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Space Development Agency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Space Development Agency
US Space Development Agency logo.jpg
Space Development Agency
Agency overview
FormedMarch 12, 2019; 5 years ago (2019-03-12)
TypeDirect reporting unit
HeadquartersThe Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
38°52′16″N 77°03′22″W / 38.871°N 77.056°W / 38.871; -77.056
Motto
  • Semper Citius
  • (Latin: "Always Faster")
Agency executives
Parent departmentUnited States Department of the Air Force
Parent agencyUnited States Space Force
Websitewww.sda.mil

The Space Development Agency (SDA) is a United States Space Force direct-reporting unit tasked with deploying disruptive space technology.[1] One of the technologies being worked on is space-based missile tracking using large global satellite constellations made up of industry-procured low-cost satellites.[2][3][4] The SDA has been managed by the United States Space Force since October 2022.[5] By February 2024 the SDA had 33 satellites on orbit.[6] SDA intends to have at least 1,000 satellites in low Earth orbit by 2026.[7]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Space Development Agency Tranche 0 Launch
  • One-on-One with Derek Tournear, Director of the Space Development Agency
  • Space Development Agency’s Tranche 0 Mission
  • SDA Pushes Further Development on Advanced Satellite Mesh Network
  • #US will have a ‘Swarm Of Satellites’ that will render ASAT weapons useless !

Transcription

History

The agency was established by Mike Griffin in 2019 with his appointment to Under Secretary of Defense (R&E) by President Donald Trump.[8] Griffin had long advocated for low Earth orbit constellations to eliminate U.S. vulnerability to ballistic missiles with his work on space-based interceptors for the Strategic Defense Initiative and Brilliant Pebbles in the 1980s. However these programs dissolved in the 1990s due to excess cost and political disagreement.[9] Later, the United States and other countries developed hypersonic weapons, which Griffin argued were thermally dimmer and could only be reliably tracked by low-flying satellites with infrared sensors, creating a need to resurrect such programs.[10][2] In addition to hypersonic weapons, the memorandum establishing the SDA also calls for a new space architecture "not bound by legacy methods or culture" that provides unifying command and control through a cross-domain artificial intelligence-enabled network.[11]

The Space Development Agency proposed the National Defense Space Architecture,[12][13][14] later renamed the Proliferated Warfighting Space Architecture.[a] It advances a network of global orbiters composed of layers with different military capabilities such as communications, surveillance, global navigation, battle management, deterrence, and missile defense. The satellite constellation is to be interconnected by free-space optical laser terminals[15] in a secure command and control optical mesh network.[16] Satellites are to be low cost and "proliferated" in low Earth orbit. New commercial technology such as reusable launch systems have reduced deployment costs[17] and new mass-produced commercial satellites offer less "juicy" targets for anti-satellite weapons by being inexpensive and potentially hard to distinguish from other commercial satellites.[2] Development is to follow the spiral model,[b][c] incorporating learning from previous iterations and launching new satellite replacements regularly as the useful lifetime of each is relatively short. The SDA expects to field and maintain a constellation of at least 1,000 satellites on orbit by 2026.[7]

The SDA has mostly avoided flaws that plagued earlier proliferated missile defense programs such as Brilliant Pebbles. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty was a major impediment in the past, as these systems were deemed non-compliant with the treaty by Congress.[9] However, George W. Bush withdrew the United States from the treaty in 2002, eliminating this barrier.[18] Over the years, launch and manufacturing costs have been greatly reduced. Decades after the SDIO’s DC-X failed there are now commercial reusable launch vehicles such as SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket.[19] Meanwhile mass manufacturing as with Starlink has proven the potential for lower satellite build costs.[17]

Political and administrative opposition to SDA came from 24th Secretary of the Air Force Heather Wilson who argued that "launching hundreds of cheap satellites into theater as a substitute for the complex architectures where we provide key capabilities to the warfighter will result in failure on America's worst day if relied upon alone."[7] Members of Congress also gave concerns that SDA would drain resources and jobs from Air Force and questioned why DoD had to create a separate organization to circumvent its own procurement process. Despite the pushback, the Pentagon did not require congressional authorization to create the SDA, and Wilson was overruled by Patrick M. Shanahan, who became acting defense secretary by appointment of Donald Trump. He placed the new agency under the authority and control of Mike Griffin who was also appointed as Under Secretary of Defense (R&E).[8]

Despite these early successes, SDA still faces critical challenges. The Union of Concerned Scientists warned SDA could escalate tensions with Russia and China and called the project "fundamentally destabilizing".[20] Both China and Russia brought concerns to the United Nations about the U.S. plans for militarization of space.[21] The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace has advocated for better use of arms control and international agreements such as a treaty halting related development by all parties to prevent an arms race in space.[22]

Critics have reiterated longstanding concerns that ground-based lasers can easily "paint" satellites in low Earth orbit, temporarily blinding their sensors. The APS reporting the energy needed for this is very low.[23] Likewise, RF jamming is simpler when communication and radar satellites are in lower altitudes as less power is needed to saturate their low-noise amplifiers. It is also far easier to launch an anti-satellite weapon to destroy satellites in low Earth orbit (as demonstrated with small ASM-135 or RIM-161 missiles) given much less energy is required to kinetically intersect than to enter and maintain orbit. An adversary would simply need to "punch a hole" in the constellation immediately before launching an attack.[24][20][25] When the Biden administration took ownership of the program in 2021, they appeared to take heed of these concerns[26] but still signed on to a $500M increase for the agency in the FY2023 spending bill.[27]

The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, dubbed the Space Development Agency "a model for the military". In their 2025 Mandate for Leadership, they call to develop new offensive space capabilities to "impose [American] will if necessary". They further claim the Biden administration "has eliminated almost all offensive deterrence capabilities" in space that were planned under the Trump administration.[28]

In 2020, 13th Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Will Roper expressed interest in the SpaceX Starlink satellite internet constellation as a platform for the SDA.[29][30]

SDA awarded its first contracts in August 2020. Lockheed Martin received $188 million and York Space Systems received $94 million to each build 10 data relay satellites for its transport layer. In October 2020, SDA chose SpaceX and L3Harris Technologies to develop four satellites each to detect and track ballistic and hypersonic missiles.[31] The initial tranche of satellites were originally scheduled to launch September 2022.[16] However, the initial launch slipped due to supply-chain issues for microelectronics such as radios,[32] software problems, and protests by Raytheon and Airbus over procurement and evaluation process.[33] SDA industry partners now include SpaceX, L3Harris Technologies, Northrop Grumman, Ball Aerospace and General Dynamics.[7]

A number of experimental satellites were launched in 2021. SDA plans to test some of the key technologies in a series of on-orbit experiments that went up on Transporter-2: Mandrake 2, the Laser Interconnect and Networking Communications System (LINCS), and the Prototype On-orbit Experimental Testbed (POET).[34]

SDA's current schedule expects Tranche 0 capability[c][d] will be on orbit in time to support a summer 2023 demonstration.[33][35][36][37] Link 16 connectivity between Five Eyes nations, via Low Earth Orbit Tranche 0 satellites was demonstrated from 21 November to 27 November 2023.[38][39] Global coverage of missile launches will take 40 downward-looking satellites.[40] By year-end 2025 there will be 126 Link-16 satellites in orbit for intercommunication, using Tranche 1 Tracking capabilities.[41] Tranche 2 Tracking capability will start in 2026.[41]

Tranche 1 satellites were solicited for bid in 2021,[42] expecting first launch in September 2024,[43] and monthly launches thereafter.[44][45] Tranche 1 totals more than 150 satellites: 126 in Tranche 1 Transport Layer; 35 in Tranche 1 Tracking Layer; 12 in the Tranche 1 Demonstration and Experimentation System.[44] In 2022 contracts were awarded to York Space Systems, Lockheed Martin Space, and Northrop Grumman Space Systems.[46]

Tranche 2 satellites were solicited for bid in 2023,[47] for launch in 2026.[47] This consists of more than 550 satellites: 250 in the Transport Layer; 50 in the Tracking Layer; Transport Layer will have 100 Alpha satellites, 72 Beta satellites, and 44 Gamma satellites;[44] The Beta satellites Request for Proposal (RFP) was released in the 2nd week of April.[44] The Alpha RFP was released in June 2023 and Gamma is scheduled for early 2024.[44] The Alpha satellites are similar to those in the Tranche 1 Transport Layer; the Beta satellites will have UHF and tactical communications payloads; the Gamma satellites will carry advanced waveform payloads.[44][48] York Space Systems will build 62 satellites for the Tranche 2 Transport Layer.[49] In 2023 contracts for 72 satellites were awarded to Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin (for 36 Beta satellites apiece).[50][51][52][53] In 2024 a third vendor, Rocket Lab LLC, was selected to supply 18 space vehicles, an additional part of the Beta Tranche 2 Tracking Layer (T2TL) tranche, for a total of 90 space vehicles in the Beta T2TL tranche.[54]

On 16 January 2024, the SDA announced an award to three vendors worth up to $2.5 billion. These vendors will supply "preliminary fire control" satellites in the Tranche 2 Tracking Layer. They will carry infrared (IR) cameras, with a mix of fields of view (FOVs).[55][56] The FOVs in the IR cameras will be either wide FOV (WFOV), or medium FOV (MFOV) for low-resolution, or higher-resolution tracking capability respectively.[55] If such a satellite were to prove performant, and launched early, and no later than April 2027, a vendor could receive an incentive payment.[55] Each vendor is to provide 18 satellites, of which 16 are to carry WFOV cameras; the remaining two are to be MFOV cameras.[d][56][55] The Proliferated Warfighting Space Architecture (PWSA) will rely on these preliminary fire control satellites to perform the JADC2 concept.[55] Tranche 2 Tracking capability will start after the 2026 launches.[41]

Projects and research

Transport layer[57] of the National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA)[58][a][59]
The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space Acquisition and Integration (SAF/SQ) visits SDA upon its accession to USSF.[60][61]
Rapid Reaction Launch Proliferated Ground C2[61] for the NDSA (National defense space architecture)[a][59] of the Space Development Agency

SDA satellites are the first to have direct-to-weapon control according to SDA's technical director, Frank Turner.[62]

Among the SDA projects:

  • "Optical communications between satellites, and from satellites to a military drone aircraft".[63][64][65][14] Including the CubeSat based Laser Interconnect and Networking Communication System (LINCS).
  • Provide a resilient, persistent response to ballistic missile detection[66][67][68][69][70]
  • Build the JADC2[71] satellite backbone[72][73] using the National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA):[a][13][74][e] JADC2 confers on the US the capability to "move data globally at scale".[35] —Gen. Chance Saltzman, US Space Force
    • The satellite constellations are in near-polar low Earth orbit.[78] Hundreds of satellites are expected by the end of the 2020s.[14] "Would you be able to take out some of these satellites? Probably. Would you be able to take out all of these satellites? Probably not, before you are going to have a really bad day."—Derek Tournear [79]: min -2:10 before the end of the video clip [80][70]
    • NExT (National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA)[a] Experimental Testbed)[c] is a test bed of 10 space vehicles and associated mission-enabling ground systems, for realizing its various aspects, in miniature, before its larger, later scheduled deployments. In particular, the capability to retain and/or relay messages for command and control (C2) can then be demonstrated on the NExT test bed, before deployment at scale.[81][82]
    • Using the satellites of Tranche 0, the SDA will be demonstrating the new capabilities[c] of the PWSA[a] to the warfighters, to aid in concept development (using the "warfighter immersion tranche").[83][59][43]
    • Rapid response launch proliferated C2;[84][59][42] SDA remains the rapid launch proliferated arm for the Space Force.[61][a][68][42][86][87][58]
      1. User equipment (Earth stations and weapon systems)[79][88] SDA has selected the "ground Operations and Integration (O&I) segment for Tranche 1".[89]
      2. Transport layer intersatellite data[78] Tranche 1 Transport Layer (T1TL):[57] T1TL forms a mesh network in a constellation of small satellites in Low earth orbit (LEO). Each satellite would have 4 optical links.[42] SDA may have awarded 3 contracts totalling $1.8 billion to 3 firms, each for 42 satellites to be launched by September 2024.[57][86] However, there was a funding constraint in the FY2022 budget.[90][91][92]
      3. Tracking layer handles launched items,[93] connects to existing user equipment[13][90][88][94][95] Two contractors will each build 14 satellites for the Tranche 1 Tracking Layer as of 16 July 2022; these satellites will be in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by 2025; hundreds of satellites are planned for the Tracking layer.[96] The Tracking Layer is capable of tracking hypersonic missiles throughout their flight, by their heat signatures.[96][97][58][98]
      4. Custody layer[99] handles items not yet launched from objects as big as a truck,[100] connects to existing user equipment[13]
      5. Battle management ("autonomy, tipping and queuing and data fusion")[13][a][101][102][f][d][59][106][107][108][109][110]
      6. Navigation layer is not finalized, provides navigation & launch data[13]
      7. Deterrence layer is situational awareness of cislunar space vehicles[13]

Launches

Earth's satellites in: Low Earth orbit— LEO (blue); Medium Earth orbit— MEO (green); Cislunar distances (red): If one were to hold a blue marble out at arm's length, one would see Earth's size and shape from the perspective of the astronauts travelling to the Moon.

SDA's initial launch of 10 satellites (denoted Tranche 0)[c] had been scheduled for December 2022; however tests of 8 of these satellites indicated that each had a noisy power supply. The contractor, York Space Systems retrofitted filters on the 8 satellites at no cost to the government; the initial launch was delayed to March 2023, including the 8 retrofitted by York Space Systems.[111][35]

On 2 April 2023 the first 10 satellites of Tranche 0 were launched into low earth orbit, as planned. These satellites will demonstrate the responsive (low latency) communication links of the Transport layer of the Proliferated Warfighter Space Architecture (PWSA). An initial checkout of the satellite bus and mission[c] payloads is the current priority.[111] The second Tranche 0 launch, carrying 13 more satellites, took place on 2 September 2023.[113] Of the 18 initially scheduled payloads one Transport satellite built by York has been excluded to conduct software tests, while the four Tracking satellites built by L3Harris had been kept on the ground by production delays and were launched later as rideshare payloads of a USSF-124 mission in February 2024.[114]

Tranche 0 satellites
Manufacturer Nickname Built Launched On the ground Decayed
Tranche 0A
(02 Apr 2023)
Tranche 0B
(02 Sep 2023)
USSF-124
(15 Feb 2024)
Transport layer
York Space Systems Checkmate A-Class: 6
B-Class: 4
A-Class: 5
B-Class: 3
A-Class: 0
B-Class: 1
A-Class: 0
B-Class: 0
A-Class: 1
B-Class: 0
Lockheed Martin Wildfire A-Class: 7
B-Class: 3
A-Class: 0
B-Class: 0
A-Class: 7
B-Class: 3
A-Class: 0
B-Class: 0
A-Class: 0
B-Class: 0
Tracking layer
SpaceX BB 4 2 2 0 0
L3Harris Raptor 4 0 0 4 0

Management

SDA began as a direct reporting unit (DRU) of DoD's USD(R&E): research and engineering.[b] By design,[117] the functions for acquisition and sustainment (A&S) are the responsibility of another under secretary of defense —the USD(A&S); this separation of function decouples the technology development of a working prototype system, even the systems as complicated as those taken on by the SDA, from overcomplication induced by the processes of the DoD.

The SDA has relied heavily on "Section 804" Mid-Tier Acquisitions (MTAs) to avoid traditional defense procurement requirements. SDA has been able to forgo a number of reporting activities by breaking up larger programs into numerous two-year rapid fielding projects that each qualify as MTAs. Members of Congress and the Government Accountability Office have said this obfuscates costs and limits transparency. The FY23 omnibus appropriations act, signed by President Joe Biden on 29 December 2022, levies new reporting and certification requirements on the Pentagon regarding the use of MTAs and other rapid prototype programs. Industry participants such as MITRE Acquisition Chief Pete Modigliani have said the new requirements would "drastically impede DoD’s rapid acquisition abilities" for SDA and other programs.[118]

No. Director Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
-Kennedy, Fred G. IIIFred Kennedy[119]
Acting
March 12, 2019June 2019~3 months and 3 days
-Tournear, Derek M.Derek M. Tournear[120]
Acting
June 2019October 28, 2019~4 months and 13 days
1Tournear, Derek M.Derek M. Tournear[120]October 28, 2019[121]Incumbent4 years, 7 months, and 16 days

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The name change of the constellation from NDSA to PWSA —'proliferated warfighter space architecture'— will have no impact to the SDA mission.[85]
  2. ^ a b "The OUSD(R&E) will develop critical technologies, rapidly prototype them, and conduct continuous campaigns of joint experimentation to improve on those technologies and deliver capabilities", —Hon. Heidi Shyu, head of the office of the undersecretary of defense for research and engineering (OUSD(R&E)).[115][116]
  3. ^ a b c d e f Tranche 0 will demonstrate the feasibility of
    • Low latency data connectivity
    • Beyond line of sight targeting
    • Missile warning/missile tracking
    • On-orbit fusion
    • Multi-phenomenology ground-based sensor fusion [36][59][87][112]
  4. ^ a b c Space development agency (SDA) provides the PWSA wide field of view (WFOV) sensors; Missile defense agency (MDA) provides the Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS) sensors, (i.e., the Medium Field of View (MFOV) sensors). The WFOV sensors provide cueing data to the MFOV sensors, which are more sensitive and provide tipping data to the earth-based interceptors.[104] as cited in USNI News.[105] Two WFOV satellites were launched as part of the inititial Tranche 0.[35]
  5. ^ In September 2021 the Space Development Agency approved design plans for its new missile warning satellites, which will be capable of detecting and tracking hypersonic weapons.[75][58]
    • L3Harris Technologies announced that the Space Development Agency has approved the company’s proposed design for a missile tracking satellite.[76] A production contract for 16 Tranche 1 Tracking satellites to track hypersonic missiles, for launch in 2025, was approved.[77]
    • SpaceX will build 4 satellites for the Tranche 0 tracking layer.[35]
  6. ^ In Remote Sensing, Tipping and Queuing (Cueing) is a technique for tracking and monitoring fast-moving objects, using multiple sensors of multiple modalities (for example electro-optical and radar sensors). One sensor with a wide field of view might detect, acquire, and even track an object of interest (the 'target'); that sensor would 'tip' another sensor with the tracking information for that target. The next sensor, say with point defense capability, might then take the 'cue' to narrow the tracking box around the target, to build more accurate tracking information, to tip yet another defense system, and so forth. See Automatic identification system (AIS)[103]

References

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  39. ^ Theresa Hitchens (28 Nov 2923) SDA demos first-ever space-to-ground Link 16 connection Archived 1 December 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Courtney Albon (12 Apr 2024) Space Development Agency satellites poised to track first missile test
  41. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (18 Mar 2024) SDA’s data relay, missile tracking networks to be operational by end of 2025: Tournear
  42. ^ a b c d Theresa Hitchens (27 Aug 2021) SDA Opens Contest For First Operational Constellation Archived 29 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine 30 Aug 2021 RFP for Tranche 1 Transport Layer (T1TL) Jan 2022
  43. ^ a b Audrey Decker (4 Apr 2023) Satellite Ground Stations Are Vulnerable, US Warns Archived 6 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ a b c d e f Greg Hadley (5 Apr 2023) SDA’s Tournear 'Just Not' Afraid of Satellite Shootdowns. Supply Chain Is the Greater Worry. Archived 7 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine: Tranche 1 detail; T1 DES (Demonstration and Experimentation System) detail; Tranche 2 detail;
  45. ^ Courtney Albon (10 Apr 2023) US Space Force to simplify timelines, purchases as launches surge Archived 23 February 2024 at the Wayback Machine National Security Space Launch (NSSL Phase 3) FY25 to FY34
  46. ^ "Space Development Agency Makes Awards for 126 Satellites to Build Tranche 1 Transport Layer". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2023-08-23.
  47. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (6 Apr 2023) Space Development Agency readies first solicitation for 'global' data constellation Archived 6 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine T2TL: 212 Transport Layer satellites for launch beginning in 2026
  48. ^ Patrick Tucker (21 Aug 2023) Lockheed, Northrop share $1.5 billion contract for new transport satellites Archived 21 August 2023 at the Wayback Machine Seventy-two satellites, which will begin launching in 2026, will be "the space backbone for the Joint All Domain Command and Control"; apparently the Beta Tranche 2 satellites.
  49. ^ Courtney Albon (20 Oct 2023) Space Development Agency orders 62 satellites from York Space Systems Archived 21 October 2023 at the Wayback Machine Launch in 2026 for Tranche 2 Transport Layer
  50. ^ Erwin, Sandra (2023-08-21). "Space Development Agency awards contracts to Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman for 72 satellites". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 2024-02-23. Retrieved 2023-08-23.
  51. ^ Michael Sheetz (30 Oct 2023) Pentagon awards $1.3 billion in contracts to Northrop Grumman and York for 100 satellites Archived 31 October 2023 at the Wayback Machine Previous reporting was for 36 Northrop satellites rather than the 38 reported now; 62 satellites are confirmed for York.
  52. ^ Carlo Munoz, Janes.com (1 Nov 2023) Pentagon awards USD1.3 billion for PWSA prototype development Archived 2 November 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Sep 2023) SDA steps toward global hypersonic missile tracking, plus new targeting capability Archived 7 September 2023 at the Wayback Machine at least 54 space vehicles with IR sensors for Tranche 2 Tracking Layer of the SDA's Proliferated Warfighter Space Architecture (PWSA).
  54. ^ SDA (8 Jan 2024) Space Development Agency Makes Third Award to Build 18 Additional Beta Variant Satellites for Tranche 2 Transport Layer Archived 9 January 2024 at the Wayback Machine Rocket Lab LLC to make 18 space vehicles in beta tranche T2TL, part of a total of 90 space vehicles to be launched in the beta T2TL tranche by July 2027.
  55. ^ a b c d e Theresa Hitchens (16 Jan 2024) SDA's latest Tracking Layer contract includes 6 'fire control' sats Archived 17 January 2024 at the Wayback Machine ... 'the "preliminary fire control" satellites in Tracking Layer Tranche 2 will carry a mix of wide-field-of-view and medium-field-of-view infrared cameras'
  56. ^ a b Sandra Erwin (16 Jan 2024) Space Development Agency awards contracts worth $2.5 billion for missile-tracking satellites Archived 23 February 2024 at the Wayback Machine 18 satellites apiece: L3Harris, Lockheed Martin and Sierra Space
  57. ^ a b c Greg Hadley (28 Feb 2022) SDA Awards $1.8 Billion in Contracts for 126 Satellites Archived 1 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine for 2024 T1TL
  58. ^ a b c d Armament Facts (21 Jul 2022) How The New Hypersonic Weapons Tracking Constellation Will Work Archived 25 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine 16:45 minutes. 2 awards, each of 14 satellites due to launch in 2025.
  59. ^ a b c d e f Theresa Hitchens (21 Jan 2020) SDA To Demo Tracking & Targeting Satellites In 2022 Archived 2 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine Tranche0 Link-16. Summary of 7-layer architecture.
  60. ^ SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (30 Sep 2022) HEADQUARTERS AIR FORCE MISSION DIRECTIVE 1-17 Archived 7 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine Special Management ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (SPACE ACQUISITION AND INTEGRATION) (SAF/SQ) 20 pages
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  63. ^ Theresa Hitchens (21 Jun 2021) SDA Demos Spotlight Tech Hurdles To JADC2 Backbone Archived 25 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine 5 payloads: Optical link, Sat to drone
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  67. ^ a b Sara Mineiro; (Mezher, Chyrine) (June 14, 2021). "Pentagon: Diversify Your Orbital Regimes".
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  76. ^ Sandra Erwin (20 Dec 2023) L3Harris gets green light to produce 16 space-based hypersonic missile trackers
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  81. ^ Theresa Hitchens (20 Jan 2023) SDA hopes SABRE sensors can slash missile testing costs by 'millions' Archived 20 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine "SDA already has a lot of interest from the Army and DoD's testing community in its Space-Based Telemetry Monitoring, Electronic Support, and Alternative Navigation (SABRE) project"
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  86. ^ a b Chris Gordon (3 Apr 2023) Speed, Cost, Performance—In That Order—Key to SDA's Successful Tranche 0 Launch, Director Says Archived 5 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine First use of Link 16 in space
  87. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (28 Jun 2022) Army moves ahead with Palantir and Raytheon for next phase of TITAN Archived 28 June 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ Theresa Hitchens (27 May 2022) Space Development Agency taps GD-Iridium team for complex ground system Archived 31 May 2022 at the Wayback Machine
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  90. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Oct 2022) York scores SDA contract worth up to $200M for experimental communications satellites Archived 7 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine T1DES capabilities test (of UHF/S-band frequencies) using 12 satellites; provides data for a March 2023 decision on Tranche2
  91. ^ Theresa Hitchens (18 Feb 2022) SDA awards $1.8B in contracts for first operational data transport sats Archived 2 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine Tranche 1 Transport layer (T1TL) award
  92. ^ SDA.mil Tracking layer Archived 2021-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
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