To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Specialist school

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Specialist schools, also known as specialised schools or specialized schools, are schools which specialise in a certain area or field of curriculum.[1][2][3] In some countries, for example New Zealand, the term is used exclusively for schools specialising in special needs education, which are typically known as special schools.

In Europe

Specialist schools have been recognised in Europe for a long period of time. In some countries such as Germany and the Netherlands, education specialises when students are aged 13, which is when they are enrolled to either an academic or vocational school (the former being known in Germany as a gymnasium). Many other countries in Europe specialise education from the age of 16.[4]


Nazi Germany

The Nazi Regime established new specialist schools with the aim of training the future Nazi Party elite and leaders of Germany:[5][6]

Since 1945

After the Second World War, Germany was separated into the capitalist West Germany and communist East Germany. In East Germany, a comprehensive system of education was established while in West Germany a specialised system was present. After German reunification in 1990, the former East Germany abandoned comprehensive education and implemented the specialised education of West Germany.[4]

In modern Germany, education becomes specialised from the age of 13, with students attending either academic schools known as gynmnasiums or vocational schools.[4] Vocational specialist schools and academies offer vocational qualifications.[7]


In the Netherlands, many specialist schools exist within the public education system.[8] Education is specialised between vocational and academic schools from the age of 13,[4] however there are many specialist schools in the primary sector of education, with specific types including partnership schools, Dalton schools and brede schools/community schools.[8]

Brede schools (broad schools), also known as extended schools or community schools,[9] combine education with important parental and children's services such as childcare and community health centres, and follow a goal of delivering effective and affectionate education while granting equal opportunities of education to adults, children and teenagers.[10] They may also be an alliance between schools and services rather than one institution[11] (e.g. the DE Brede School in Amsterdam is a collaboration between three separate primary schools).[12] Brede schools do not receive additional funding on a national level, nor is there a centralised model of brede schooling, with funding and policy being decided locally. In Rotterdam for example, brede schools are integrated into the education system. In addition to primary schools, pre-schools and secondary schools can also be brede schools. There are over 1,200 brede schools. In the 1990s, the majority of breed schools were located in areas which were historically deprived, namely those with significant levels of migration.[10]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the term specialist school refers to a school with an emphasis or specialist focus on a certain field or area of the curriculum,[13][14][15][16][17][18] with these specialised areas being called specialisms.[19] British specialist schools intend to act as centres of excellence in their specialism.[20][21] Specialist schools have been present in the primary,[22] secondary[23] and further education sectors.[24] There have been specialist schools in England,[25] Scotland[26] and Northern Ireland,[27] but none in Wales.[28]

England and Northern Ireland

In England, secondary specialist schools may select up to ten percent of their yearly student intake for aptitude in their specialism provided that it includes either the performing arts, visual arts, physical education, sports or modern foreign languages.[29] There was a near-universal specialist system of secondary education in England in 2011,[30] with 96.6% of English state secondary schools having specialised.[28]

Under the specialist schools programme which ran from 1993 and 2006 until 2011,[a] secondary schools pursuing specialist school status in England and Northern Ireland had to go through a designation process where they were required to pass benchmarks and demonstrate achievement in their desired specialism, while also raising between £20,000 and £50,000 in private sector sponsorship.[b] Passing the process gave designated schools specialist status in one of 10 or 15[c] available specialisms and an optional curricular rural dimension. Two of the 10 or 15 specialisms could be combined to form one specialism. The reward for specialist status was a £100,000 government grant alongside an additional £129 in funding for every student enrolled to the school. Every three years, schools had to renew their status and re-designate. Re-designation brought with it the possibility of a second specialism and high performing specialist status; both of these would grant additional funding. Selected primary schools joined the specialist schools programme in 2007 as part of a government trial. Since 2011, secondary schools in England no longer need to designate or re-designate for specialist status and can gain specialisms beyond the 12 originally available in the specialist schools programme. Academy schools, which were specialist schools at this time, were already unrestrained in their choice of specialism.[32] The United Kingdom's specialist schools programme has attracted other countries toward specialisation.[40]

Any state secondary school in England, whether they are local authority-maintained or independent from their control, can become a specialist school.[41] Unique types of specialist school include City Technology Colleges,[42] early academy schools,[43] university technical colleges,[44] studio schools[45] and maths schools.[24]

Other countries


Schools that operate specialist education programs exist in all Australian states and territories. These schools are typically associated with the arts or elite sports programs. In South Australia, specialist schools cover the arts, gifted and talented programs, languages, agricultural schools, science, technology, engineering and mathematics, advanced technology project schools, sports schools, and trade training centres.[46] In Victoria, examples of specialist government schools include those focused on science and maths (e.g.John Monash Science School), performing arts (e.g. Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School), sports (e.g. Maribyrnong Secondary College), and leadership and enterprise (e.g. The Alpine School).[47] An alternative model is those sporting organisations that deliver specialist programs to a narrow selection of schools, such as Cricket Australia's Specialist School Program to three Western Australian schools.[48]


In Canada, there have been specialized schools in Calgary, Toronto and Niagara Falls. These schools, also known as niche schools and alternative schools,[49][50] are usually selective,[51] however the Toronto District School Board has recently scrapped its old admission arrangements and have made its specialized schools enrol students based on the students' interest in attending the school.[52]


In the 1990s, the Chinese government addressed demands for a trained workforce by establishing selective specialist schools. The main type of specialist school is the key school. These are primary and secondary schools serving academic children. Schools can be designated with key status by meeting requirements in facility and teaching quality. Between 15 and 20 percent of Chinese schools satisfied this criteria in 1999.[53]

China has established Confucius colleges and classrooms across 87 countries.[54] The Ministry of Education has also identified 3,916 middle schools and primary schools as specialist schools for youth football.[55]


In Japan, the first specialist schools were the Senmon Gakkō (専門学校). These were officially defined during the Meiji era in the ordinance of 1879 as a tertiary institution which taught one curricular subject. However, in practice, the term defined private institutions which taught multiple subjects. Before they were allowed university status in 1918, being a Senmon Gakkō was the highest status that these institutions could achieve. An example of one of these specialist schools was Waseda University, which opened in 1882 as Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō (東京専門学校) but was given its current name after claiming university status in 1902[56] (the school did not receive official recognition as a university until 1920 and instead remained a private college).[57][58]

In March 1903, the government increased its oversight over the Senmon Gakkō through Imperial Ordinance 61, officially called the Senmon Gakkō Rei. This ordinance required the schools to seek approval from the Ministry of Education for their name, location, teaching staff, admission quotas, academic year, fees, curriculum and regulations, and those that failed to receive approval were closed down. The schools also needed permission to hold examinations from the Ministry of Justice. The ordinance also expanded the term specialist school to include Japan's prestigious Imperial Universities and also military academies, although both of these were put in a "special category" separate from the Senmon Gakkō and given different regulations to them.[59] Under the ordinance, many private institutions became vocational Senmon Gakkō.[60]

In modern Japan, the Senmon Gakkō are tertiary specialist schools for vocational education with two years of study. The majority of them are private.[61] There are also other private specialist schools in Japan called Senshūgakkō. These offer curricular subjects such as computer programming, languages and bookkeeping.[62] There was previously a system of specialist schools for teacher training which consisted of normal schools, higher normal schools and colleges of arts and sciences. In 2002, former prime minister Yasuhiro Nakasone recommended establishing new specialist schools "to train prospective education professionals", with these schools being "separate from ordinary universities".[63]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, a specialist school is a special school for students with high needs.[64][65] Students with high needs are defined as those with "significant physical, sensory, neurological, psychiatric, behavioural or intellectual impairment". In 2010, students with high needs accounted for three percent of the student population in New Zealand.[66] The specialist schools can be day specialist schools or residential specialist schools. Day specialist schools teach years 1–13, with students allowed to attend until they reach the age of 21. There are currently 28 such schools across the country, although they may hold satellite classes in mainstream schools to provide their specialist services in a normal educational environment. Residential specialist schools are for high needs students with a "slow rate of learning". Places are offered only when a student has a Specialist Education Agreement or when their needs cannot be met by the schools in their local area.[64][67]

South Africa

In South Africa, a specialist school is an ordinary school with a focus on teaching an offered particular specialised field of curriculum.[68] There are established agricultural schools, commercial schools, trade schools, technical schools, secondary art schools and, since 2018, sports academies. Minister of Basic Education Angie Motshekga has led an initiative to introduce specialist schools since 2015, when schools of specialisation were opened in Gauteng. These schools have an English-medium education and are located near townships.[69] Specialist schools for mathematics and science have also opened to improve South Africa's educational standard in these subjects.[70]


Since 1987, the Government of Singapore's education policy has been based on diversifying curricular provision between its schools. There are four government designated specialist schools offering a specialist education in chosen areas of the curriculum.[71]: 193  These fee-paying schools, officially named specialised independent schools, specialise in either applied learning, mathematics, science, sport or art. There are also four other independent specialised schools with a specialist vocational curriculum. These are known as specialised schools.[72] In 2011 over half of the public schools in Singapore were niche schools. These schools are specialist schools for extracurricular and unconventional subjects such as fencing, music, the performing arts and uniformed grouping.[71]: 188  Specialist curricular areas are known as niche areas, niche domains[73] or simply a niche, and niche schools are entitled to select up to five percent of their intake in these areas. In 2013, the Ministry of Education set a goal for every Singaporean school to have a niche by 2017.[74] Schools are awarded niche status after demonstrating achievement in their desired niche and are rewarded with extra funding from the Ministry. Primary niche schools are called school-based excellence schools.[71]: 164 

United States

There is a successful small tradition of specialized schools for particular curricular areas in the United States. Specialized schools for a variety of subjects such as the performing arts or science exist in some cities, with specialized vocational and technical schools being the most typical.[75] Most of these schools are highly selective.[76] The term specialized school is also used to refer to boarding schools for children with special needs, as boarding provision is a small part of their educational provision.[77]

A large number of charter schools in the United States are specialized schools. In 2015, a study evaluated the diversity between charter schools in 17 cities. The ratio between specialized charter schools and non-specialized charter schools in these cities was found to typically be around 50/50. 55 percent of enrolled students attended non-specialized charter schools while 45 percent attended specialized charter schools.[3] There are also two other main types of specialized school in the United States, the magnet school and alternative school.[78] Magnet schools are public schools which specialise in a particular course or curriculum. There were 3,497 of these schools in the United States during the 2019/2020 academic year.[79] Alternative schools are educational establishments with untraditional methods and curriculae, including a specialised curriculum.[80][81] There were 10,900 alternative schools in the United States in the 2000/2001 academic year.[82]



  1. ^ September 1993 – April 2011 (England),[31][32] September 2006 – August 2011 (Northern Ireland).[33][34]
  2. ^ Secondary schools in England had to raise £50,000, though schools with less than 500 students had to raise £20,000 instead,[35] while secondary schools in Northern Ireland had to raise £25,000.[36]
  3. ^ In England, there were 10 specialisms to choose from.[37] Two more specialisms, applied learning and SEN, were available to mainstream schools as one half of a combined specialism or as a second specialism taken in re-designation. Standalone SEN specialisms were offered exclusively to special schools.[35] Five more specialisms were offered exclusively in Northern Ireland,[38] however most schools were designated with one of the English specialisms; information and communications technology was the only Northern Irish specialism to be granted.[39]


  1. ^ Steele, Fiona; Vignoles, Anna; Jenkins, Andrew (2007). "The Impact of School Resources on Pupil Attainment: A Multilevel Simultaneous Equation Modelling Approach". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: 32 – via London School of Economics.
  2. ^ Moore, Chris (23 April 1999). Teacher Thinking and Student Diversity. Educational Resources Information Center. p. 14. ED 429 947.
  3. ^ a b "How Diverse Are Charter Schools?". American Enterprise Institute - AEI. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d Grammar Schools in the Twenty-first Century (PDF). National Grammar Schools Association. Autumn 2001. p. 4.
  5. ^ Warnock, Barbara; Ellis, Steve (22 February 2013). Life in Nazi Germany, 1933–45. Hachette UK. pp. 1912–1913. ISBN 9781444177473.
  6. ^ "Nazi social and economic policies: Youth movements and education". BBC Bitesize. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  7. ^ "The educational system in Germany" (PDF). Baltic Education. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  8. ^ a b Hofman, R. H.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Gray, J. M.; Daly, P. (16 January 2006). Institutional Context of Education Systems in Europe: A Cross-Country Comparison on Quality and Equity. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4020-2745-1.
  9. ^ Hertzberger, Herman (2008). Space and Learning: Lessons in Architecture 3. 010 Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-6450-644-4.
  10. ^ a b Velsen, Job van. "Brede School: All-day community school" (PDF). Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  11. ^ Education in the Netherlands. School Choice International. 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-9815964-2-6.
  12. ^ Mulder, Andre; Berg, Bas van den (8 March 2019). Learning for Life: An Imaginative Approach to Worldview Education in the Context of Diversity. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-5326-7686-4.
  13. ^ "Free Schools: What are the options?". Channel 4 News. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  14. ^ Smith, Alexandra (9 February 2007). "Q&A: Specialist schools". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  15. ^ Wallace, Susan (2015). Oxford Dictionary of Education (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780191758454.
  16. ^ Woodward, Will (29 November 2002). "Fund to help hard-up schools win specialist status". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  17. ^ Tinniswood, Rachael (6 February 2022). "Why our schools want to be special; As the Government announces an extra 149 specialist schools, three headteachers tell RACHAEL TINNISWOOD why it means so much". Liverpool Echo.
  18. ^ "Specialist schools' value queried". BBC News. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  19. ^ Edwards, Tony (May 1998). "RISE Briefing No. 1: Specialisation Without Selection?" (PDF). RISE Trust. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  20. ^ "Specialist Schools". Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Specialist schools 'boost confidence'". BBC News. 17 July 2001. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  22. ^ "Primary schools are to specialise". BBC News. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  23. ^ Taylor, Ros (8 February 2001). "Nearly half of all secondaries to specialise". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  24. ^ a b "DfE invites top universities to open specialist maths free schools". New Schools Network. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  25. ^ "Specialist schools now a majority". BBC News. 29 January 2004. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  26. ^ "Specialist schools plan go-ahead". BBC News. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  27. ^ "NI specialist schools announced". BBC News. 14 March 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  28. ^ a b Northern, Stephanie (15 February 2011). "What became of the bog-standard comprehensive?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  29. ^ Andalo, Debbie (22 May 2007). "Q&A: Secondary school selection". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  30. ^ Gove, Michael (20 September 2010). "Specialist schools programme: Michael Gove announces changes". GOV.UK. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Schools (Broadstairs)". TheyWorkForYou. 20 December 1995. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  32. ^ a b This article contains OGL licensed text This article incorporates text published under the British Open Government Licence: "Specialist schools programme: Michael Gove announces changes". GOV.UK. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  33. ^ "SPECIALIST SCHOOLS PILOT: INVITATION TO SCHOOLS". Department of Education. 6 August 2005. Archived from the original on 7 January 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  34. ^ "Specialist Schools". Department of Education. 23 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  35. ^ a b "Part 3: First Applications". Department for Children, Schools and Families. 9 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  36. ^ "NI specialist schools announced". BBC News. 14 March 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  37. ^ "The Standards Site: What are Specialist Schools?". Department for Children, Schools and Families. 26 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  38. ^ Baker, Pete (21 October 2005). "Shortlist for specialist schools pilot". Slugger O'Toole. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  39. ^ "A Third Evaluation Report on The Specialist Schools' Programme" (PDF). Education and Training Inspectorate. 2010. pp. 10 and 11. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  40. ^ Davies, Arthur (March 2011). "The System of Local Management of Schools in the UK - Achieving an Optimal Balance of Centralization and Decentralization in Education" (PDF). Postmodern Openings. Lumen Publishing House. 5 (5): 98. ISSN 2068-0236.
  41. ^ "Types of school". Child Law Advice. 15 June 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  42. ^ "Oliver case study: Thomas Telford School". Softlink. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  43. ^ Copps, John (April 2006). On your marks: young people in education, a guide for donors and funders (PDF). New Philanthropy Capital. p. 61. ISBN 9780954883683.
  44. ^ "Q&A: University technical colleges". BBC News. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  45. ^ Burke, Jude (14 August 2018). "Toby Young: Allow UTCs and studio schools to select pupils". FE Week. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  46. ^ "List of secondary schools with special interest or specialist programs". Department of Education. Government of South Australia. n.d. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  47. ^ "Types of school". Department of Education and Training. Victorian Government. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  48. ^ "Specialist School Programs". WACA Western Australia Cricket Association. 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  49. ^ Hammer, Kate (7 September 2009). "More alternative schools opening than ever in Toronto". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  50. ^ Pearce, Tralee (18 August 2011). "Skateboard school or single-sex? Niche schools take off". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  51. ^ Rodrigues, Gabby (3 May 2022). "TDSB to change process for admissions to specialized programs, schools based on 'interest'". Global News. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  52. ^ Herhalt, Chris (26 May 2022). "TDSB trustees vote to remove all entry exams, auditions to specialized schools". CTV News. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  53. ^ Jones, Robin; Riordan, James (Jim) (11 September 2002). Sport and Physical Education in China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-135-81433-5.
  54. ^ "Understand a China of Diversity". Embassy of China, London. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  55. ^ "3,916 Chinese schools identified as specialist schools in youth football". China Daily. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  56. ^ Mehl, Margaret (2005). Private Academies of Chinese Learning in Meiji Japan: The Decline and Transformation of the Kangaku Juku. NIAS Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9788791114946.
  57. ^ "Honoring 100 years since the death of Shigenobu Okuma, founder of the University / Part 2". Waseda University. 10 February 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  58. ^ "Honoring 100 years since the death of Shigenobu Okuma, founder of the University / Part 3". Waseda University. 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  59. ^ Spaulding Jr., Robert M. (8 December 2015). Imperial Japan's Higher Civil Service Examinations. Princeton University Press (published 8 December 2015). pp. 133–134. ISBN 9781400876235.
  60. ^ Breaden, Jeremy (7 December 2012). The Organisational Dynamics of University Reform in Japan: International Inside Out. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-136-18944-9.
  61. ^ Jones, Randall (23 May 2022). The Japanese Economy: Strategies to Cope with a Shrinking and Ageing Population. Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-000-56608-6.
  62. ^ Okano, Kaori; Oprandy, Robert; Tsuchiya, Motonori (8 April 1999). Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-521-62686-6.
  63. ^ Nakasone, Yasuhiro (2002). Japan--a State Strategy for the Twenty-first Century. Psychology Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-7007-1633-3.
  64. ^ a b "Specialist schools: Specialist schools support high needs students, either in day schools or residential schools across New Zealand". Ministry of Education. 4 February 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  65. ^ "Learning support". Taikura Trust. 29 June 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  66. ^ Including Students with High Needs (PDF). Education Review Office (published June 2010). 2010. p. 3. ISBN 9780478340624.
  67. ^ "Specialist schools: Learn about access to specialist schools, including day specialist schools, residential specialist schools and regional health schools". Ministry of Education. 12 May 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  68. ^ "ADMISSION OF LEARNERS TO PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 2012". 9 May 2012. 1: Definitions. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  69. ^ du Toit, Tania (17 October 2018). "Other specialist and/or career-focused schools in South Africa, apart from arts and aviation schools". Solidariteit Gildes. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  70. ^ "Case Studies and Examples: Specialist Schools". Trialogue Knowledge Hub. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  71. ^ a b c Dimmock, Clive (7 December 2011). Leadership, Capacity Building and School Improvement: Concepts, themes and impact. Routledge (published 7 December 2011). ISBN 9781136729263.
  72. ^ "School type". Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  73. ^ "Advancing 21st Century Competencies in Singapore" (PDF). Asia Society. February 2017. p. 20. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  74. ^ Yng, Ng Jing (17 July 2013). "Schools' niche programmes help students hone creativity". TODAY. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  75. ^ Allen, Dwight William (1992). Schools for a New Century: A Conservative Approach to Radical School Reform. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-275-93649-5.
  76. ^ Milne, Jonathan (5 September 2007). "Ideas unlimited: boxing to bomb disposal". Tes. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  77. ^ Mann, Candiya (January 2006). "EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT OPTIONS FOR BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS: A Literature Review". Washington State University. p. 9. CiteSeerX Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  78. ^ Merritt, Edwin T.; Beaudin, James A.; Cassidy, Charles R.; Myler, Patricia A. (2005). Magnet and Specialized Schools of the Future: A Focus on Change. Lanham, Md. pp. 3–5. ISBN 9781578861804.
  79. ^ Duffin, Erin (30 March 2022). "Number of magnet schools in the U.S. 2020". Statista. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  80. ^ Definition of alternative school Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine, accessed August 9, 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
  81. ^ "Definition of alternative school |". Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  82. ^ "Policy Research Brief: Alternative Schools and the Students They Serve: Perceptions of State Directors of Special Education". University of Minnesota. January 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
This page was last edited on 6 August 2022, at 15:12
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.