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Spellbound (1945 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spellbound
Spellbound original.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byAlfred Hitchcock
Produced byDavid O. Selznick
Screenplay byBen Hecht
Angus MacPhail (adaptation)
Based onThe House of Dr. Edwardes by
Hilary Saint George Saunders
Francis Beeding
StarringIngrid Bergman
Gregory Peck
Michael Chekhov
Music byMiklós Rózsa
CinematographyGeorge Barnes
Edited byHal C. Kern
Production
companies
Distributed byUnited Artists
Release date
  • October 31, 1945 (1945-10-31) (New York City)[1]
  • December 28, 1945 (1945-12-28) (US)
Running time
111 minutes[2]
CountryUnited States
BudgetUS$1.5 million[3][4]
Box officeUS$6.4 million[5]

Spellbound is a 1945 American psychological mystery thriller film noir directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It tells the story of the new head of a mental asylum who turns out not to be what he claims. The film stars Ingrid Bergman, Gregory Peck, Michael Chekhov and Leo G. Carroll. It is an adaptation by Angus MacPhail and Ben Hecht of the 1927 novel The House of Dr. Edwardes by Hilary Saint George Saunders and John Palmer.

Plot

Dr. Constance Petersen is a psychoanalyst at Green Manors, a therapeutic community mental hospital in Vermont. She is perceived by the other doctors as detached and emotionless. The director of the hospital, Dr. Murchison, is being forced into retirement, shortly after returning from an absence due to nervous exhaustion. His replacement is Dr. Anthony Edwardes, who turns out to be surprisingly young. Petersen is immediately smitten with Edwardes.

They fall in love. One day, while they are kissing, however, Petersen notices that this Edwardes has a peculiar phobia about sets of parallel lines against a white background. She compares Edwardes' signature on a letter to her with an autographed copy of one of his books, realizing that they do not match and he is an impostor. He confides to her that he has killed the real Edwardes and taken his place. He suffers from amnesia and does not know who he is. Petersen believes he is innocent and that he is suffering from a guilt complex. He disappears overnight, leaving a note for her. At the same time, it becomes public knowledge that the supposed Edwardes is an impostor, and that the real Edwardes is missing and may have been killed.

Petersen manages to track him down to a New York City hotel, where he is living under the pseudonym John Brown. Despite his insistence she leave, Petersen insists on psychoanalyzing him to break through his amnesia and uncovering his former memories. Pursued by the police through Grand Central Terminal, the two travel by train to Rochester, New York, where they stay with Dr. Alexander Brulov, Petersen's former mentor.

The two doctors analyze a dream that Brown had. He is playing cards in a mysterious club when a scantily-clad woman resembling Petersen starts kissing everybody there. His card partner, an older man, is accused of cheating and threatened by the club's masked proprietor. The scene changes to the older man standing on the precipice of a sloped roof; he falls off, and the proprietor is found to be standing behind a chimney and dropping a wheel he held in his hands. Brown's dream concludes with him being chased down a hill by a great pair of wings.

Petersen and Brulov conclude that Brown's phobia of dark lines on white is based on ski tracks in the snow, the older man in his dream is the real Edwardes, and he met his demise in a skiing accident. They use the detail of the wings to deduce that it must have been the Gabriel Valley ski lodge. Brown and Petersen travel there, planning on recreating the circumstances of Edwardes' death, despite fears that Brown may impulsively kill again in the same situation if he really were Edwardes' murderer.

A still from Spellbound
A still from Spellbound

As they go down the slope, Brown remembers details of his former life: he has a guilt complex, rooted in a childhood accident where he killed his brother by knocking him onto a spiked fence. He also recalls that Edwardes fell off the cliff in front of them, and is able to stop himself and Petersen just in time. He recounts his memories to Petersen back in the ski lodge, most notably that his real name John Ballantyne. The police arrive, reveal that they found Edwardes' body where Ballantyne claimed it would be, but with a bullet wound in his back. Ballantyne is arrested, tried, and convicted of murder.

A heartbroken Petersen returns to her position at the hospital, where Murchison is once again the director. Murchison lets slip that he knew Edwardes slightly and did not like him, contradicting his earlier statement that they had never met. This inspires Petersen to re-examine her notes of Ballantyne's dream: the masked proprietor represents Murchison, the wheel represents a revolver, and Murchison therefore murdered Edwardes and left the gun on the ski slope.

Petersen confronts Murchison in his office to prove her hunch; she relates Ballantyne's dream to Murchison, getting him to admit that the masked proprietor likely represents himself. She presents her accusation, and Murchison replies that she got every detail right but one: he still has the revolver, and draws it on her. Petersen reasons with Murchison as she walks out of his office to phone the police, pointing out that while he could plea insanity and get a lesser charge for Edwardes' murder, shooting her would guarantee his execution. She leaves the office, and Murchison turns the gun on himself.

The final scene shows Petersen and Ballantyne, now married, receiving well-wishes from Dr. Brulov before departing on their honeymoon at Grand Central Terminal.

Cast

Hitchcock's cameo

Hitchcock's cameo appearance is a signature occurrence in almost all of his films. In Spellbound, he can be seen coming out of an elevator at the Empire State Hotel, carrying a violin case and smoking a cigarette, at around the 40-minute-mark in the film. The trailer for Spellbound's original theatrical release in America made a great deal of fuss over this cameo of Hitchcock's, showing the footage twice and even freeze-framing Hitchcock's brief appearance while a breathless narrator informs us that this ordinary-looking man is, in fact, Hitchcock himself.[citation needed]

Production

Spellbound was made over contract disagreements between Alfred Hitchcock and producer David O. Selznick. Hitchcock's contract with Selznick began in March 1939, but only resulted in three films, Spellbound, Rebecca (1940) and The Paradine Case (1947). (Notorious was sold to RKO in mid-production.) Selznick wanted Hitchcock to make a movie based upon Selznick's own positive experience with psychoanalysis. Selznick even brought in his therapist, May Romm, MD, who was credited in the film as a technical adviser. Dr. Romm and Hitchcock clashed frequently.[6]

Further contention was caused by the hiring of surrealist artist Salvador Dalí to conceive certain scenes in the film's key dream sequence. However, the sequence conceived and designed by Dalí and Hitchcock, once translated to film, proved to be too lengthy and complicated for Selznick, so the vast majority of what had been filmed ultimately was edited out. Two minutes of the dream sequence appear in the final film, but according to Ingrid Bergman, the original had been twenty minutes long.[7]

The cut footage apparently is now considered a lost footage, although some production stills have survived in the Selznick archives. Eventually, Selznick hired William Cameron Menzies, who had worked on Gone With the Wind, to oversee the set designs and direct the sequence. Hitchcock himself had very little to do with its actual filming.[7]

Spellbound was shot in black and white, except for two frames of bright red at the conclusion, when Dr. Murchison's gun is fired into the camera. This detail was deleted in most 16mm and video formats but was restored for the film's DVD release and airings on Turner Classic Movies.

Parts of the film were shot in Alta, Utah.[8]:287

Casting

Selznick originally wanted Joseph Cotten, Dorothy McGuire, and Paul Lukas to play the roles ultimately portrayed by Peck, Bergman, and Chekhov, respectively.[9][10] Greta Garbo was considered for the role of Dr. Constance Petersen.[10] Hitchcock wanted Joseph Cotten to portray Dr. Murchison.[11] Selznick also wanted Jennifer Jones to portray Dr. Petersen but Hitchcock objected.[12][13]

Bergman and Peck's affair

Both Bergman and Peck were married to others at the time of production—Bergman to Petter Aron Lindström and Peck to Greta Kukkonen—but they had a brief affair during filming.[14] Their secret relationship became public knowledge when Peck confessed to Brad Darrach of People in an interview in 1987, five years after Bergman's death. "All I can say is that I had a fiery kinda love for her, and I think that’s where I ought to stop… I was young. She was young. We were involved for weeks in close and intense work."[15][16][17]

Music

The film features an orchestral score by Miklós Rózsa that pioneered the use of the theremin, performed by Dr. Samuel Hoffmann. Selznick originally wanted Bernard Herrmann, but when Herrmann became unavailable, Rózsa was hired and eventually won the Oscar for his score.[7] Although Rózsa considered Spellbound to contain some of his best work, he said "Alfred Hitchcock didn't like the music — said it got in the way of his direction. I haven't seen him since."[18] During the film's protracted post-production, considerable disagreement arose about the music, exacerbated by a lack of communication between producer, director, and composer. Rózsa had scored another film, The Lost Weekend, before Spellbound was released and had used the theremin in that score as well. This led to allegations that he had recycled music from Selznick's film in the Paramount production. Meanwhile, Selznick's assistant tampered with the Spellbound scoring by replacing some of Rózsa's material with earlier music by Franz Waxman and Roy Webb. The tangled history of the scoring process has been explored by Jack Sullivan (Hitchcock's Music, 2006) and especially Nathan Platte (Making Music in Selznick's Hollywood, 2018), both of which qualify and sometimes contradict the early accounts of the participants.

Rózsa's music achieved great popularity outside the film. Selznick's innovative use of promotional recordings for radio broadcast made the themes familiar and eventually inspired Rózsa to prepare a full-scale Spellbound Concerto for piano, theremin, and orchestra. This work became a popular staple in the movie concerto genre and has received multiple recordings. Intrada Records made the first recording of the film's complete score with the Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra. This album also included music not heard in the finished film.[19]

Intrada Records album
No.TitleLength
1."Main Title; Foreword"3:13
2."Green Manors"0:51
3."First Meeting"2:11
4."The Picnic"2:01
5."The Awakening; Love Scene; The Dressing Gown; The Imposter – Parts 1 & 2; The Cigarette Case"16:49
6."The Letter"0:30
7."The Empire Hotel"1:22
8."The Burned Hand – Parts 1 & 2"2:29
9."The Penn Station"2:44
10."Railway Carriage"1:16
11."Honeymoon at Brulov's; The White Coverlet; The Razor – Parts 1 & 2; Constance Is Afraid"10:03
12."Constance and Brulov – Parts 1 & 2"4:15
13."Gambling Dream; Mad Proprietors Dream; Roof-Top Dreams"2:37
14."Dream Interpretation – Parts 1 & 2; The Decision"6:10
15."Train to Gabriel Valley"1:23
16."Ski Run; Mountain Lodge"5:51
17."Defeat"3:15
18."Contance's Discovery"2:04
19."The Revolver"3:05
20."The End"0:59
21."End Title – Short"0:24

Production credits

The production credits on the film were as follows:

Reception

Newsweek's review evaluated the film as "a superior and suspenseful melodrama;"[20] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote that the story was "a rather obvious and often-told tale ... but the manner and quality of its telling is extraordinarily fine ... the firm texture of the narration, the flow of continuity and dialogue, the shock of the unexpected, the scope of image—all are happily here."[21] Variety wrote that Bergman gave a "beautiful characterization" and that Peck "handles the suspense scenes with great skill and has one of his finest screen roles to date."[22] Harrison's Reports wrote: "Very good! ... The performances of the entire cast are superior, and throughout the action an overtone of suspense and terror, tinged with touches of deep human interest and appealing romance, is sustained."[23] John McCarten of The New Yorker wrote that "when the film stops trying to be esoteric and abandons arcane mumbling for good, rousing melodrama, it moves along in the manner to which Hitchcock has accustomed us ... Fortunately, the English expert hasn't forgotten any of his tricks. He still has a nice regard for supplementary characters, and he uses everything from train whistles to grand orchestral crescendos to maintain excitement at a shrill pitch ... All in all, you'd better see this one."[24]

Spellbound placed fifth on Film Daily's annual poll of 559 critics across the United States naming the best films of the year.[25]

After the film's release, it broke every record in London, in both famous theaters, Pavilion and Tivoli Strand, for a single day, week, month, holiday and Sundays.[26]

It earned rentals of $4,975,000 in North America.[27][28]

Accolades

Award Category Subject Result
Academy Awards Best Picture David O. Selznick Nominated
Best Director Alfred Hitchcock Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Michael Chekhov Nominated
Best Cinematography George Barnes Nominated
Best Original Score Miklós Rózsa Won
Best Visual Effects Jack Cosgrove Nominated[29]
NYFCC Award Best Actress Ingrid Bergman Won
Venice Film Festival Grand International Award Alfred Hitchcock Nominated

Radio adaptations

Spellbound was performed as a one-hour radio adaptation on Lux Radio Theatre on March 8, 1948.[30] On January 25, 1951 Screen Directors Playhouse also did a one-hour adaptation.[31] Both versions starred Joseph Cotten.

Legacy

Rózsa's score inspired Jerry Goldsmith to become a film composer.[32][33]

In the comedy film Lovers and Other Strangers (1970), the character Johnny (Harry Guardino) is more interested in watching Spellbound on television than his own wife Wilma (Anne Meara).[34]

Spellbound was parodied in the Mel Brooks film High Anxiety (1977).

Home media

The most notable release is the Criterion Collection release on DVD. The original release is now out of print. The film was rereleased by MGM on Blu-ray in 2012.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Hanson, Patricia King, ed. (1999). The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1941–1950. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 2293. ISBN 0-520-21521-4.
  2. ^ "SPELLBOUND (A)". British Board of Film Classification. 1946-01-30. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
  3. ^ "Indies $70,000,000 Pix Output". Variety: 3. 3 November 1944. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  4. ^ Truffaut 1983, p. 169.
  5. ^ David Thomson, Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick, Abacus, 1993 p 445
  6. ^ Lyttelton, Oliver (31 October 2012). "5 Things You May Not Know About Alfred Hitchcock's 'Spellbound'". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Spoto, Donald (1999). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Da Capo. p. 277. ISBN 0-306-80932-X.
  8. ^ D'Arc, James V. (2010). When Hollywood came to town: A history of moviemaking in Utah (1st ed.). Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith. ISBN 9781423605874.
  9. ^ Haney, Lynn (2009). Gregory Peck: A Charmed Life. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780786737819.page 116
  10. ^ a b Lyttleton, Oliver (31 October 2012). "5 Things You May Not Know About Alfred Hitchcock's 'Spellbound'". IndieWire. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  11. ^ Millington, Richard; Freedman, Jonathan (1999). Hitchcock's America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195353310. page 25
  12. ^ Green, Paul (2011). Jennifer Jones: The Life and Films. McFarland. ISBN 9780786485833.page 224
  13. ^ Fishgall, Gary (2002). Gregory Peck: A Biography. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684852904.page 96
  14. ^ Haney, Lynn (2009). Gregory Peck: A Charmed Life. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780786737819.
  15. ^ Fishgall, Gary (2002). Gregory Peck: A Biography. Simon and Schuster. p. 98. ISBN 9780684852904. ingrid bergman gregory peck affair.page 98
  16. ^ Smit, David (2012). Ingrid Bergman: The Life, Career and Public Image. ISBN 9780786472260.page 30
  17. ^ Darrach, Brad (15 June 1987). "Gregory Peck". People. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Miklós Rózsa – Biography". Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  19. ^ "Spellbound". Intrada Records. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  20. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pg. 379. quoting Newsweek
  21. ^ Crowther, Bosley (November 2, 1945). "Movie Review – Spellbound". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  22. ^ "Film Reviews". Variety. New York: Variety, Inc.: 17 October 31, 1945.
  23. ^ "Harrison's Reports". November 3, 1945: 175. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ McCarten, John (November 3, 1945). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker. New York: F-R Publishing Corp.: 69–70.
  25. ^ "'Lost Weekend' Tops '10 Best'". Film Daily. New York: Wid's Films and Film Folk, Inc.: 1 January 6, 1947.
  26. ^ "'Spellbound' Breaks Admission Records". The Miami News. 30 June 1946.
  27. ^ "All-Time Top Grossers", Variety, 8 January 1964 p 69
  28. ^ "60 Top Grossers of 1946", Variety 8 January 1947 p8
  29. ^ 1946 Academy Award nominations and winners for films released in 1945 at Oscar.org
  30. ^ "Monday Selections". Toledo Blade (Ohio). 1948-03-08. p. 4 (Peach Section). Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  31. ^ "USO Amateur Show to Have Fanciest Cast in History". Youngstown Vindicator (Ohio). 1951-01-25. p. 31. Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  32. ^ Miller, Frank. "Spellbound (1945) Pop Culture 101 – SPELLBOUND". Turner Classic Movies.
  33. ^ Jerry Goldsmith interview on YouTube
  34. ^ Merrill, Jane; Filstrup, Chris (2011). The Wedding Night: A Popular History: A Popular History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313392115. page 240

Works cited

Biographies

External links

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