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List of specialized municipalities in Alberta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution of Alberta's five specialized municipalities and two urban service areas
Distribution of Alberta's five specialized municipalities and two urban service areas

A specialized municipality is a type of municipal status used in the Canadian province of Alberta. Alberta's specialized municipalities are unique local governments formed without the creation of special legislation.[1] They typically allow for the coexistence of urban and rural areas within the jurisdiction of a single municipal government.[2]

Specialized municipalities may be formed under the authority of Section 83 of the Municipal Government Act (MGA) under one of three of the following scenarios:

  • where the Minister of Alberta Municipal Affairs (AMA) is satisfied that the other incorporated statuses under the MGA do not meet the needs of the proposed municipality's residents;
  • to form a local government that, in the opinion of the Minister of AMA, will provide for the orderly development of the municipality in a similar fashion to the other incorporated statuses within the MGA, including other previously incorporated specialized municipalities;
  • for any other circumstances that are deemed appropriate by the Minister of AMA.[3]

Applications for specialized municipality status are approved via orders in council made by the Lieutenant Governor in Council under recommendation from the Minister of AMA.[3]

Alberta has five specialized municipalities that had a cumulative population of 178,598 and an average population of 35,720 in the 2011 Census.[4] Alberta's largest and smallest specialized municipalities are the Strathcona County and the Municipality of Jasper with populations of 92,490 and 4,051 respectively.[4]

44 elected officials (four mayors, one reeve and 39 councillors) provide specialized municipality governance throughout the province.[5]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Senior Loeb Scholar Lecture: Kenneth Frampton, “Megaform as Urban Landscape”
  • ✪ 1990 Banff National Army Cadet Camp Freedom of the City Parade pt 2
  • ✪ University of Toronto: President Meric Gertler at the Toronto Region Board of Trade
  • ✪ Doctoral Program Conference: #decoding, Session 1, Unsettling
  • ✪ "Our Environmental Destiny" - Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.


Good evening. I'm just going to make a few brief remarks. Michael Hayes is really the person who will be introducing Ken Frampton. So, according to him, I'm the warm up act. So I would be just like literally a couple of minutes to welcome you all. It's really wonderful to see everyone here. And it's, of course, incredible and a very happy occasion to be able to welcome both Ken and Silvia. This week, Ken Frampton and Silvia Kolbowski are the Senior Loeb Visiting Loeb Fellows here at the GSD. As you know, it's been a few years since we established the Senior Loeb program. And during this time, we've had people, including Ulrich Beck, Arjun Appadurai, Richard Sennett, and Saskia Sasses, David Harvey, Catherine Boo, Tod Williams and Billy Tsien, Richard and Ruthie Rogers, included in this program. And it's been a really fantastic opportunity for the school to have scholars come and spend a week and participate in different events. So getting both Ken and Silvia is a special treat. While they're here they're both going to participate in a number of events. In fact, Silvia will give a talk tomorrow at 1 o'clock, which will be in the Gropius room. This talk is entitled "Monument Which Is Not One." And both John Peterson, who has been a co-host during this time together with Michael Hayes, Silvia Benedito, and with great support from Sally Young, they're all going to be participating. But tomorrow, I think, John and Silvia Benedito will also engage Silvia Kolbowski in discussion after her talk in the Gropius room L08. Also there will be other discussions and collaborations with the art design and public domain cohorts here at the GSD, as well as meetings that Ken will have on Thursday with the third semester corps with Eric Haller and others. And probably, an event also with John May and the [inaudible] students from the history and philosophy of design, as well as other sessions, I think, that will be held. And of course, the Loeb's are at the center stage for this. Some of them are here sitting behind Ken. And they will be the beneficiaries of conversations, dinners, and things like that that will take place also during the week. So please welcome Professor Michael Hayes, who will introduce our speaker tonight. Thank you. [applause] Thanks, Moshem. This is a real honor. And in some ways it's very easy, at least part of it, because I've been following Kenneth Frampton's work, not as long as I can remember but as long as I can remember well. And it was very important, very formative for a lot of us of my generation. It all seemed so clear with hindsight. The journal Oppositions began publication in 1973. And in the first few issues each of its editors issued a brief position-taking proposal that would be for both their interpretive agenda but also for design practices that each of them would support in subsequent issues. So for example, there were only three main editors then. Mario Gandelsonas offered. It was kind of an amazing essay. Mario's too offered a kind of semiotic triangle of the three dominant design trends at that moment. One of the first so-called semiotic analyses of architecture. Peter Eisenman followed characteristically with a corrective to Mario of how to understand his way. Singular, right. But before that, in actually the first editorial, Kenneth had offered a reading, the now famous reading of Heidegger's building, dwelling, thinking essay. And it was that essay that, again, with hindsight, we now know inaugurated a career along with just a few others, Alan Calhoun, Mario, a few others, defined what we still call contemporary theory, contemporary architecture theory. And for that, we thank him. Actually, I thank him because, in fact, I wouldn't get a paycheck had he not written that essay. I'm the professor of architecture theory. The point is to claim for him that inaugural moment. Now it was a decade later, in this amazing collection by Hal Foster, the anti aesthetic, this was where Craig Owens published "Feminism and Postmodernism." It was the first feminist theoretical critiques. Frederick Jameson published the first version of what became the famous postmodernism essay. And Kenneth published what many regarded for a very long time as his masterwork, an essay entitled "Towards a Critical Regionalism, Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance." Kenneth called critical regionalism a category oriented towards certain common features that were already in place. That is to say, it was supposed to be a descriptive essay, or that was the claim. But at the same time, in practice and influence, critical regionalism was very much an aesthetic if not an outright movement, which is to say it had a dimension that was not only descriptive but courageously prescriptive. And I emphasized that because since that essay no theorist of subsequent generations, my own included, have really been so prescriptive as that essay turned out to be. I find that very interesting. It was like the very modernist avant-garde movements that Kenneth presumably was turning against. The essay was explicitly-- this is not my word, it's Kenneth's-- "rear guard." it was deliberately retrogressive but future oriented. And that dialectic, for me, is an important one. I think it might come back a little bit in the discussion tonight. That is, it sought to be descriptive of features of certain, what he regarded as authentic works of architecture as they already existed. But then went on to suggest, based on those parameters, for the production of future work. And this to me as was the remarkable critical method. And it's something that many of us, I would say most of us, have attempted again and again ever since. But then by the 1990s, and I would say probably for most of the students here, the idea of an architecture of resistance came finally-- and in some ways, the success of the essay in terms of its influence on practice was also, in some way, began a kind of flattening. As it got more popular it also got more flattened. The idea of an architecture of resistance came to be regarded not only as old fashioned, this is 1990, sort of not enough. It was too anti-capitalist. It was too leftist. But more seriously, an architecture of resistance came to be regarded as impossible. That the desire for resistance was regarded as just a symptom. No longer it could be a prescription, it was just a symptom that reflected the pathos of a moment in which it seemed we would no longer be able to come up with alternative practices, progressive practices, practices of resistance. So all of this, and this is coming now for what, to me, was the crux, as I was thinking about tonight. All this was in the back of my mind when Black in Design Conference was launched just a couple of weeks ago. Black in Design announced its themes for this year, designing resistance, building coalitions. That really struck me. I immediately thought of the essay. I wonder if the organizers or the people who came up with the conference knew about the essay. What I saw in Black in Design-- I'm still watching the videotapes-- it was an amazing-- in the face of the situation we're in, the enormous struggle we're in, there was an optimism and a desire to hope in the Black in Design Conference that, for me, given the legacy of a kind of critical negative thinking, has put Kenneth's essay in a very different light. Kenneth taught us ways to think in architecture of resistance. But it occurred to me, as I put these two instances together, that Kenneth also taught us something that we didn't recognize at that moment that maybe we're recognizing now. That architecture's relation to the world must not only be resistant, subversive, adversarial, although, at moments it has to be that too. But architecture is actually quite generous. It can also amplify, replenish our desire to get things right, amplify the attempt to design in an actively liberatory and transformational way. And that's a part of that early essay that I think we weren't cognizant of. We couldn't see it that way at the time. Design can be quite generous. It offers a more capacious vision of our world that might be able to do better justice to what I think is the enthusiasm and the energies that actually bring our students here in the first place to architecture and design. And for that, we thank Kenneth. Welcome. [applause] Thank you. Amazing. I want to thank a few people. Of course, [inaudible] Dean Mostafavi, who invited jointly Silvia Kolbowski and myself to be Senior Loeb Fellows. And then I should also think John Peterson and Sally Young, who are inseparable from the Loeb Fellowship, and who organized our stay here, and all of the logistics, et cetera, and welcomed us this afternoon. And finally, I would like to, of course, thank Michael, an old colleague, for his very, what can I say? rich presentation of my past sins. And also this challenge to address this evening the idea that architecture can be transformational and liberative as well as resistant. And I will try and honor this angle, so to speak. Yes, well, I'm well aware that here at the GSD I am on hallowed ground in more ways than one. For this was the cradle of urban design, I think. [inaudible] Jose Luis Sert. And it's also, in a sense, the birthplace of landscape architecture. If I'm not mistaken, the first degree in landscape architecture in the States was inaugurated here by Frederick Law Olmsted. More recently, it's also been the cradle of landscape urbanism. And by virtue of the work of Charles Waldheim, conceived, I think, as a mediatory ecological strategy, which has been variously pursued in the States and elsewhere since, I suppose, the mid-'90s. As it's fairly well known, this last has its ultimate origin, I believe, in the teachings of Ian McHarg in the University of Pennsylvania. Waldheim, having been, if I recall correctly, the pupil of James Corner. And Corner, in his turn, having been the pupil of [inaudible] My theme this evening, "Megaform as Urban Landscape" has something of its origin half a century ago when my initial experience, for the first time, I think, of the urbanized region of the scale of the Boston, Washington corridor was impressed upon my mind by actually taking a helicopter from Newark Airport at 5:00 on a summer's evening, or early fall evening, and back to Kennedy Airport to go fly back to London. And I'd never seen so much electrical power-- this is mid-'60s-- or gasoline burning before my eyes as one of those sublime panoramas that you are never likely to forget. There are two things, actually, that coincided at this time. One was this experience of the urbanized region. And the other was Hannah Arendt's book, The Human Condition, which first appeared in '58, 1958, and for which I will, I think, never really recover in terms of the way she influenced my total attitude to architecture and to life in general, I think. Where the first, the urbanized region, made me aware of the process of continuous, never-ending urbanization, the continual assembly of totally unrelated freestanding objects. The other introduced me to the provocative phrase, "the space of human appearance," with all the political and cultural connotations that this implies. And thus, I first became preoccupied with something that has haunted me ever since. Namely, that by what means, both as a society and as a profession, where may we hope to be able to maintain spaces of human appearance within an exceptionally privatized and highly commodified process of unending urbanization. In which, as Mies van der Rohe once put it laconically in the mid-'50s, I quote, "That is why we can't build cities anymore. All cities, planned cities. It goes on like a forest, and we shall have to learn how to live in the jungle and even do well be that." This is the mid-'50s. Coming here on the plane, I happened to have it with me for obvious cribbing reasons, Charles Waldheim's 2006 Landscape Urbanism Reader. And I opened the page at Grahame Shane's pithy essay, which carried this image by Cedric Price, one of Price's typical witty legacies, with three states of urbanism represented by a boiled egg, in terms of the antique and medieval city surrounded by a wall. Of course, that's a bit too three-dimensional for the other two. But in any case, the wall, of course, being the shell of the egg, boiled. Then, of course, the fried egg being 17th to 19th centuries. And then scrambled eggs being the 20th century, and, of course, also the 21st century. And the fried egg obtaining for the 17th and 19th centuries, as you can clearly read. I'm going to give you an account of how I came to get involved with this question of megaform as urban landscape, which is, of course, coinage of my own and which needs a certain elaboration, I think. So it's tough for me. In 1978 the history for architecture and urban study is that no kind of unbelievable offbeat, miraculous place founded by Peter Eisenman in '78 with Stanford Addison as an editor, the Institute produced a book called On the Streets, published by MIT Press. And various characters hanging around the Institute, and some also here in Cambridge contributed articles to that anthology, in a way. Rather large anthology. And I contributed a piece called "The Street As Continuous Built Form." And when I thought about presenting this issue this evening, "Megaform as Urban Landscape," I thought, maybe I should step back and talk just briefly, very briefly about the continuous street as built form. And this, of course, is the Smithson's Golden Lane, montage down to bombed out Coventry. It's 1952, when Garden Lane first were premiered in the gardening competition for housing in London. And here, of course, is supplied to Coventry as literally that, as a continuous built form. And it also contains a street. In '61, almost decades later, they would do this London Road study. And here one notices, it's not a street but it is a spine which has a auto route in it, and designated bus lanes, and parking underneath, and also a kind of shopping mall. And of course, they would even coin the term "land castles." This thing, of course, produced land castles almost by itself because it would divide certain sectors of the city from the next. But this preoccupation with roads and streets, I think, and it has an old history. And I will try and show it very briefly during the course of this discussion about megaform. When architects, I think-- well, of course, I am thinking of Le Corbusier at the end of the 1920s-- began to think that the only, what can I say? modern, reliable civic work that would actually mark the landscape and define it was in fact, the auto route, which begins, of course, with his Plan Obus of 1929. And at one scale, that was Smithson's preoccupation. There's another scale. It was the street as the elevated street, which they also, I think with considerable naivete, thought to compare to the street, the traditional street, the traditional double-sided street. And this clearly was not the traditional double-sided street. And also because it was totally disconnected from the urban fabric. Of the same generation, of course, this is work by Shadrach Woods. This is in fact, Shadrach Woods' Karlsruhe. And there, of course, he's trying to come to terms with the real problem for all streets. Once the automobile arrives, is how do you accommodate both pedestrian movement and the space of appearance in the street charged with automobiles. Of course, in the early '50s, streets were not so charged with automobiles as they are now. But this project in Karlsruhe, which is somewhat later, where he tries to put parking behind the whole urban development, which is really addressing this linear street in the center of Karlsruhe. And he would develop that further. Here you see that this is the point of the active street with residences on the street and the quiet perimeter block interior to which cars would be attached. Sorry, by implication, of course, automobile-free. In theory, of course, never built. But he would develop it into another project that I think is more interesting for Hamburg's steel soup. There again, this is a street as continuous built form with parking garages brought in behind it. Also, not realized. And will go on with things not realized. But in terms of continuous built form the, street as continuous built form realized, of course, there is the much more concrete and realized, also pre-automobile, of course. This is a 1917 plan by Bell [inaudible] for Amsterdam south, will get built out. This is, I think, Amsterdam south in 1934, where the perimeter blocks, of course, create streets. And again, the mass energy of the automobile at that date in [inaudible] simply doesn't exist. And this led me to be interested in a project like this, for example. Also part of the same idea of the street as continuous built form, which is Barton Myers and Jack Diamond's building for the University of Alberta in Edmonton, where the Galleria as a continuous internal street is adapted to student residences. Sorry. And this is a section. And of course, the odd thing about that is that typologically, the Galleria is a parasitical type that's woven interstitially into the urban fabric. But here they are borrowing the type and making it into a freestanding building. So this is not only the street as a continuous built form, of course, pedestrian street only, but a building, it produces its own kind of unique building. The greatest thing about it, of course, is it discontinuous from the rest of the university campus. So that was a sort of prologue for me. And I thought I would indulge in it here just to show you that I have been nursing something like this in my head for quite some time. This, of course, is Reyner Banham's Megastructure. And of course, it brings up the issue, what is the difference between megastructure and a megaform? In fact, on the front cover of this book is Archigram's plug-in city. And of course, I think the main issue, of course, is that Banham is stressing the structure rather than the form. The avant-garde as structure, one might say. And this is edgy. Banham's Megastructure comes out in '76. And a big feature early on in the rather elaborate text in that book is Paul Rudolph's Lower Manhattan Expressway project, 1970, which never gets to be built, fortunately. One of Robert Moses last masterpieces, I suppose. But more interesting for me is this, Hans Hollein's 1964 aircraft carrier, which is very definitely a megaform, in my opinion. And also, one of the attributes of a megaform is, of course, its landscape potential, I think. In putting this argument forward, I think, is important to-- there's a great remark made by Francoise Choay, where she says, the auto route system, if it were not for graphic signs, would not be negotiable at all, which is a self-evident truth. But unlike the traditional city or the medieval city, where you could, of course, negotiate through landmarks, and I think this question of that aspect of the megaform to function as a landmark is perhaps one of its virtues. And you see that part of the accommodation is very interesting in the double way he shows it. He kind of sinks the aircraft carrier into the ground and the actual body of the building itself is subterranean. Fumihiko Maki is very much involved with the idea of megastructure. He publishes a text with Gyorgy Kepes, a project for Shinjuku, where the megaform is in fact, of course, a vast podium on which you can build virtually everything. And needless to say, the Rockefeller Center is also a megaform. Well, perhaps one of the most remarkable megaforms in relation to a piece of historical fabric by then, in relation to the greatest city. It has this relationship to the greatest city. The extraordinary thing is the breakdown of the form to the scale of Fifth Avenue. And there are earlier examples. And I've often nursed the idea of trying to make a comparison between the tale of the Palais-Royale at the end, let's say, most complete, as we know it now by the end of the first quarter of the 19th century in the center of Paris. Definitely a city in miniature. Much more a city in miniature, in fact, than the Rockefeller Center would ever be because nobody actually ever lived in Rockefeller Center, where, in the case of Palais-Royale people lived on the perimeter. In fact, the Palais-Royale was developed twice because it was first this enclosure and then there was a second layer built. It was first built by Cardinal Richelieu in the 17th century. And within the Palais-Royale, of course, there is then the Galerie d'Orleans, which is the idealized arcade, the intel street that we see here. The internal street marketing not for goods. But the Palais-Royale was also something else. It was a free port inside the city, a kind of free trade center, basically. And also a political center. It was a place of subversive journalism, conversation. As someone once said, it was the place in which anything under the rubric of commerce could be conducted, including, of course, prostitution. And also, the revolution begins there with Camille Desmoulins in 1789. Shown here urging the rebellious populace of Paris to revolt, to start the revolution. And here, 1815, other kinds of commerce. Just at the moment, Napoleon is about to be defeated at Waterloo. But the idea of a perimeter block as a kind of enclave is one way of interpreting the idea of megaform. And here, Fernand Pouillon in '57, I think, produces his block in Algiers called [? demille ?] [? cologne ?] is his nickname. He immediately creates a place against the chaos that surrounds it. Some of which, of course, is also designed by him. Or this, which is 1917. Hans Poelzig. It's a House of Friendship competition for Istanbul to be paid for by the German government. In fact, never built. But here, the idea of megaform, I think, it may be even kind of shocking since it's obviously competing with the minarets of major Mosques. And you see it here. You could say it is also by Poelzig, an example of German expressionism, which clearly was not only just because of the site but you look at other work of Poelzig at this time influence by Arabic or you could say Islamic architecture. And then, I have already alluded to this, or I began to allude to it. Which is the 1929 project of Le Corbusier for Rio de Janeiro, which is where he posits the idea that the congestion of Rio is such that the only way of liberating this congestion is to actually build an auto route that know irrigates the entire complex. And you put the automobiles on top of the building and stack apartments beneath it. And another version of the same. And then, of course, it becomes the inspiration for Plan Obus for Algiers of 1930, where, in fact, the auto route now is again on top of the long, snaking block entering into the center of the complex. And then in the middle of the adapted [inaudible] blocks here. That's the point, I suppose, about megaform is that he's actually turning it into a landscape really, into an urban landscape. And something of the same will be played with by Jacob Bakema in his project for Tel Aviv, where he will really adapt the Corbusier notion to create a new center for Tel Aviv at the port of Jafa. This is actually the existing Dizengoff Circle, slightly augmented. And also bringing auto route into the whole system, multilevel auto route. This is the famous White City of Tel Aviv. Five-story walk up, white cubic houses, mostly designed by German emigre architects. [inaudible] keep it like that in [inaudible].. And here you see the attempt to the argument about scale, trying to relate the auto route. And again, to consider the auto route the most generative element. But not to stand by itself but to energize a total complex . And he will, a few years later, apply the same thing to Amsterdam, so-called Pampas Plan. Never built, of course. You could compare it certainly to the metropolis in Japan, building on the water. Above all, Kikutake. But also to Tange's Tokyo Bay of 1960. Perhaps that's the important thing. Tokyo Bay, as it were, has the nerve to build out into the water. And it's clear from Kansai Airport that the Japanese do know how to build out into the water. Artificial ground, of course, which is what Maki had been proposing for Shinjuku. There, of course, on dry land. In the case of the Kansai Airport, Renzo Piano. Actually, the reason why the Japanese built out there, that's very interesting in terms of public opinion is because the pressure not to have jets taking off in the middle of the Kansai District was such that they were forced, in fact, to build the new airport out in the water. And there, technical problems include having to jack up the buildings all the time because the [inaudible] of ground is, in a sense, always sinking. God knows what happens with the current emerging climate change and the airport. Not probably no longer advisable as a technique. This is also Pampas plan. It shows the relationship, of course, with the existing Amsterdam and the way in which he would have carried out the expansion. Definitely a megastructure, you could say. But I think it's the form that intrigues me, the continuity, the horizontal continuity of the form. And then there are building types. And I will come back to this at the end. I think there are certain kinds of programs, singular programs, or anyway hybrid programs that lend themselves to this strategy, in a way. Because as soon as I do, I am putting it forward as a hypothetical strategy for overcoming the problem the [? apparia, ?] so to speak, of urban design and urban planning. Now I remember being in this building. No, maybe in the old one. It's a long time ago. Listening to Jose Saletan say, well, what will become of the surgery if it's never practiced? This was a conference on urban design. Jose Luis Sert was able to achieve some remarkable pieces of [inaudible] That's the important thing, I think. They were always urban interventions. And I'm playing around with this megaform as urban landscape idea. Also, with the idea of intervention. The real option is to intervene in the unending megalopolis of chaotic freestanding objects, none of which are related to any other object. So that's what's lying behind this. I think I have to admit it's some kind of obsession in a way. But then I think, there are certain types. For example, above all stadia, which lend themselves to being rendered as though they are landmarks. And this one in particular, which is 1953, Vogelweidplatz in Vienna, by Alvar Aalto, where the building itself takes on the character of a kind of escarpment or mini mountain. And that thing is formed, of course, by the-- well, here you see it-- is formed by the structure, the catenary structure designed, as a matter of fact, by his engineer's son. I think it wins the competition. But, of course, it never gets built, as is often the case. Here, the space of appearance, by the way, is not only inside the arena, but also in the forecourt here and, of course, in all the other-- it's a kind of mini Olympic intervention. Another program is, of course, the roadworks themselves or parking in the center of the city. And this is about the same date as the project for Helsinki for the Tulu area in Helsinki next to the railroad entry into Helsinki and into Ellis [inaudible] terminal. He makes make this into a kind of total landscape, the auto route entering into this terraced operation here is concentrated parking made into a landscape. You can see it's here. Actually, if you know the city, that's the National History Museum. And here is the Saarin terminal. And this is the auto route entering into the thing. The rails are here. And these are the terraced mass parking garages. More of the same. This is the existing lake, rails, auto route coming in. This is the National Museum. That's the Parliament. And the only one building he built of this, of course, has been [inaudible],, the concert hall. Otherwise, none of this was carried through. But the idea was, of course, a kind of cultural band looking out over the water. So we come to Arthur Erickson, Vancouver. The university just outside Vancouver, the Simon Fraser University, which is built on a kind of natural acropolis outside Vancouver and which he handles as though it is an acropolis. So now, of course, we come to the university as a potential program for megaform. And you see it very much here. Here, of course, my famous space of public appearance. And there's faculty buildings creating another space at a higher level. And you see how the whole complex, of course, also including parking climbs up the site to this ultimate monumental courtyard. This is the section in the other direction. So it's built on a kind of natural acropolis, the character of which it amplifies. A kind of gallery of space almost. And you're inside, underneath the space frame roof, which you saw. Which was sketched out here and built out here. It's an architect that I think has never been realized. I think he has never been given his due. I'll come back to him, I think, a little later, also in Vancouver. Then we come to-- well, here we are. Robson's Square, which is in this case, the program is a law courts and a municipality made into a new synthesis with a landscape that is literally implanted on top of it, including these two waterfalls and this stepped walkway. In fact, the uncomfortable coinage is the word "stramps," combining ramp and steps together. And the landscape designed by court Cornelia Oberlander, who is the third woman to graduate from the Landscape Architecture Department in the GSD, along with Dan Kiley and Garrett [inaudible],, and somebody's name. I think Rogers [inaudible] Three males and one woman. And she has always worked with-- well, he's no longer alive-- but until his death, she collaborated with Erickson. And I value this thing enormously because, in fact, it creates a new spine for Vancouver. It almost functions, I think, in the intensity to develop Vancouver-- this is '86, some time ago-- as a kind of new spine in performing a function not unlike that of Rockefeller Center, I think, in New York. And here you see the space frame roof over the-- these are the law courts, in fact, here. This is a common public foyer. And then underneath is the municipality. And the municipality, of course, extends out. The whole thing ending in an existing Beaux-Arts building here, finally stepping down to this building. A plan of the same thing. Here's the Beaux-Arts complex and here are the stramps coming down. And you can see how this whole thing is landscaped. Yeah, these are the stepped ramps. More of the same. And in Switzerland we encounter something similar. This is Luigi Snozzi and Mario Botta. I think this is 1972. It's a project for the main rail terminus in Zurich. At the time, it only consisted of the old 19th century building and these covered platforms. But they, or rather, yeah, I think we could say they proposed building this new facilities for the rail and some side development here, [inaudible] writes. And it's interesting that this rail thing comes in to the terminals and breaks this or goes over this small tributary to the [inaudible] And then they build this building and they put trees on top, somewhat naive also, to echo the line of trees on either side of this to create a kind of landscape link to repair in a way that the rail cutting by putting a bridge over it. Of course, I'm showing you things that were both built and unbuilt. This perhaps, not surprisingly, was not built. The interesting thing, not self-evident, is that this is a parking garage here in relation to this new office facility. So it unites the 20th century infrastructure of automobile with the rail infrastructure. The Swiss are very good at this. I've never seen anything more ingenious and brilliant than the link between Kloten Airport in Zurich and the totals Swiss railway system. It's an extraordinary connection, which also depends on an extraordinary Swiss invention, which is a luggage cart that will clip onto an escalator. No one else has copied it. I find it unbelievable, but that's a fact. Somehow I suppose the patent rights are too heavy. I don't know. Well, here you see the parking garage [inaudible] clearly, I think. And the existing cover platforms the rail system entering. And then two years later, they do this for Perugia, which is a regional administration building. To build a building as a viaduct, actually. It's an office building. But of course with courtyards, it's definitely a megaform. And at the end of the megaform, these parking silos and the teleferico leads you up to the hill town. And in a way, this long viaduct block creates a-- that's the other point about it-- a kind of order within the chaos of interrelated freestanding objects that surround the foothills of Perugio. Here we see the idea, which also is rated to a major auto route. This, in this case, built the northern zone, from which it gets the term "zen." Zen block by Vittorio Gregotti and Franco Perini in Palermo And here we have megaforms in the term in the form of residential blocks that layer, that create a new texture in the landscape entirely. You see the blocks here. They, in fact, create a new domain. A landmark, in fact, you could say against the chaos of the development of Palermo. And I think it's one of the finest-- I think it's suffered from bad maintenance but I think it's one of the finest housing schemes that Gregotti Associati would produce. And Perini, at this date, is closely connected to Gregotti. And the two of them together designed this project for the University of Florence. But it's the same idea, of course. It's only now it's not housing, it's faculty buildings. And they, of course, establish a new landscape. And our kind of, in my view, megaforms. And you see the idea in this model, I think, rather clearly. And this will lead to this built work. And here, oh, this is something-- I personally think Vittorio Gregotti is, well, it's very tragic really. Because almost all of his writing is only in Italian. And the very important book he wrote in 1966 called The Territory of Architecture, has only been translated, as far as I know, into French. It certainly doesn't exist in English. And it's really a great loss, I think. There, in that book, he, Gregotti, re-discovers this German geographer, Friedrich Ratzel, who coins the term "anthrogeographic," and makes his argument that, in fact, of course, species being has transformed the surface of the earth all the time. And produces a kind of anthrogeographic pattern out of it. And I think this idea, that, of course, leads to the title The Territory of Architecture. And it leads to this project for the University of Cosenza. I think this is like 6,000 meters long. Well, what it is, in fact, of course, is a continuous walkway that links all these lecture halls and faculty buildings across this valley to a rail link here and a road link here. And it cuts across this mountain chain. So that's a model of it here. There's the rail link. This is a road link. One wonders, it's a long walk. Of course, it's full of the virile young people, but maybe, if one had more money perhaps we introduced a travel [? agent. ?] But, in any case, he got it built finally, this kind of megaform. And it brings me to this work, which is by Weiss Manfredi for the sculpture park in Portland. Well, what they had to do there is to deal with an existing road system and an existing rail system. And of course, disused land between them, absolutely cut off, ruined. And of course, the remoteness of the water. So they devised this very ingenious-- it's a megaform but also it's a land form, in a way. And I'm thinking now of a book published by Staten Island and [? hasham ?] [? sarcass ?] with that title, Landform. And it is what it was meant to be, a sculpture park. And also allows-- that's the important thing-- allows the public to enter from the land side. And gradually, through a series of ramps, come down to have this kind of relationship to the water while still keeping the freight rail underneath and the auto route passing underneath. That's an urban intervention for sure. We see the ingenuity involved in order to create this urban intervention. The fact that one has to create a kind of artificial ground, really. All these sections make it quite clear what the game is. And here you see, well, it's the thing in action, basically. The auto route, of course, is emerging here. The rail is going under here. And we're coming down. By this bridge, you go down to the river here. Seattle. And this is a work by MMBB, a young Brazilian team that was at some point led by Angelo Butti, and in collaboration with [? menteta ?] [? russia. ?] [? menteta ?] [? russia ?] probably should feature much more strongly in this account than he does because this is the so-called Dom Pedro Bus Station. Unfortunately, I should have images of it. It is very beautifully designed in detail. But here, I think, just even an element of this order has a kind of landscape character, urban landscape character in relation to the auto route in the center of the incredible chaos of Sao Paolo. More interestingly, I think, is this project of 2008 by [? menteta ?] [? russia ?] for Paris, which was part of the Olympic bid by Paris for the 2012 Olympics, which it did not get. But part of its bid was this sports boulevard, designed by [? menteta ?] [? russia, ?] now acting alone, with all these stadia and arenas of different kinds on top of this podium platform, with a major arena off to one side, playing with the existing water, which is always something which he, as the son of a hydraulic engineer, was constantly involved with. But maybe, the real thing is this. What I find encouraging is-- well, this is the outer periphery, basically. And this is the chaos that interrelated freestanding objects ad infinitum that surround the Haussmannian core of Paris. And this is the famous canal. And here, he inserts this thing. It's an other. It is a kind of landmark, a intervention, which gives a point of register in what is otherwise the totally chaotic urbanized region. I don't know how many of you have recently traveled from the center of London to London City Airport. But if one wants to see a total and utter irrational nightmare produced by, what can we say? by the market, that's it. This work has always fascinated me. And of course, again, another program. In the case of [? menteta ?] [? russia, ?] it was a sports facility. Or in another instance, a bus terminal. Or now, a ferry terminal plus actually a brilliant project. I don't know whether either of the two authors of this project, Alexander Zaera-Polo and Farshid Moussavi, who actually entered this competition when they were both studying at [inaudible] They were doing postgraduate studies at the [inaudible],, I think. And they won the competition. And it was built. And I really wonder whether they will ever again equal this work, the Yokohama ferry terminal. And the amazing thing is that the Japanese built it, of course. And it's very interesting. It was largely built by Japanese ship industry, in fact. Much of it is made out of folded plate, welded folded plate steel. But it combines. It is also a hybrid building. I think that what is another aspect of this kind of fictive idea of mine, a megaform, is that the program can sometimes be hybrid. So in this building, it's not only a ferry terminal but it's also, again, a park, a kind of belvedere, and a theater. All these things are synthesized into the same building. Actually, it reminds me of the apocryphal aphorism of Le Corbusier, which is, to design you need talent, to program you need genius. And I think, who dreamt up this program? is the question. One can ask the same thing about Robson's Square in Vancouver. Who dreamt up that program? Or for that matter, Rockefeller Center, in its original form was certainly a city in miniature, from a cultural point of view. Still is, I think. And the other thing that I think is also somewhat unique, since we've all passed through, maybe still continues, the morphology moment-- what I'm thinking of Zahar, of course. But I could think of others, like Frank Gehry, of course. They produced a little book, which was very much related to D'Arcy Thompson's Growth and Form. They produced a book where they tried to create a typology in relation to certain building types that will give them, as it were, a kind of biological format. And here, what I think is extraordinary, is the way in which the structure transforms itself. The welded steel folded plate structure transforms itself according to the synthetic content of the program within. And we see it here. Of course, computer aided design, how else could they have done this? It is breathtaking, this wooden deck and what they do with this wooden deck. And of course, this somewhat sparse green roof. Maybe it's more of a belvedere than it is a park. But nevertheless, it's still a great pleasure. Here you get the full weight of the Japanese ingeniousness is right here with this folded plate construction. I remember going to an exhibition of this building before it was built in the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. And part of the exhibition, there was a huge pile of drawings about this high bound with raffia, very elegantly bound with raffia. And each section in a brown paper cover. And this was the working drawings that the Japanese had produced. Because once they'd received the executive drawings from the-- which also happened in the case of Rafael Vinoly's-- which is also a megaform, by the way-- Tokyo [inaudible] the Odyssey building in the center of Tokyo. Exactly the same thing. The Japanese took the information and then redrew the whole thing the way they wanted to build it. Of course, Stephen Hall's hybrid building, now acknowledging its character, built-- that's the astonishing thing-- and built by private developers. This is hard to believe. Who would actually sink geothermal wells in the ground 100 feet? I can't imagine-- where is the American developer is going to do that, I wonder? And it houses 7,000 people in 2,500 apartments, I think. The flat [inaudible] famous flying bridges contain exercise rooms and other kinds of amenities. And something of the same, of course, is also the Vanke so-called horizontal skyscraper that he built in Chengdu. No, Shenzhen, rather. And which looks back to the mountains on one side and looks out to sea on the other. And looks like this. Has this idea of providing shaded space. I don't find this megaform as convincing as the hybrid building. I want to end with a work by Fumihiko Maki, which is this polytechnic made outside of Singapore in an area called Woodland, which consists of-- it's called the Republic Polytechnic, I think-- it consists of a disk, a green disk, which is elevated-- an earthwork, in fact, elevated above the-- it's a kind of artificial ground. And on this artificial ground are these 11-story teaching blocks. There's a major assembly hall here, which is also accessible to the public, and administration, and so on, and parking, and staff residential facilities here, gymnasium. But the building, this shows you how it is developed. These are the faculty buildings, in fact, with specialized faculty here. Gymnasium, residences, main administration building. And this is the upper plan showing the greensward and the way these classrooms, they're little teaching towers, in fact, that are above this disk. And so this section shows you the disk like this, which has its own incline. And this colored area here is all the public space underneath but lit from above. So the public space is here in yellow. The space of public appearance, if you like. With here a pool. Now there are different courtyards that are let down and give light, of course, and air. The little green things are all courts let into the disk on top. So this is the green disk on top. Staff residents in the rear. And this is the upper level looking down into the courtyards. This is the courtyard itself partly with an ornamental pool, partly planked in wood. Or the view from the library onto the courtyard. And the dining hall with a large window opening to the courtyard. And, I think, a gymnasium beneath. Which brings me to the end, as you'll be happy to hear perhaps. I want to say, well, this whole idea of megaform as urban landscape begins with this building, in fact. Which is in, I think, 1990, early 1990 by Rafael Moneo and the late Manuel de Sola-Morales. Very prominent Catalan urbanist. I think there are two main figures. One is Busquets, who teaches here. And Manuel de Sola-Morales, who is no longer alive, unfortunately. And actually, Manuel published an amazing magazine called [? oure. ?] He is also one of the, in some ways, innovators of landscape urbanism, I think. Maybe it's more important to associate his theoretical approach with acupuncture. I love this idea. Urban acupuncture. With the notion that strategically placed intervention can have a catalytic effect upon the surroundings, apart from asserting itself as a world in itself, as a kind of world in miniature. And this block on the Avenida Diagonal, shown here, is this famous Ila block. And actually, in this very room, I think, I meant Raffa Monea with a tiny little model of this block. Where the character of the block depends on its serrated top. The character of the block is a landmark, that is. And then the other thing that intrigues me is that, in a way, it is open to reuse because instead curtain wall you have pierced windows. So you could, in fact, turn what is an office building into an apartment building, I think, without too much difficulty. Unlike many curtain wall monsters, which will not allow themselves too easily be transformed in this way. But the other interesting thing, and it's very hard to see in this rather bad image, there is an existing shopping frontage here on the Avenida Diagonal. And inside this building-- this shows you the-- it's very schematic, but this shows you the outer limits of the [inaudible] of the 19th century. And the ease with which one can get either on foot or by public transport to this building. It doesn't really show you the shopping frontage of the Avenida Diagonal. But that it is certainly there. This is this shopping frontage of the Avenida Diagonal. And inside there is this shopping mall. And underneath, very important, is this enormous provision of parking so that people can drive into this center, this point of urban acupuncture, and park and take elevators up and shop in the shopping mall-- this is the shopping mall-- also in the Avenida Diagonal. What impresses me about this, you could say, all these American provincial towns where the suburban shopping center is built outside. And of course, the Main Street is totally destroyed. That's what's happened in countless American provincial cities surrounded by suburbs. And not only American provincial cities. It's also happened in the UK. This same unfortunate phenomenon. So it's also a programmed thing. It's not only the form, and the form is important-- this is my point about the landscape, the landmark, I mean. The chaos of-- this is a bull ring in Barcelona-- but the chaos of the surrounding-- Norman Foster-- chaos of the surrounding suburbs are right there. And I think that's the last image, isn't it? No, not quite. This is in Agadir. It's by Vittorio Gregotti. I could, of course, show Renzo Piano's San Nicola Stadium in Bari. This is a more recent work in Agadir. It surely is a megaform. Parking is arranged very similar, actually, to Renzo Piano's San Nicola Stadium. But the entrances are a bit more cryptic. The whole thing is decidedly more monumental. Again, we come back to a sports facility as stadium, and so on. I think, probably, I've almost come to the end. But not quite. I haven't given this lecture very often. In fact, I think this is the second time I've given it. I gave it in the University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana when I was invited to be the [? plim ?] professor there. But one of the deals is that every [? plim ?] professor has to give a lecture, and it has to be made into a book. So I have, in fact. I've already published the damn book. But it's a bit thin as this lecture is a bit thin. And so what? There's always the embarrassing thing. Why don't I read this. "Since 1960, when the French geographer Jean Gottmann first coined the term "megalopolis," automotive regional urbanization has become the universal land settlement pattern of late capitalism. Stimulated by the mass ownership of the automobile, megalopoli coming into being all over the world today, accommodating populations around 20 million apiece in the developing world, and five million or so in many North American conurbations. With regard to this last, we may note that some three million acres of agricultural land are lost each year in the US through suburbanization, with little or no provision for public transport. That reminds me of Wendell Berry's Unsettling of America, where he points out that agrobusiness-- what a term that is-- cheap food with the combination of artificial fertilizers, and genetic modifications, and pesticides is gradually losing the topsoil of the United States into the rivers and out of the sea." This is book argument made by Wendell Berry already in the mid-'60s. "The net effect is the proliferation of the non-place urban realm as celebrated by Melvin Weber in his book Explorations and Urban Structures in 1963. It's interesting that Melvin Weber was in the backroom of the [inaudible] Weeks and Bore-- Martin Bore being the planner-- when they designed Milton Keynes inaugurated in 1972, the last British new town." And I suppose, around the same time, Reston is the last pathetic attempt in the States to do a new town. "There was, in fact, a decade before, a new town projected for Hampshire amazing town of Hook," which was very beautifully-- it wouldn't pass muster with Jose Luis Sert's idea of urban design, I think. But that was not built. What was built instead Milton Keynes, which was like an instant Los Angeles, suburbanized, in the end, superimposed, distorted one kilometer grid over the previous undulating agrarian land of Buckinghamshire. My second point is, "under these circumstances, the stratagem of the time-honored master plan as an instrument of urban design would seem to be untenable, particularly given the relatively limited resources available for public intervention at a civic scale, along with the volatile rate of spontaneous growth and change in most urban areas." In other words, master plans are already out of date as soon as they are-- other than in the case of infrastructures. But even then, I think. "Third point is, the de facto emergence of megalopolitan patents of land settlement present us with two alternative strategies, as far as future development is concerned. A, the current ad hoc proliferation that there are related relatively isolated freestanding objects. Or B, place creating counter theses of megaform integrated into a site as a discontinuous exception to the otherwise undifferentiated, hated urban cacophony." It should be clear from the"-- this is point four-- "from the wide range of megaform cited in the foregoing, that a megaform may come into being at quite different scales and thereby assume distinctly different place creating potential, depending not only on the scale but also on the programmatic complexities of form in each instance." Even, of course, low rise, high density, now no longer fashionable went towards a kind of megaform transformation of the environment. The fifth point is, megaform can also be landscape itself, as in the case of an Enrique [? mariason ?] [inaudible] [? binos ?] in [inaudible] cemetery in Barcelona of 1992. Or the Olympic Park, Seattle, 2000 by Manfredi and Weiss. Six was definition. "By definition, a megaform is restricted in its extent, and it may thus be realized by the society in a limited time period." I think that's important because otherwise, of course, nothing gets done. Seventh point is, I suppose, I made a comparison to the 19th century arcade. "The megaform has the capacity of providing a public domain." Ah, this is it. "The space the public appearance in what is otherwise totally privatized processal commodified environment." Eight. "Within the space endlessness of the megalopolis, characterized by Marc Auge," in a wonderful book called [french],, Non Place, a megaform may also serve as a landmark, should, I think, must serve, in a way, as a landmark, such as Poelzig's House of Friendship, 1917." Nine. "It would seem that certain contemporary building programs lend themselves to this idea. Of course, hospitals, universities, maybe air terminals, railway stations, shopping centers, cemeteries, sports facilities, convention centers." And 10. Well, you it just says, "The world megaforms primary thought of as interventions in the megalopolis. Clearly, Rockefeller Center being an example, can also be applied to a historic fabric." Thanks. [applause] [inaudible] for a little discussion? Yeah, sure, of course. Of course, yes, of course. So Kenneth has agreed to take some discussion. Maybe I could just almost start with your 10 points and thinking about the public issue. Because one of the things, you know that in Boston Amazon is looking for a place to build Amazon 2, a giant-- does anyone know the numbers? I can't remember. Amazon is proposing to build either near Boston in the peri-urban area or even further out in some of the suburbs this giant, new headquarters. You mentioned, of course, that most of the projects that you list in the programmatic way or either infrastructural or giant public gatherings like stadia, or terminals, or things like that, which in the States right now aren't getting built. But what will get built, at least in the near future, it seems, are these major private corporations, but not even Rockefeller Center, of a scale that's even much bigger. In your examples, do you recall, is there a way we could hope for something other than a purely exclusive megaform that might result from something like the Amazon project, in so far as everybody in that complex would both be working for Amazon and, I suppose, they'd also be living in kind of a town near Amazon, which means they're all more or less the same bandwidth of economics-- of income, and things like that? Is there any is there any hope of a more diverse-- could the sheer size of these things also encourage a diversity of public in terms of income, or other vocation, or other ways? Is there any indication for that? Like Yokohama, obviously, everybody, in a way, has to go through there because it's an exchange point. But in something like Amazon, the private developers, seems to me, the danger is a kind of exclusivity. I have one comment. I was thinking about Amazon as I put this together. Of course, I've thought about it before. Well, if you think that the thing that set me off was Ila block in Barcelona, there's also a hotel, schools, mainly offices, and this shopping mall, which keeps alive the traditional shopping frontage of the avenida. Which could have be done, of course, on a small scale in many other places. But it is interesting. I was thinking about Amazon and I've thought a lot about Amazon recently. The aim, of course, is to get rid of shopping altogether. So that the pseudo public realm of shopping will be eliminated because everything will be delivered by-- that's the project, basically. That's the project. And the warehouses in which this stuff is put together for shipment are certainly not public at all. They're just, in a way, they're kind of sweatshops. Yeah, well, that's a pretty black picture. I totally concede, it's a totally black picture. But it's interesting how, in effect, at the end I cite the Ila block in Barcelona. But Ila block in Barcelona, if Amazon is given its full scope, will be destroyed, of course. Its function went up [inaudible] I don't know if the sheer size-- as soon as you start saying, OK, they're going to need a hotel, they have to have family visit. It's [inaudible] interesting that Amazon bought Whole Foods. So they are aware of a food industry that's not the one you described. It's a different kind of agribusiness. It's still agribusiness but it's certainly different. But maybe the sheer size means that there have to be other functions in adjacencies that would bring in different classes, different colors, different, I don't know. But you need someone with a brain, like Olivetti, Adrianos Olivetti Communitas. The whole project of Andria Olivetti before the Second World War and immediately after in [? avria. ?] That was a San Simonean idea. There's no indication that [? besart ?] has a San Simonean bone in his body. Italian industrialists, you could say that Olivetti was anachronistic. It's not an accident that we're comparing him to San Simone. He's almost like a 19th century figure that ends up in the 20th century creating this magazine, Communitas, the wholly [inaudible] of business. And therefore, a total community. it's a concept of a-- But I don't see [? besart ?] getting around to that, do you? Take this opportunity to ask him questions, comments. Layne. [inaudible] Thank you. I would like to put in comparison the idea of megaform with another idea, which is popular in the school, about the archipelago, which certainly has a long history but has been most recently elaborated by [inaudible] If we understand the megaform as being critical because of its scale and its singularity against the logic of urbanization in order to make place and give potential for landscape, that sort of thing, it's at the same time, also a product of neoliberal accumulation at a vast scale. So I wonder how this idea of the archipelago, which seems to me like irreconcilable with the scale nature of megaform, the archipelago tries to or is seen as, because of its fragmented nature, establish an agonistic life in the city. But I wonder what you think about the fragmentary, small scale potential of the archipelago to resist urbanization as something which obviously has to operate in a very different way from the large scale of the megaform. Yeah. That's a very good question. I think that the question is, how do you activate the political constitution of these fragmentary parts of an archipelago? I am someone who is very admiring of Spanish architecture after the demise of Franco. And I think the quality of this architecture dependent upon the vitality of the Spanish city-state, both as a political and cultural entity. know They didn't going into building megaforms too much. Well, they built a few stadia, but if I understood what you implied by the term archipelago. I think that if you can't constitute the space of appearance you can't really develop a culture that has real political strength and identity, I don't think. In some ways, critical regionalism was about that, I think. Anyway, the way the kind of twist that, if you like. Or the way in which I adapted it from the [? sonas ?] [? lefrebre ?] original formulation of the term "critical regionalism." One of the things which is always left out, not by Friedrich Jameson, by the way, who wrote a critique of it, actually, a brilliant critique, is the cultural, political implications. He wrote a critique from a very hard Marxist standpoint, which threw doubt on the cultural, political viability of such entities. And that's really why I introduced the idea of city-state, which, of course, we don't have city-states. And it is interesting that Margaret Thatcher, neoliberal, coming to power in UK, would destroy the physical power also of British provincial cities to concentrate all the power in London and to weaken them as any kind of political opposition or cultural and political independence. Attempts have been made to repair that. But that was the game clearly. Someone else? Could we get it right here in the middle? Thank you for your talk. My question is rather simple. I'm curious if you have anything to say about accidental megastructures versus these structures that have plenty of authorship and thought embedded in them? Can you give me an example? For example, Kowloon Walled City in China. Or perhaps one could consider urban sprawl happening in underprivileged areas as megastructural accumulations, or neighborhoods where the authorship doesn't seem to have a direct source. There's still the same type of social coherency existing inside them. Well, maybe that, of course, for me anyway, at this moment, clearer formulation of the idea of archipelago. But of course, you don't really need architects for that, in fact. It's interesting that Rudofsky's Architecture Without Architects, is 1964. Happens to be very close to the date of Chermayeff Alexander's Community and Privacy. This kind of vernacular was in the way [? bariatta ?] [? favela, ?] spontaneous housing, is a kind of vernacular doesn't need architects at all. People build their own environments. So fashion has no-- what do architects do? John Turner's book makes it clear that architects should only be involved in adding or somehow administering the provision of sewerage or electrical power or something. But part of that, I mean, forget it. The people know you can't intervene, really, basically. And authorship's a funny word because something of that size is going to be a huge collaboration of different dimensions of architecture, engineering, different kinds of planning. Gregotti is an author in the sense you're using it. But Amazon, it's not clear yet if they're going to use architects. They have their own designers. And it won't be authored in that sense. Because-- a continuation on that question on this concept of authorship. Whether it's a state or a private entity, like Amazon, there's a certain organization within that structure that's required to initiate a project of a megaform. So I think that that could be a whole other lecture maybe about what are the organizations required to execute those types of projects? Can I just say something about what the-- I don't know exactly what the archipelago idea is. But the one thing I would ask the two of you to comment on, or the students, is the question of disconnect. Because I think what Ken was talking about, in fact, is about connection. It's about taking fragmentation and connecting it to something that's more embedded, let's say, in a city in the different dimensions of a city. When you have these structures that are built, not by design, they are often quite disconnected. So I don't know if we should be glorifying that disconnection, or maybe we're overly glorifying the connection. I think, in a way, they are connected because people, at that level of survival, depend on each other and build their houses like almost on top of each other, I think. [inaudible] There's a question in here, and then Ben next. Sorry. It was kind of related. Going off of this sort of connection and disconnection. If we're talking about megaform as a landscape, as something that can begin to connect all these diverse entities, how can we begin to think of megaform as a kind of perceptual or incremental construction rather than this huge, large scale capitalist entity, something carried out by such a huge entity. Or if it's not carried out by this capitalist entity does it not necessarily make it a megaform anymore? The whole thing is, what can you do under capitalism, basically? Because I'm someone who thinks as someone said, it's easier to imagine the end of the world than to imagine the end of capitalism. you Architecture is a bourgeois profession, in the end. It is. The profession is at the service of capitalism because we don't live in a socialist society. I am interested in this kind of large scale intervention as providing some indicator of a place, both in terms of its landmark qualities but also in terms of the kind of space of appearance that it provides inside it. And at different scales. As a compensation for a placelessness and no space of appearance, basically. A privatized, commoditized society under capitalism. I think it is like that. Ben, maybe, has the last one. Well, this is totally related to [inaudible] This is related to the last couple questions. And it's just a comment, basically. I think the most powerful notion that you put forward is that precisely all of these architectural projects operate as totally discontinuous from the urban fabric. How something which asserts itself as a autonomous figural iconic object is in fact perhaps the most urbanistically instrumentalization at that scale. I think one of the earliest ideas of an urban project was to unify Rome with these obelisks. And they are in fact not immediately productive in terms of the spatial scale that we normally consider in terms of architecture. But they're extremely productive as this sort of processional experience through the city. And that relates back to your original comment about freeways being completely useless without signs. That's just a comment. No, I think you got it. I think that's the case. The idea is this. The idea of intervention. Intervention is a kind of compensation for what is otherwise absent. The placelessness impact. Of course, I know within the placelessness you can find little corners here and there which have a kind of unique character. But the general drive in terms of these 20 million cities that I cited, is a production which is indifferent, really, to any idea of the urban. And your comment about obelisk made me think of-- Argan, wrote a little book called The Renaissance City. And he begins the book by saying we can't say the Renaissance city never existed. What existed was a medieval city into which were inserted Renaissance monumental pieces. He gives Florence as a classic example of this, Brunelleschi, et cetera, et cetera. I suppose that notion, we can't say that the Renaissance city didn't exist. It relates for me to Mies' comment, that's why we can't do cities anymore. We can't do planned cities, et cetera, et cetera. It goes on like a forest. But we can do the monuments. We can do the obelisks. Yes, you can do interventions. The question is, what is the intervention? To borrow Manuel de Solar-Morales' metaphor, what kind of urban acupuncture, what kind of project can one imagine and also launch somehow or other in a society like this? It's of course problematic. I know it's problematic. But the lecture has this particular character because I am somehow preoccupied with this question of where is the public realm? How does any kind of public realm come into being? Just one quick thing. I was thinking about these last few questions. The thing you emphasized that might go some way of answering the incremental question as well as the archipelago question. The dominance of the ground plane and the need for a continuous ground plane, even if the buildings are aggregates, the ground plane itself somehow needs to be continuous for a proper megaform to emerge. And I think there's beginning of some kind of answer. It's also going back to the landscape urbanism relationship. That that provides a continuity even when the buildings aren't continuous. That seemed to be important. One last comment, which is that the Golden Lanes I showed at the beginning, the street in the air is obviously a huge problem because it's not a street. It's totally disconnected already from any kind of continuous fabric. So I heard the rudiments of at least six thesis projects there. One of the great things about Kenneth's work, again, is inspiring in very different ways either to go against and refute it or to learn from it. So that was so valuable for us. And thank you very much for coming. [inaudible] Thank you. [applause]



An order in council to incorporate any municipality must give the municipality an official name.[3] Of Alberta's five specialized municipalities, two of them have branded themselves simply as municipalities in their official names, while two others have branded themselves as counties. The remaining specialized municipality has branded itself as a regional municipality.

The use of the regional municipality term in the official name of the one specialized municipality has led to a common belief that a regional municipality is its own separate municipal status type in Alberta, which is not the case. Meanwhile, the use of the county term in the official names of two specialized municipalities and 46 municipal districts has partially led to a common belief that a county also is its own separate municipal status type, which also is not the case. The other major contributor to this common belief is that a county was a former municipal status type in Alberta prior to the County Act being repealed in 1995.


An update to the MGA in 1994[2] legislated the ability to incorporate a specialized municipality "when no other classification of municipal government can meet the needs of residents of the proposed municipality."[6] The incorporation of five specialized municipalities followed starting with the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo in 1995, Strathcona County in 1996, Mackenzie County in 1999, the Municipality of Jasper in 2001, and the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass in 2008.[7]

Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo

The first specialized municipality was created on April 1, 1995, when the former City of Fort McMurray amalgamated with Improvement District (ID) No. 143 to form the Municipality of Wood Buffalo.[8] Specialized municipality status was chosen for the amalgamated municipality "to provide for the unique needs of a municipality including a large urban centre and a large rural territory with a small population."[8] Upon incorporation, Fort McMurray was designated an urban service area, an equivalent to a city under the MGA, while the balance of the municipality was designated a rural service area, an equivalent to a municipal district under the MGA.[8] The Municipality of Wood Buffalo was renamed as the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo on August 14, 1996.[5]

Strathcona County

The second specialized municipality was incorporated on January 1, 1996. Strathcona County changed its status from a municipal district to a specialized municipality "to provide for the unique needs of a municipality that includes both a large urban centre and a significant rural territory and population."[9] The status change designated Strathcona County's large urban centre, Sherwood Park, as Alberta's second city-equivalent urban service area, while its rural territory was designated a rural service area deemed equivalent to a municipal district.[9]

Mackenzie County

The Municipal District (MD) of Mackenzie No. 23 became the third specialized municipality on June 23, 1999.[7] Previously a municipal district, it changed its status "to address concerns about municipal government and management in a municipality that serves a number of unique communities within a very large territory."[7] Its unique communities include the hamlets of Fort Vermilion, La Crete and Zama City.[5] The order in council that formed the MD of Mackenzie No. 23 as a specialized municipality included a clause to automatically change it back to a municipal district on November 1, 2001.[7] This order in council was amended on January 30, 2001, at which point the clause to automatically revert its status was removed.[10] The MD of Mackenzie No. 23 was renamed Mackenzie County on March 8, 2007.[5]

Municipality of Jasper

The Jasper Improvement District was established as Alberta's fourth specialized municipality under the name of the Municipality of Jasper on July 20, 2001.[5] It was established as a specialized municipality "to provide for the unique needs of residents living within the municipality."[11] The order in council that formed the specialized municipality defined the Town of Jasper as those lands within the Jasper townsite as described in Canada's National Parks Act.[11]

Municipality of Crowsnest Pass

The Municipality of Crowsnest Pass was originally formed as a town on January 1, 1979, through the amalgamation of the towns of Blairmore and Coleman, the villages of Bellevue and Frank, and ID No. 5.[5] After another amalgamation with ID No. 6 on January 1, 1996, the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass eventually had its town status changed to specialized municipality status on January 16, 2008.[5] Unlike those of the four other specialized municipalities, no specific reason was provided in the order in council that changed the status of Crowsnest Pass.[12] However, the motivation to become a specialized municipality was to enable membership in the Alberta Association of Municipal Districts and Counties for increased alignment with its neighbouring rural municipalities.[13]

Lac La Biche County

Lac La Biche County changed status from a municipal district to Alberta's sixth specialized municipality on January 1, 2018.[14] The County was formed on August 1, 2007 when the Town of Lac La Biche amalgamated with the surrounding Lakeland County,[15] and in April 2015 it launched an investigation into the possibility of a change in status. By converting to a specialized municipality, the County was able to preserve the lower tax rates applied to its rural areas and the higher tax rates applied to the population centres of Lac La Biche (the former town) and Plamondon.[16]

List of specialized municipalities

Name Region Incorporation date
(per km²)[18]
Crowsnest Pass, Municipality of Southern Alberta January 16, 2008 7   5,589 5,565 +0.4% 371.44 15.0/km2
Jasper, Municipality of Alberta's Rockies July 20, 2001 7 4,584[N 1]
4,590 4,432 +3.6% 924.06 5.0/km2
Lac La Biche County[a] Northern Alberta January 1, 2018[20] 9 8,544
8,330 8,397 −0.8% 12,570.99 0.7/km2
Mackenzie County Northern Alberta June 23, 1999 10 11,750
11,171 10,927 +2.2% 80,458.19 0.1/km2
Strathcona County Edmonton Capital Region January 1, 1996 9 95,597
98,044 92,490 +6.0% 1,182.78 82.9/km2
Wood Buffalo, Regional Municipality of Northern Alberta April 1, 1995 11 81,948[N 2]
71,589 65,565 +9.2% 61,777.65 1.2/km2
Total specialized municipalities 53 199,313 187,376 +6.4% 157,285.11 1.3/km2

Potential specialized municipalities

Other municipalities that are investigating specialized municipality status include Spruce Grove,[21] Morinville[22] and Grande Prairie.[23] Proponents of the Cooking Lake Airport have also expressed interest in breaking away from Strathcona County to form its own specialized municipality.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Jasper's 2011 municipal census also counted a shadow (non-permanent resident) population of 652 for a combined population of 5,236.
  2. ^ Wood Buffalo's 2015 municipal census also counted a shadow population of 43,084 for a combined population of 125,032.
  1. ^ Statistics presented for six municipal districts (the Big Lakes County, the MD of Bonnyville No. 87, Lac La Biche County, the County of Northern Lights, Northern Sunrise County and Smoky Lake County) differ from statistics for their corresponding census subdivisions published by Statistics Canada to recognize that Alberta's eight Metis settlements, which are designated places located within these six municipal districts, are separate municipalities.[19] The statistics presented for total municipal districts and total rural municipalities therefore exclude the statistics associated with the eight Metis settlements.


  1. ^ "Types of Municipalities". Alberta Municipal Affairs. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "A foundation for the future of Alberta's municipalities". Government of Alberta. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c "Municipal Government Act". Alberta Queen's Printer. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. August 9, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Municipal Profiles (Specialized Municipalities)" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  6. ^ "Local Governance: A Short Review of Changes in Various Jurisdictions – Future of Local Governance Research Paper" (PDF). Alberta Urban Municipalities Association. March 2009. p. 2. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "Order in Council (O.C.) 264/99" (PDF). Province of Alberta. June 23, 1999. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  8. ^ a b c "Order in Council (O.C.) 817/94" (PDF). Province of Alberta. December 21, 1994. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Order in Council (O.C.) 761/95" (PDF). Province of Alberta. December 6, 1995. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  10. ^ "Order in Council (O.C.) 54/2001". Province of Alberta. January 30, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Order in Council (O.C.) 279/2001" (PDF). Province of Alberta. July 7, 2001. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  12. ^ "Order in Council (O.C.) 1/2008". Province of Alberta. January 16, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  13. ^ "Municipality of Crowsnest Pass: Report on the Corporate Review". George B. Cuff & Associates Ltd. October 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
  14. ^ "O.C. 259/2017". Government of Alberta. September 14, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  15. ^ "Lac La Biche County". Alberta Municipal Affairs. August 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2007.
  16. ^ Alex Fuller (April 20, 2015). "Lac La Biche County pondering municipal status change: County considering switching from municipal district to specialized municipality". Lac La Biche Post. Great West Newspapers LP. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  17. ^ "2015 Municipal Affairs Population List" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. ISBN 978-1-4601-2630-1. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  19. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions, census subdivisions (municipalities) and designated places, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. January 30, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  20. ^ "O.C. 259/2017". Government of Alberta. September 14, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  21. ^ "Growth Study: Frequently asked questions". City of Spruce Grove. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  22. ^ Tristan Turner (February 12, 2016). "Morinville Council Briefs". Morinville News. Pawn Marketing & Publishing Inc. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  23. ^ Justine Kelsie (February 17, 2016). "Grande Prairie looking at becoming specialized municipality". My Grande Prairie Now. Vista Radio. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  24. ^ Megan Voss (September 4, 2015). "Airport ready to fly the coop". Sherwood Park News. Sun Media Community Newspapers. Retrieved February 19, 2016.

External links

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