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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A spirit is a supernatural being, often, but not exclusively, a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.[1] The concepts of a person's spirit and soul, often also overlap, as both are either contrasted with or given ontological priority over the body and both are believed to survive bodily death in some religions,[2] and "spirit" can also have the sense of "ghost", i.e. a manifestation of the spirit of a deceased person. In English Bibles, "the Spirit" (with a capital "S"), specifically denotes the Holy Spirit.

Spirit is often used metaphysically to refer to the consciousness or personality.

Historically, it was also used to refer to a "subtle" as opposed to "gross" material substance, as in the famous last paragraph of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica.[3]

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  • ✪ Spirit Riding Free Game - Crocodile Hiding with Lucky, Pru, Abigail and Horses - Horse Playset

Transcription

Lucky, Pru, Abigail from Spirit Riding Free There's a crocodile in this room with the horses and we need your help to find him. Spirit! There you are. Have you seen a silly crocodile hiding anywhere? Lucky, stay here with Pru and Abigail while Spirit and the kids help me find that crocodile. Come on Spirit! Baby Jack Jack! Uh excuse me! Have any of you seen baby Jack Jack anywhere? He's wearing a red suit just like me and he has super powers. Spirit, let's help Mr. Incredible find baby Jack Jack! Maybe he's hiding in the ball pit. Where could baby Jack Jack be hiding? There he is! He's hiding between the red and blue balls! Thank you for finding my baby Jack Jack! You're welcome Mr. Incredible! Spirit, did you find something else? You found the crocodile! You get out of there you silly green crocodile! He's gone! Let's keep looking for that crocodile Spirit! Look! It's the PJ Masks! Gekko, Owlette, Catboy, have you seen a crocodile hiding around here? Nope. They haven't seen him but they know where he might be hiding. Let's play a game called What's Different! Here are five Mickey Mouse toys. One Two Three Four Five Can you tell which toy is different? It's Mickey number four because he has squares on his pants. But the other Mickeys have circles. Here are five Princess Amber toys from Sofia The First. One Two Three Four Five Can you tell which one is different? It's princess number three because all of the other princesses have flowers on their dresses but princess number three does not. Oh look! It's the crocodile! But which crocodile is the real crocodile? This crocodile is different because he has a smile on his face. Ha! We found you Mr. Crocodile! He's gone! Come on! Let's keep looking for that crocodile! Spirit look! It's Peppa Pig and Mommy Pig! Peppa Pig! Have you seen a crocodile around here? Spirit listen! There's a sound coming from inside that box. Kids, can you guess what's inside the box? That is an airplane! Peppa Pig! What else is inside the surprise box? Spirit, was that you? No? Then whose inside the surprise box? It's Boomerang, Abigail's horse. Silly Boomerang! Where's Abigail? Wait! You're not really a horse! Baby Jack Jack you silly baby. Go back to your daddy! I think there's one more thing inside the surprise box! What could it be? It's the crocodile! We found you Mr. Crocodile. Now you go home and be with your family! Goodbye Mr. Crocodile! Good job Spirit! You helped me and the kids find that silly crocodile! Lucky, Pru, Abigail, we're back and the crocodile is gone! Thank you for helping us Spirit! Keep riding free! Thank you so much for playing with us today! If you would like to play more of our games, click on one of these videos now to play more! Or subscribe to Just For Kids! See you next time!

Contents

Etymology

The English word "spirit" comes from the Latin spiritus,but also "spirit, soul, courage, vigor", ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European *(s)peis. It is distinguished from Latin anima, "soul" (which nonetheless also derives from an Indo-European root meaning "to breathe", earliest form *h2enh1-).[4] In Greek, this distinction exists between pneuma (πνεῦμα), "breath, motile air, spirit," and psykhē (ψυχή), "soul"[1] (even though the latter term, ψῡχή = psykhē/psūkhē, is also from an Indo-European root meaning "to breathe": *bhes-, zero grade *bhs- devoicing in proto-Greek to *phs-, resulting in historical-period Greek ps- in psūkhein, "to breathe", whence psūkhē, "spirit", "soul").[5]

The word "spirit" came into Middle English via Old French. The distinction between soul and spirit also developed in the Abrahamic religions: Arabic nafs (نفس) opposite rūħ (روح); Hebrew neshama (נְשָׁמָה nəšâmâh) or nephesh נֶ֫פֶשׁ nép̄eš (in Hebrew neshama comes from the root NŠM or "breath") opposite ruach (רוּחַ rúaħ). (Note, however, that in Semitic just as in Indo-European, this dichotomy has not always been as neat historically as it has come to be taken over a long period of development: Both נֶ֫פֶשׁ (root נפשׁ) and רוּחַ (root רוח), as well as cognate words in various Semitic languages, including Arabic, also preserve meanings involving misc. air phenomena: "breath", "wind", and even "odour").[6][7][8]

Spiritual and metaphysical usage

In spiritual and metaphysical terms, "spirit" has acquired a number of meanings:

The connection between spirit and life is one of those problems involving factors of such complexity that we have to be on our guard lest we ourselves get caught in the net of words in which we seek to ensnare these great enigmas. For how can we bring into the orbit of our thought those limitless complexities of life which we call "Spirit" or "Life" unless we clothe them in verbal concepts, themselves mere counters of the intellect? The mistrust of verbal concepts, inconvenient as it is, nevertheless seems to me to be very much in place in speaking of fundamentals. "Spirit" and "Life" are familiar enough words to us, very old acquaintances in fact, pawns that for thousands of years have been pushed back and forth on the thinker's chessboard. The problem must have begun in the grey dawn of time, when someone made the bewildering discovery that the living breath which left the body of the dying man in the last death-rattle meant more than just air in motion. It can scarcely be an accident onomatopoeic words like ruach (Hebrew), ruch (Arabic), roho (Swahili) mean ‘spirit’ no less clearly than πνεύμα (pneuma, Greek) and spiritus (Latin).[13]

Related concepts

Similar concepts in other languages include Greek pneuma and Sanskrit akasha / atman[1] (see also prana). Some languages use a word for spirit often closely related (if not synonymous) to mind. Examples include the German Geist (related to the English word ghost) or the French l'esprit. English versions of the Bible most commonly translate the Hebrew word ruach (רוח; wind) as "the spirit", whose essence is divine.[15]

Alternatively, Hebrew texts commonly use the word nephesh. Kabbalists regard nephesh as one of the five parts of the Jewish soul, where nephesh (animal) refers to the physical being and its animal instincts. Similarly, Scandinavian, Baltic, and Slavic languages, as well as Chinese (气 qi), use the words for breath to express concepts similar to "the spirit".[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d François 2009, p.187-197.
  2. ^ OED "spirit 2.a.: The soul of a person, as commended to God, or passing out of the body, in the moment of death."
  3. ^ Burtt, Edwin A. (2003). Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. p. 275. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. ^ anə-, from *ə2enə1-. Watkins, Calvert. 2000. The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, second edition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co., p.4. Also available online. (NB: Watkins uses ə1, ə2, ə3 as fully equivalent variants for h1, h2, h3, respectively, for the notation of Proto-Indo-European laryngeal segments.)
  5. ^ bhes-2. Watkins, Calvert. 2000. The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, second edition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co., 2000, p.11. Also available online
  6. ^ Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1999). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed.) (711). Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill.
  7. ^ Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (2000). Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (electronic ed.) (659). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems. (N.B. Corresponds closely to printed editions.)
  8. ^ Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (2000). Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (electronic ed.) (924ff.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems. (N.B. Corresponds closely to printed editions.)
  9. ^ "Human Nature and the Purpose of Existence".
  10. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 131:7
  11. ^ Kalchuri, Bhau (1986). Meher Prabhu [Lord Meher]. Eighteen. Manifestation, Inc. p. 5937.
  12. ^ Eddy, Mary Baker (1875). "Glossary". Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures (txt)|format= requires |url= (help). p. 587. Retrieved 2009-03-11. GOD — The great I AM; the all-knowing, all-seeing, all-acting, all-wise, all-loving, and eternal; Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love; all substance; intelligence.
  13. ^ Jung, C. G. (1960). "Spirit and Life". In Hull, R. F. C. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. XX. 8. New York, NY: Pantheon Books for Bollinger. pp. 319–320. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  14. ^ Hyslop, James Hervey (1919). Contact with the Other World (First ed.). New York, NY: The Century Co. p. 11. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  15. ^ "Ruach: Spirit or Wind or ???". BiblicalHeritage.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015.

Further reading

External links

  • The dictionary definition of spirit at Wiktionary
  • Quotations related to Spirit at Wikiquote
  • ASMR
This page was last edited on 20 February 2019, at 19:31
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