 1945–51. Lawrence & Wishart
  21. ^ "Thousands of true funny stories about famous people. Anecdotes from Gates to Yeats". Anecdotage.Com. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  22. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "Person Page 23207". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 6 June 2010.[unreliable source]
  23. ^ Hayes, Denis (1949), Challenge of Conscience, p 76
  24. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "Person Page 5378". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 6 June 2010.[unreliable source]
  25. ^ "Sir Tristram Ricketts, Bt". Telegraph. 17 November 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  26. ^ Brozan, Nadine (16 February 2006) "Peggy Appiah, 84, Author Who Bridged Two Cultures, Dies". The New York Times
  27. ^ Twigg, Julia (1981). The Vegetarian Movement in England, 1847–1981: A Study of the Structure of Its Ideology (Ph.D.). London School of Economics. pp. 247, 292.
  28. ^ "English Heritage Blue Plaques scheme". Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  29. ^ "Richard Stafford Cripps (1889–1952) – Find a Grave". findagrave.com. Retrieved 29 November 2013.

Further reading

  • Addison, Paul. The Road To 1945: British Politics and the Second World War (1977) pp 190–210.
  • Clarke, Peter. The Cripps Version: The Life of Sir Stafford Cripps (2002)
  • Burgess, Simon. Stafford Cripps: a political life (1999)
  • Byant, Chris. Stafford Cripps: the first modern chancellor (1997)
  • Clarke, Peter and Richard Toye, "Cripps, Sir (Richard) Stafford (1889–1952)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011 accessed 14 June 2013 doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32630
  • Dell, Edmund. The Chancellors: A History of the Chancellors of the Exchequer, 1945–90 (HarperCollins, 1997) pp 94–134, covers his term as Chancellor.
  • Frame, William. "'Sir Stafford Cripps and His Friends': The Socialist League, the National Government and the Reform of the House of Lords 1931–1935," Parliamentary History (2005) 24#3 pp 316–331
  • Gorodetsky, Gabriel. Stafford Cripps' Mission to Moscow, 1940–42 (1985) 361pp
  • Hanak, Harry. "Sir Stafford Cripps as British Ambassador in Moscow May 1940 to June 1941." English Historical Review 94.370 (1979): 48-70. online
    • Hanak, Harry. "Sir Stafford Cripps as Ambassador in Moscow, June 1941-January 1942." English Historical Review 97.383 (1982): 332-344. online
  • Kitchen, Martin. British Policy Towards the Soviet Union During the Second World War (Springer, 1986).
  • Lytton, Avram. "In the House of Rimmon: British Aid to the Soviet Union, June–September 1941." Journal of Slavic Military Studies 26.4 (2013): 673-704.
  • Moore, R. J. Churchill, Cripps and India (Oxford UP, 1979) chapters 3-5
  • Moore, R. J. "The mystery of the Cripps mission," Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies Volume 11, Issue 3, 1973, pages 195-213 online doi:10.1080/14662047308447190
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. Labour in Power 1945–51 (1984)
  • Owen, Nicholas. "The Cripps mission of 1942: A reinterpretation." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 30.1 (2002): 61-98.
  • Pelling, Henry. The Labour Government 1945–51 (1984)
  • Piirimäe, Kaarel. Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Baltic Question (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2014). pp 57–80 on "The British-Soviet Treaty, 1942." .
  • Robbins, Keith. "Stafford Cripps" in Kevin Jefferys, ed., Labour Forces: From Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown (2002) pp 63–80

Primary sources

  • Cripps, Richard Stafford, and Gabriel Gorodetsky. Stafford Cripps in Moscow, 1940-1942: diaries and papers (Vallentine Mitchell, 2007).
  • British War Cabinet; Sir Stafford Cripps. "Assessment On Soviet German Relations By British War Cabinet 16 July 1941" Cripps' assessment of possible war between Germany and the USSR. online
  • Mansergh, Nicholas, ed. Constitutional Relations between Britain and India: The Transfer of Power, 1942-1947: Vol 1. The Cripps Mission (1970), contains all the key documents.

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Walter Baker
Member of Parliament for Bristol East
1931–1950
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Bristol South East
1950
Succeeded by
Anthony Wedgwood Benn
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir James Melville
Solicitor General for England and Wales
1931
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Inskip
Political offices
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
Leader of the House of Commons
1942
Succeeded by
Anthony Eden
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Lord Privy Seal
1942
Succeeded by
Viscount Cranborne
Preceded by
John Llewellin
Minister of Aircraft Production
1942–1945
Succeeded by
Ernest Brown
Preceded by
Oliver Lyttleton
President of the Board of Trade
1945–1947
Succeeded by
Harold Wilson
New office Minister for Economic Affairs
1947
office abolished
Preceded by
Hugh Dalton
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1947–1950
Succeeded by
Hugh Gaitskell
Academic offices
Preceded by
Edward Evans
Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1942–1945
Succeeded by
Eric Linklater
Party political offices
Preceded by
Frank Wise
Chairman of the Socialist League
1933–1936
Succeeded by
William Mellor
Preceded by
Beatrice Webb
President of the Fabian Society
1951–1952
Succeeded by
G. D. H. Cole
This page was last edited on 12 February 2020, at 19:50
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