To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Mature sporangium of an Absidia mold
Mature sporangium of an Absidia mold
 Moss sporangia
Moss sporangia
 Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf
Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf
 Scanning electron micrograph of fern leptosporangia
Scanning electron micrograph of fern leptosporangia
 Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia
Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia

A sporangium (pl., sporangia[1]) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.[2] It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular. All plants, fungi, and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia can produce spores by mitosis, but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically distinct haploid spores.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    469 757
  • Sporangium Meaning
  • The Sex Lives of Nonvascular Plants: Alternation of Generations - Crash Course Biology #36
  • Water mold sporangium discharge 2 min




Structure containing the spores in fungal species.

Land plants

In mosses, liverworts and hornworts, an unbranched sporophyte produces a single sporangium, which may be quite complex morphologically. Most non-vascular plants, as well as many lycophytes and most ferns, are homosporous (only one kind of spore is produced). Some bryophytes, most lycophytes, and some ferns are heterosporous (two kinds of spores are produced). These plants produce microspores and megaspores, which give rise to gametophytes that are functionally male or female, respectively. In some cases, both kinds of spores are produced in the same sporangium, and may even develop together as part of a spore tetrad. However, in most heterosporous plants there are two kinds of sporangia, termed microsporangia and megasporangia. A few ferns (Salviniaceae and Marsileaceae) and some lycophytes (the genera Selaginella and Isoetes and the extinct lepidodendrids) are heterosporous with two kinds of sporangia, as are all the seed plants.

Sporangia can be terminal (on the tips) or lateral (placed along the side) of stems or associated with leaves. In ferns, sporangia are typically found on the abaxial surface (underside) of the leaf and are densely aggregated into clusters called sori. Sori may be covered by a structure called an indusium. Some ferns have their sporangia scattered along reduced leaf segments or along (or just in from) the margin of the leaf.

Lycophytes, in contrast, bear their sporangia on the adaxial surface (the upper side) of leaves or laterally on stems. Leaves that bear sporangia are called sporophylls. If the plant is heterosporous, the sporangia-bearing leaves are distinguished as either microsporophylls or megasporophylls. In seed plants, sporangia are typically located within strobili or flowers.

Cycads form their microsporangia on microsporophylls which are aggregated into strobili. Megasporangia are formed within ovules, which are borne on megasporophylls, which are aggregated into strobili on separate plants (all cycads are dioecious). Conifers typically bear their microsporangia on microsporophylls aggregated into papery pollen strobili, and the ovules, are located on modified stem axes forming compound ovuliferous cone scales. Flowering plants contain microsporangia in the anthers of stamens (typically four microsporangia per anther) and megasporangia inside ovules inside ovaries. In all seed plants, spores are produced by meiosis and develop into gametophytes while still inside the sporangium. The microspores become microgametophytes (pollen). The megaspores become megagametophytes (embryo sacs).

Eusporangia and leptosporangia

Categorized based on developmental sequence, eusporangia and leptosporangia are differentiated in the vascular plants.

  • In a leptosporangium, found only in ferns, development involves a single initial cell that becomes the stalk, wall, and spores within the sporangium. There are around 64 spores in a leptosporangium.
  • In a eusporangium, characteristic of all other vascular plants and some primitive ferns, the initials are in a layer (i.e., more than one). A eusporangium is larger (hence contain more spores), and its wall is multi-layered. Although the wall may be stretched and damaged, resulting in only one cell-layer remaining.


A cluster of sporangia that have become fused in development is called a synangium. This structure is most prominent in Psilotum and Marattiaceae such as Christensenia, Danaea and Marattia.

Internal structures

A columella (pl. columellae) is a sterile (non-reproductive) structure that extends into and supports the sporangium. In fungi, the columella, which may be branched or unbranched, may be of fungal or host origin. Secotium species have a simple, unbranched columella, while in Gymnoglossum species, the columella is branched. In some Geastrum species, the columella appears as an extension of the stalk into the spore mass (gleba).[3]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Rost, Barbour, Stocking, Murphy, 2006Plant Biology, 2nd EditionThompson Brooks/Cole
  3. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. 
This page was last edited on 24 September 2017, at 10:14.
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.