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Space Development Agency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Space Development Agency
US Space Development Agency logo.jpg
Space Development Agency
Agency overview
FormedMarch 12, 2019; 4 years ago (2019-03-12)
TypeDirect reporting unit
HeadquartersThe Pentagon, Arlington, Virginia, US
38°52′16″N 77°03′22″W / 38.871°N 77.056°W / 38.871; -77.056
  • Semper Citius
  • (Latin: "Always Faster")
Agency executives
Parent departmentUnited States Department of the Air Force
Parent agencyUnited States Space Force

The Space Development Agency (SDA) is a United States Space Force direct-reporting unit tasked with deploying disruptive space technology.[1] A primary focus is space-based missile defense using large global satellite constellations made up of industry-procured low-cost satellites. The SDA has been managed by the United States Space Force since October 2022.[2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    236 612
    13 680
  • Space Development Agency’s Tranche 0 Mission
  • VBExtra: Space Development Agency
  • Video 73 SpaceX's 22nd Launch of 2023 Space Development Agency’s Tranche 0 Mission
  • Elon Musk’s SpaceX to build satellites for Space Development Agency to track rival's ICBMs !
  • Spacepower Security Forum: Lunch Keynote: Dr. Derek Tournear, Director of Space Development Agency



The agency was established by Mike Griffin in 2019 with his appointment to Under Secretary of Defense (R&E) by President Donald Trump.[3] Griffin had long advocated for low Earth orbit constellations to eliminate U.S. vulnerability to ballistic missiles with his work on space-based interceptors for the Strategic Defense Initiative and Brilliant Pebbles in the 1980s. However these programs dissolved in the 1990s due to excess cost and political disagreement.[4] Later, the United States and other countries developed hypersonic weapons, which Griffin argued were thermally dimmer and could only be reliably tracked by low-flying satellites with infrared sensors, creating a need to resurrect such programs.[5][6] In addition to hypersonic weapons, the memorandum establishing the SDA also calls for a new space architecture "not bound by legacy methods or culture" that provides unifying command and control through a cross-domain artificial intelligence-enabled network.[7]

The Space Development Agency proposed the National Defense Space Architecture,[8][9][10] later renamed the Proliferated Warfighting Space Architecture.[a] It advances a network of global orbiters composed of layers with different military capabilities such as communications, surveillance, global navigation, battle management, deterrence, and missile defense. The satellite constellation is to be interconnected by free-space optical laser terminals in a secure command and control optical mesh network.[11] Satellites are to be low cost and "proliferated" in low Earth orbit. New commercial technology such as reusable launch systems have reduced deployment costs[12] and new mass-produced commercial satellites offer less "juicy" targets for anti-satellite weapons by being inexpensive and potentially hard to distinguish from other commercial satellites.[6] Development is to follow the spiral model,[b] incorporating learning from previous iterations and launching new satellite replacements regularly as the useful lifetime of each is relatively short. The SDA expects to field and maintain a constellation of at least 1,000 satellites on orbit by 2026.[13]

The SDA has mostly avoided flaws that plagued earlier proliferated missile defense programs such as Brilliant Pebbles. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty was a major impediment in the past, as these systems were deemed non-compliant with the treaty by Congress.[4] However, George W. Bush withdrew the United States from the treaty in 2002, eliminating this barrier.[14] Over the years, launch and manufacturing costs have been greatly reduced. SDIO research on the DC-X has since led to commercial reusable launch vehicles such as SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket.[15] Meanwhile mass manufacturing as with Starlink has proven the potential for lower satellite build costs.[12]

Political and administrative opposition to SDA came from 24th Secretary of the Air Force Heather Wilson who argued that "launching hundreds of cheap satellites into theater as a substitute for the complex architectures where we provide key capabilities to the warfighter will result in failure on America's worst day if relied upon alone."[13] Members of Congress also gave concerns that SDA would drain resources and jobs from Air Force and questioned why DoD had to create a separate organization to circumvent its own procurement process. Despite the pushback, the Pentagon did not require congressional authorization to create the SDA, and Wilson was overruled by Patrick M. Shanahan, who became acting defense secretary by appointment of Donald Trump. He placed the new agency under the authority and control of Mike Griffin who was also appointed as Under Secretary of Defense (R&E).[3]

Despite these early success, SDA still faces critical challenges. The Union of Concerned Scientists warned SDA could escalate tensions with Russia and China and called the project "fundamentally destabilizing".[16] Both China and Russia brought concerns to the United Nations about the U.S. plans for militarization of space.[17] The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace has advocated for better use of arms control and international agreements such as a treaty halting related development by all parties to prevent an arms race in space.[18]

Critics have reiterated longstanding concerns that ground-based lasers can easily "paint" satellites in low Earth orbit, temporarily blinding their sensors. The APS reporting the energy needed for this is very low.[19] Likewise, RF jamming is simpler when communication and radar satellites are in lower altitudes as less power is needed to saturate their low-noise amplifiers. It is also far easier to launch an anti-satellite weapon to destroy satellites in low Earth orbit (as demonstrated with small ASM-135 or RIM-161 missiles) given much less energy is required to kinetically intersect than to enter and maintain orbit. An adversary would simply need to "punch a hole" in the constellation immediately before launching an attack.[20][16][21] When the Biden Administration took ownership of the program in 2021, they appeared to take heed of these concerns[22] but still signed on to a $500M increase for the agency in the FY2023 spending bill.[23]

SDA awarded its first contracts in August 2020. Lockheed Martin received $188 million and York Space Systems received $94 million to each build 10 data relay satellites for its transport layer. In October 2020, SDA chose SpaceX and L3Harris Technologies to develop a deluxe military version of the Starlink satellite bus, later named Starshield.[24] The initial tranche of satellites were originally scheduled to launch September 2022.[11] However, the initial launch slipped due to supply-chain issues for microelectronics such as radios,[25] software problems, and protests by Raytheon and Airbus over procurement and evaluation process.[26] SDA industry partners now include SpaceX, L3Harris Technologies, Northrop Grumman, Ball Aerospace and General Dynamics.[13]

A number of experimental satellites were launched in 2021. SDA plans to test some of the key technologies in a series of on-orbit experiments that went up on Transporter-2: Mandrake 2, the Laser Interconnect and Networking Communications System (LINCS), and the Prototype On-orbit Experimental Testbed (POET).[27]

SDA’s current schedule expects Tranche 0 capability[b][c] will be on orbit in time to support a summer 2023 demonstration.[26][28][29][30]

Tranche 1 satellites were solicited for bid in 2021,[31] launch in September 2024,[32] with monthly launches thereafter.[33][34] More than 150 satellites: 126 in Transport layer; 35 in Tracking layer; 12 in T1 DES; [33]

Tranche 2 satellites were solicited for bid in 2023,[35] for launch in 2026.[35] More than 550 satellites: 250 in Transport layer; 50 in Tracking layer; Transport layer will have 100 Alpha satellites, 72 Beta satellites, 44 Gamma satellites.[33] The Beta satellites RFP will be released in the 2nd week of April.[33] The Alpha and Gamma satellites RFP will be released late 2023 or early 2024.[33] The Alpha satellites are similar to those in the Tranche 1 Transport Layer; the Beta satellites will have UHF and tactical communications payloads; the Gamma satellites will carry advanced waveform payloads.[33]

Projects and research

Transport layer[36] of the National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA)[37][a][38]
Rapid Reaction Launch Proliferated Ground C2[40] for the NDSA (National defense space architecture)[a][38] of the Space Development Agency
Rapid Reaction Launch Proliferated Ground C2[40] for the NDSA (National defense space architecture)[a][38] of the Space Development Agency

Among the SDA projects:

  • "Optical communications between satellites, and from satellites to a military drone aircraft".[41][42][43][10] Including the CubeSat based Laser Interconnect and Networking Communication System (LINCS).
  • Provide a resilient, persistent response to ballistic missile detection[44][45][46][47][48]
  • Build the JADC2[49] satellite backbone[50][51] using the National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA):[a][9][52][d] JADC2 confers on the US the capability to "move data globally at scale".[28] —Gen. Chance Saltzman, US Space Force
    • The satellite constellations are in near-polar low Earth orbit.[55] Hundreds of satellites are expected by the end of the 2020s.[10] "Would you be able to take out some of these satellites? Probably. Would you be able to take out all of these satellites? Probably not, before you are going to have a really bad day."—Derek Tournear [56]: min -2:10 before the end of the video clip [57][48]
    • NExT (National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA)[a] Experimental Testbed)[b] is a test bed of 10 space vehicles and associated mission-enabling ground systems, for realizing its various aspects, in miniature, before its larger, later scheduled deployments. In particular, the capability to retain and/or relay messages for command and control (C2) can then be demonstrated on the NExT test bed, before deployment at scale.[58][59]
    • Using the satellites of Tranche 0, the SDA will be demonstrating the new capabilities[b] of the PWSA[a] to the warfighters, to aid in concept development (using the "warfighter immersion tranche").[60][38][32]
    • Rapid response launch proliferated C2;[61][38][31] SDA remains the rapid launch proliferated arm for the Space Force.[40][a][46][31][63][64][37]
      1. User equipment (Earth stations and weapon systems)[56][65] SDA has selected the "ground Operations and Integration (O&I) segment for Tranche 1".[66]
      2. Transport layer intersatellite data[55] Tranche 1 Transport Layer (T1TL):[36] T1TL forms a mesh network in a constellation of small satellites in Low earth orbit (LEO). Each satellite would have 4 optical links.[31] SDA may have awarded 3 contracts totalling $1.8 billion to 3 firms, each for 42 satellites to be launched by September 2024.[36][63] However, there was a funding constraint in the FY2022 budget.[67][68][69]
      3. Tracking layer handles launched items,[70] connects to existing user equipment[9][67][65][71][72] Two contractors will each build 14 satellites for the Tranche 1 Tracking Layer as of 16 July 2022; these satellites will be in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by 2025; hundreds of satellites are planned for the Tracking layer.[73] The Tracking Layer is capable of tracking hypersonic missiles throughout their flight, by their heat signatures.[73][74][37][75]
      4. Custody layer[76] handles items not yet launched from objects as big as a truck,[77] connects to existing user equipment[9]
      5. Battle management ("autonomy, tipping and queuing and data fusion")[9][a][78][79][e][c][38][83][84]
      6. Navigation layer is not finalized, provides navigation & launch data[9]
      7. Deterrence layer is situational awareness of cislunar space vehicles[9]


Earth's satellites in: Low Earth orbit— LEO (blue); Medium Earth orbit— MEO (green); Cislunar distances (red): If one were to hold a blue marble out at arm's length, one would see Earth's size and shape from the perspective of the astronauts travelling to the Moon.
Earth's satellites in: Low Earth orbit— LEO (blue); Medium Earth orbit— MEO (green); Cislunar distances (red): If one were to hold a blue marble out at arm's length, one would see Earth's size and shape from the perspective of the astronauts travelling to the Moon.

SDA's initial launch of 10 satellites (denoted Tranche 0)[b] had been scheduled for December 2022; however tests of 8 of these satellites indicated that each had a noisy power supply. The contractor, York Space Systems retrofitted filters on the 8 satellites at no cost to the government; the initial launch was delayed to March 2023, including the 8 retrofitted by York Space Systems.[85][28]

On 2 April 2023 the first 10 satellites of Tranche 0 were launched into low earth orbit, as planned. These satellites will demonstrate the responsive (low latency) communication links of the Transport layer of the Proliferated Warfighter Space Architecture (PWSA). An initial checkout of the satellite bus and mission[b] payloads is the current priority.[85] The second Tranche 0 launch of its remaining 18 satellites is now planned for June 2023 at the earliest. [87][88][89][90]


By design,[91] the functions for acquisition and sustainment (A&S) are the responsibility of another under secretary of defense; this separation of function decouples the technology development of a working prototype system, even the systems as complicated as those taken on by the SDA, from overcomplication induced by the processes of the DoD.[205]

The SDA has relied heavily on "Section 804" Mid-Tier Acquisitions (MTAs) to avoid traditional defense procurement requirements. SDA has been able to forgo a number of reporting activities by breaking up larger programs into numerous two-year rapid fielding projects that each qualify as MTAs. Members of Congress and the Government Accountability Office have said this obfuscates costs and limits transparency. The FY23 omnibus appropriations act, signed by President Joe Biden on 29 December 2022, levies new reporting and certification requirements on the Pentagon regarding the use of MTAs and other rapid prototype programs. Industry participants such as MITRE Acquisition Chief Pete Modigliani have said the new requirements would "drastically impede DoD’s rapid acquisition abilities" for SDA and other programs.[188]

No. Director Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
-Kennedy, Fred G. IIIFred Kennedy[206]
March 12, 2019June 2019~3 months and 3 days
-Tournear, Derek M.Derek M. Tournear[207]
June 2019October 28, 2019~4 months and 13 days
1Tournear, Derek M.Derek M. Tournear[207]October 28, 2019[208]Incumbent3 years, 6 months, and 21 days

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The name change of the constellation from NDSA to PWSA —'proliferated warfighter space architecture'— will have no impact to the SDA mission.[62]
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tranche 0 will demonstrate the feasibility of
    • Low latency data connectivity
    • Beyond line of sight targeting
    • Missile warning/missile tracking
    • On-orbit fusion
    • Multi-phenomenology ground-based sensor fusion [29][38][64][86]
  3. ^ a b Space development agency (SDA) provides the PWSA wide field of view (WFOV) sensors; Missile defense agency (MDA) provides the Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS) sensors, (i.e., the Medium Field of View (MFOV) sensors). The WFOV sensors provide cueing data to the MFOV sensors, which are more sensitive and provide tipping data to the earth-based interceptors. [81] as cited in USNI News.[82] Two WFOV satellites were launched as part of the inititial Tranche 0.[28]
  4. ^ In September 2021 the Space Development Agency approved design plans for its new missile warning satellites, which will be capable of detecting and tracking hypersonic weapons. [53][37]
    • L3Harris Technologies announced that the Space Development Agency has approved the company’s proposed design for a missile tracking satellite.[54]
    • SpaceX will build 4 satellites for the Tranche 0 tracking layer.[28]
  5. ^ In Remote Sensing, Tipping and Queuing (Cueing) is a technique for tracking and monitoring fast-moving objects, using multiple sensors of multiple modalities (for example electro-optical and radar sensors). One sensor with a wide field of view might detect, acquire, and even track an object of interest (the 'target'); that sensor would 'tip' another sensor with the tracking information for that target. The next sensor, say with point defense capability, might then take the 'cue' to narrow the tracking box around the target, to build more accurate tracking information, to tip yet another defense system, and so forth. See Automatic identification system (AIS)[80]
  1. ^ About Us
  2. ^ United States Space Force "Space Development Agency transfers to USSF". United States Space Force. Retrieved 2022-10-06.
  3. ^ a b Erwin, Sandra (21 April 2019). "Space Development Agency a huge win for Griffin in his war against the status quo". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b Baucom, Donald (2004). "The Rise and Fall of Brilliant Pebbles" (PDF). The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies. 29 (2).
  5. ^ Freedberg, Sydney (20 August 2018). "Space-Based Missile Defense Can Be Done: DoD R&D. Chief Griffin". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Hypersonic Missile Defense: Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  7. ^ Secretary of Defense Defense, Secretary of (12 March 2019). "Establishment of the Space Development Agency" (PDF). Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  8. ^ a b (2022) National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA) Systems, Technologies, and Emerging Capabilities (STEC) About Us
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Stew Magnuson (19 September 2019) "Details of the Pentagon New Space Architecture Revealed".
  10. ^ a b c d Nathan Strout (1 Jul 2021) The Space Development Agency now has demo satellites on orbit. Here’s what they’ll do. Transporter-2: Mandrake 2, the Laser Interconnect and Networking Communications System (LINCS), and the Prototype On-orbit Experimental Testbed (POET). Yam-3 for data fusion. Pitboss for Autonomous mission management.
  11. ^ a b Machi, Vivienne (1 June 2021). "US Military Places a Bet on LEO for Space Security". Space Development Agency. Retrieved 1 December 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ a b "Costs of Implementing Recommendations of the 2019 Missile Defense Review". Congressional Budget Office. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  13. ^ a b c Albon, Courtney (8 December 2022). "How the Space Development Agency 'could have died any number of ways'". Defense News. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  14. ^ James M. Acton (13 December 2021). "The U.S. Exit From the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Has Fueled a New Arms Race". Carnegie Endowment. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  15. ^ Gannon, Megan (19 August 2013). "DC-X Rocket Remembered: 'Sputnik of Commercial Space' Joins Space Hall of Fame". Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  16. ^ a b "Space-based Missile Defense". Union of Concerned Scientists. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  17. ^ "Statement by Deputy Head of the Russian Delegation on Outer Space Disarmament Aspects". Russian Federation to the United Nations. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  18. ^ "Approaching the Third Rail? A Trilateral Treaty to Prohibit Space-Based Missile Defenses". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  19. ^ "Exclusive Graphic Soviet lasers said to zap U.S. spy satellites". UPI.
  20. ^ Popkin, Gabriel (22 January 2019). "Decades after Reagan's 'Star Wars,' Trump calls for missile defenses that would blast warheads from the sky".
  21. ^ Sandra Erwin (21 Dec 2017) New report slams idea of a missile defense shield in space by Thomas Roberts, CSIS
  22. ^ "2022 National Defense Strategy" (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense. 27 October 2022. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  23. ^ Erwin, Sandra (December 24, 2022). "Congress adds $1.7 billion for U.S. Space Force in 2023 spending bill". SpaceNews.
  24. ^ Erwin, Sandra (5 October 2020). "L3Harris, SpaceX win Space Development Agency contracts to build missile-warning satellites". SpaceNews. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  25. ^ Erwin, Sandra (14 September 2022). "Space Development Agency's first launch slips due to supply chain setbacks". Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  26. ^ a b Albon, Courtney (September 14, 2022). "Space Development Agency launch delayed by supply chain, bid protests". C4ISRNet.
  27. ^ Strout, Nathan (July 1, 2021). "The Space Development Agency now has demo satellites on orbit. Here's what they'll do". C4ISRNet.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Theresa Hitchens (29 Mar 2023) Space Development Agency readies launch of first satellites for comms, missile tracking
  29. ^ a b US Department of Defense (2 Apr 2023)  Space Development Agency Successfully Launches Tranche 0 Satellites
  30. ^ a b Courtney Albon (28 Apr 2023) How three space agencies are collaborating on next-gen missile warning
  31. ^ a b c d e Theresa Hitchens (27 Aug 2021) SDA Opens Contest For First Operational Constellation 30 Aug 2021 RFP for Tranche 1 Transport Layer (T1TL) Jan 2022
  32. ^ a b Audrey Decker (4 Apr 2023) Satellite Ground Stations Are Vulnerable, US Warns
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Greg Hadley (5 Apr 2023) SDA’s Tournear 'Just Not' Afraid of Satellite Shootdowns. Supply Chain Is the Greater Worry.: Tranche 1 detail; T1 DES (Demonstration and Experimentation System) detail; Tranche 2 detail;
  34. ^ a b Courtney Albon (10 Apr 2023) US Space Force to simplify timelines, purchases as launches surge National Security Space Launch (NSSL Phase 3) FY25 to FY34
  35. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (6 Apr 2023) Space Development Agency readies first solicitation for 'global' data constellation T2TL: 212 Transport Layer satellites for launch beginning in 2026
  36. ^ a b c d Greg Hadley (28 Feb 2022) SDA Awards $1.8 Billion in Contracts for 126 Satellites for 2024 T1TL
  37. ^ a b c d e Armament Facts (21 Jul 2022) How The New Hypersonic Weapons Tracking Constellation Will Work 16:45 minutes. 2 awards, each of 14 satellites due to launch in 2025.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Theresa Hitchens (21 Jan 2020) SDA To Demo Tracking & Targeting Satellites In 2022 Tranche0 Link-16. Summary of 7-layer architecture.
  40. ^ a b c d Theresa Hitchens (22 Sep 2022) Space Development Agency chief clears up 'confusion' about where his agency is going "SDA Director Derek Tournear said his shop will remain its own when it formally joins the Space Force in coming weeks, giving the service another acquisition outlet." SDA and Space RCO remain direct reporting units to Frank Calvelli; SSC remains a major command of the Space Force.
  41. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (21 Jun 2021) SDA Demos Spotlight Tech Hurdles To JADC2 Backbone 5 payloads: Optical link, Sat to drone
  42. ^ a b Strout, Nathan (February 11, 2021). "SDA to launch several demonstration satellites in 2021". C4ISRNet.
  43. ^ a b " has moved".
  44. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (21 January 2021) Austin Signals Shift Back To Focus On Space Resilience Space Acquisition executive
  45. ^ a b c Sara Mineiro; (Mezher, Chyrine) (June 14, 2021). "Pentagon: Diversify Your Orbital Regimes".
  46. ^ a b Greg Hadley (7 Jun 2022) Study: Combine Missile Warning, Tracking Constellations Into One Multi-Orbit System
  47. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (21 Sep 2022) Space Force phasing out missile warning from GEO, will focus on lower orbits ' "We'll do away with the GEOs, and the big, exquisite expensive satellites," said SDA Director Derek Tournear.'
  48. ^ Colin Clark (4 Jun 2021) SecDef OKs JADC2 Strategy: Now OSD Has ‘Teeth’  Approved 13 May 2021
  49. ^ a b Insinna, Valerie (June 1, 2021). "SMC, SDA Missile Warning Sat Ground Systems Won't 'Talk' - For Now".
  50. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens "JROC Tags Space Force To Make Satellites Link With JADC2". June 3, 2021.
  52. ^ Nathan Strout "Space Development Agency approves design for satellites that can track hypersonic weapons". Defense News. 2021-09-20. Retrieved 2021-10-22.
  53. ^ Sandra Erwin (20 September 2021) "L3Harris' missile-tracking satellites pass early design review". SpaceNews. 2021-09-20. Retrieved 2021-10-22.
  54. ^ a b Transport layer
  55. ^ a b c AUSA Warriors Corner (10.16.2019) "2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities". DVIDS.
  56. ^ a b Wall Street Journal (27 Oct 2022) Russia Warns of Possible Attacks on Satellites Used to Help Ukraine
  57. ^ SDA (3 Jun 2022) SDA Seeks Industry Feedback through DRAFT Solicitation for NExT (National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA) Experimental Testbed) 10 space vehicles and associated mission-enabling ground systems
  58. ^ Theresa Hitchens (20 Jan 2023) SDA hopes SABRE sensors can slash missile testing costs by 'millions' "SDA already has a lot of interest from the Army and DoD's testing community in its Space-Based Telemetry Monitoring, Electronic Support, and Alternative Navigation (SABRE) project"
  59. ^ Courtney Albon (4 Apr 2023) Space Development Agency enters demonstration phase after first launch
  60. ^ C Todd Lopez (2 May 2021) On-Time Delivery Top Priority at Space Development Agency
  61. ^ SDA (23 Jan 2023) SDA Layered Network of Military Satellites Now Known as "Proliferated Warfighter Space Architecture" (PWSA— formerly known as NDSA)
  62. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (28 Oct 2021) SDA Scraps, Relaunches Data Transport Satellite Bidding After Protest  Tranche 1: T1TL of Aug 2021 was rescinded: "126 satellites [each] with Ka-band space-to-ground communications link, four optical communications terminals, a Link 16 payload (which is the current standard for machine-to-machine communications link among US and allied weapon systems), and a battle management, command, control and communications (BMC3) compute and storage module"; T1TL RFP was reissued 28 Oct 2021. T1TL terms were replaced with OTA authority instead. Proposals were due 24 Nov 2021.
  63. ^ a b Chris Gordon (3 Apr 2023) Speed, Cost, Performance—In That Order—Key to SDA's Successful Tranche 0 Launch, Director Says First use of Link 16 in space
  64. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (28 Jun 2022) Army moves ahead with Palantir and Raytheon for next phase of TITAN
  65. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (27 May 2022) Space Development Agency taps GD-Iridium team for complex ground system
  66. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (1 Mar 2022) Budget roadblock delaying Pentagon satellite program to track hypersonic missiles  $750 million in question in FY2022 budget. An alternative, Tranche 1 Demonstration and Experimentation System (T1DES) can be let for 18 satellites.
  67. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Oct 2022) York scores SDA contract worth up to $200M for experimental communications satellites T1DES capabilities test (of UHF/S-band frequencies) using 12 satellites; provides data for a March 2023 decision on Tranche2
  68. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (18 Feb 2022) SDA awards $1.8B in contracts for first operational data transport sats Tranche 1 Transport layer (T1TL) award
  69. ^ Tracking layer
  70. ^ Courtney Albon (2 Mar 2023) Raytheon to make seven missile-tracking satellites for US space agency Tranche 1 Tracking Layer
  71. ^ Courtney Albon (15 Mar 2022) Space Development Agency to launch next missile warning satellites earlier than expected
  72. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (18 July 2022) L3Harris, Northrop score $1.3B in SDA hypersonic missile tracking contracts
  73. ^ a b David Vergun. DoD News (11 May 2022) DOD Focused on Hypersonic Missile Defense Development, Admiral Says Jon A. Hill: Planned May 2023 launch MDA/ SDA launch of interoperable hypersonic tracking satellites to track dim targets (cruise missiles)
  74. ^ a b Center for Strategic & International Studies (7 Feb 2022) Complex Air Defense: Countering the Hypersonic Missile Threat Dr. Tom Karako, Director of the CSIS Missile Defense Project; Ms. Kelley Sayler, CRS; Dr. Gillian Bussey, Director of the Joint Hypersonics Transition Office; Dr. Mark Lewis, Executive Director of NDIA's Emerging Technologies Institute; Mr. Stan Stafira, Chief Architect at the Missile Defense Agency (MDA)
  75. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (7 Apr 2022) Space Force’s $1B for hypersonic missile tracking in FY23 will go to new satellites, ground systems Track Custody Prototype (TCP), and MEO satellite constellations with ground stations
  76. ^ Custody layer
  77. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (10 Nov 2022) Space Development Agency asks for satellite 'battle management system' proposals "The on-board Battle Management, Command, Control and Communications (BMC3) software module will be tested on SDA's Tranche 1 Transport Layer data relay satellites"
  78. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 Dec 2021)  NGA Gears Up For All Domain Ops references tipping and queuing of the data sensors and sources of the NGA's intelligence community
  79. ^ Muhammad Irfan Ali (20 Jan 2021) Tip And Cue technique for efficient near-real-time satellite monitoring of moving objects
  80. ^ Kelley M. Sayler (24 Jan 2023) Hypersonic Missile Defense: Issues for Congress IF11623
  81. ^ USNI News (27 Jan 2023) Report to Congress on Hypersonic Missile Defense
  82. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (6 Apr 2023) SPACECOM ops head 'tired of the excuses' about satellite tracking gaps a BMC3 problem; currently solvable in the  Space Surveillance Network (SSN).
  83. ^ a b Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs (19 Sep 2022) Air Force taps Brig. Gen. Luke Cropsey to head new integrated C3 battle management program Command, Control, Communications and Battle Management (C3BM). [Cropsey] will have the authorities required to ensure integration of all C3BM related programs throughout the DAF, as a core contribution to the Department of Defense's broader Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) effort. [Integrating] PEO will also have responsibility for the Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS).
  84. ^ a b Courtney Albon (2 Apr 2023) SpaceX rocket launches Space Development Agency’s first satellites
  85. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (11 May 2023) Congressional concern re-emerges on fate of MDA’s hypersonic missile tracking sensors
  86. ^ Sandra Erwin (9 Dec 2022) Space Development Agency’s first launch slips to March due to satellite glitch
  87. ^ a b Tara Copp (9 Aug 2021) Hypersonic Missile Defense May Depend on Low Earth Orbit Satellites PIRPL
  88. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2019) Army Seeks Small Satellites To Support Ground Troops 3 programs: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris.
  91. ^ Valerie Insinna (11 Apr 2022) After hearing Silicon Valley complaints, Hicks says no 'magical' fix to acquisition Hicks software modernization strategy
  92. ^ Arnold Punaro "Book Excerpt: Pruning The Acquisition Kudzu". July 29, 2021.
  93. ^ Courtney Albon (8 Dec 2022) How the Space Development Agency 'could have died any number of ways' Apr 2019
  94. ^ Aaron Mehta and Valerie Insinna (13 Mar 2019) In memo, Air Force secretary slams Space Development Agency as not ready for prime time
  95. ^ Theresa Hitchens (7 Dec 2022) 'Compromise' NDAA boosts Space Force budget, but keeps tight reins on policy decisions Senate wants explicit waiver from OSD exempting SDA from JCIDS
  96. ^ Greg Hadley (8 Dec 2022) Compromise NDAA; Here’s What’s in It for the Space Force The Office of the Secretary of Defense to review "whether the Space Development Agency should be exempt from the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System in order to speed overall fielding of proliferated space system".
  97. ^ Ryan Duffy (12 Dec 2022) Lawmakers Release FY23 Compromise NDAA Bill Space Force funding summary
  98. ^ Courtney Albon (28 Nov 2022) Millennium, Raytheon complete design review for missile warning system Missile Track Custody, in MEO
  99. ^ Courtney Albon (13 Jan 2023) Lawmakers chart 'middle course' on space-based missile warning funding Bridging strategies for Missile warning, tracking, custody. GEO/MEO/LEO.
  100. ^ Theresa Hitchens (27 Jul 2022) Rocket science: How Space Force acquisition works, with many players and dual hats Space Force's Space Systems Command (SSC) org chart. Lt. Gen. Michael Guetlein, is head of SSC
  101. ^ DoD News (14 Dec 2020) What's With All the U.S. Space-Related Agencies? Manpower levels from all contributors
  102. ^ Tobias Naegele (27 Nov 2022) Q&A: The New Chief of Space Operations on Empowering the Force Gen. B. Chance "Salty" Saltzman builds out the Force by empowering its people
  103. ^ DoD (8 Dec 2022) Seven Nations Meet to Address Space Security CSpO Principals Board: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States met in NZ. Included: Dr. John Plumb, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Space Policy; U.S. Space Force Gen. Chance Saltzman, Chief of Space Operations; U.S. Army GEN James H. Dickinson, Commander, United States Space Command; and Mr. Damon Wells, National Reconnaissance Office
  104. ^ Theresa Hitchens (28 Dec 2022) At home and internationally, ‘governance’ is the space watchword: 2023 Preview Space governance
  105. ^ Devin Coldewey (9 Jan 2023) FCC moves to form Space Bureau as its role in regulating orbit intensifies
  106. ^ Theresa Hitchens (23 Dec 2022) In Space, baby steps and a ponderous 'pivot': 2022 in Review
  107. ^ Jaspreet Gill (13 Jul 2022) Air Force needs more efficiency from 'raindrop' software factories: Former DoD cyber official devSecOps
  108. ^ David Roza (14 Jun 2022) The Pentagon’s new data chief waited days just for an ID card
  109. ^ Sandra Erwin (February 17, 2019). "Pentagon seeking proposals for how to use sensors in space to quickly target enemy missiles". SpaceNews.
  110. ^ Mandy Mayfield (16 Apr 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon Bringing New Space Sensing Capabilities Online (UPDATED)  Space Fence
  111. ^ "Satellite Map | Explore Active Satellites Orbiting Earth".
  112. ^ Jacqueline Feldscher (31 Mar 2022) Space Force Buys a Digital Twin of Orbital Space "Updated 'minute-by-minute', the Slingshot Aerospace tool is expected to improve training and real-world planning"
  113. ^ Eric Berger (8 Aug 2022) Rocket Lab’s launch cadence now “100 percent” driven by market demand -Updated  Western Launch Companies: United Launch Alliance, ArianeSpace, SpaceX, and Rocket Lab
  114. ^ Robert Johnson (19 May 2021) Parsons Lands $185M Task to Support Space Force Situational Awareness System Integrated Solutions for Situational Awareness ISSA, unclassified version
  115. ^ Courtney Albon (3 Nov 2022) Next Space Force chief should focus on resiliency, Raymond says 1st commander of USSF. Summary: SWAC worked well with 600 people.
  116. ^ Theresa Hitchens (26 Apr 2023) Space Force wraps initial plan for building 'hybrid' commercial/military 'outernet'
  117. ^ Courtney Albon (26 Apr 2023) The US is rethinking national security space architecture. Is it moving fast enough? 38:21 video. Col. Eric Felt; Mr. Nicholas Eftimiades
  118. ^ Courtney Albon (26 Apr 2023) Space Force eyes 'outernet' for better data flow in orbit Space Warfighting Analysis Center (SWAC) has analyzed Transport layer needs: Col. Felt. Use mesh networking, use commercial vendors
  119. ^ Bloomberg Quicktake: Originals (16 Jun 2022) How LeoLabs Is Using New Tech to Target Space Junk LEOLabs is focusing on the lowest 2,000 kilometers above Earth, provides an API to transmit collision avoidance (machine-to-machine API) alerts to its customers
  120. ^ C. Todd Lopez , DOD News (21 Oct 2022) U.S. Space Command to Transfer Space Object Tracking to Department of Commerce
  121. ^ Courtney Albon (10 Nov 2022) Why the Space Force is getting serious about on-orbit servicing
  122. ^ Sandra Erwin (12 Nov 2022) X-37B space plane completes its sixth mission, lands after nearly 30 months in orbit Could refuel satellites, move space junk to graveyard
  123. ^ a b Marcus Weisgerber (18 Apr 2023) Allies Want Space Defenses Too, US Official Says
  124. ^ Theresa Hitchens (19 Apr 2023) Space Force, SPACECOM pushing to speed 'sustained' maneuverability on orbit "on-orbit servicing and repair, satellite refueling and space junk cleanup"
  125. ^ Christian Davenport, (c) 2023 The Washington Post (8 Mar 2023) War in space: U.S. officials debating rules for a conflict in orbit Falcon 9 61 Launches in 2022
  126. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 Sep 2021)  Revolutionary Tech Could Allow Near-Real Time Space Tracking, Company Says MITRE
  127. ^ Theresa Hitchens "Theater Commands OK SDA's Sat Plans: EXCLUSIVE". April 1, 2021.
  128. ^ Nate Turkin (28 Apr 2021) What focus areas are key to America’s future space capabilities?
  129. ^ Le portail Sécurité et Défense du Québec "US Army network team sets timeline for satellite constellations". SDQuébec.
  130. ^ Colin Clark (20 Mar 2019) Space Force May Not Fix Space Acquisition Mess Military space programs have to navigate a maze of 60 agencies
  131. ^ Detsche Welle (27 Oct 2022) Ukraine updates: Russia threatens West's satellites
  132. ^ Washington Headquarters Service (WHS) (2010) Plain Language Official DoD Plain Language Website — DoD Instruction 5025.13, "DoD Plain Language Program".
  133. ^ (11 Oct 2022) Watch, Read: 'Accelerating Space Acquisition' Video (pre-SDA in Space Force): SpRCO, SSC talking with Calvelli (SAF/SQ) video: Calvelli; Hammett; Whitney; Purdy
  134. ^ Courtney Albon (21 Sep 2022) Is Space Force moving fast enough for its Rapid Capabilities Office? Space RCO is DRU of "SpOC" ?
  135. ^ Theresa Hitchens (5 Oct 2022) New Space Force team to streamline 'onboarding' new tech for operational use
  136. ^ Theresa Hitchens (1 Nov 2022) With new 'scorecard', Space Force’s acquisition chief talks changing culture "I'm really messaging three things to industry — that I really want them to give me credible proposals, and I really want them to execute, and I'm not going to tolerate poor performance" —Frank Calvelli
  137. ^ Courtney Albon (1 Nov 2022) Space Force's Calvelli issues acquisition 'guideposts' "nine acquisition tenets"
  138. ^ Theresa Hitchens (25 Apr 2023) Space Force acquisition czar wraps program 'scorecard', puts floundering contractors on notice
  139. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (1 Nov 2022) It’s Official: Space Force Sets Sights on Smaller Satellites
  140. ^ Theresa Hitchens (17 May 2023) Space Force ground control operators press for 'absolutely critical' network upgrades Overview of Satellite Control Network
  141. ^ Sandra Erwin (17 May 2023) Space Force selects Parsons to develop ground system for missile-warning satellites Ground stations For 6 'missile warning, missile tracking, missile track custody' (MTC) satellites in MEO by 2026 --Space Systems Command
  142. ^ Greg Hadley (17 May 2023) USAF Looks to Fill Intelligence Gaps from Space spaceBasedIsr: ISR (Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance)
  143. ^ Thomas Gnau (18 May 2023) New Mission for Wright-Patterson: Air Force Says Base to Get New ISR Mission 76th ISR squadron in Space Delta 7, Wright Patterson AFB. 90 people
  144. ^ Michael Marrow (23 Mar 2023) In new JADC2 overhaul, Air Force pushes all-encompassing 'DAF Battle Network' Cropsey to work with ASAFs Hunter and Calvelli, and their leads Jeffrey Valenzia and John Olson (USAF, USSF)
  145. ^ Jaspreet Gill (19 Sep 2022) 'Decision superiority': Air Force picks 5 companies to develop ABMS digital infrastructure Calvelli gets another report, for Advanced Battle Management System (Air Force and Space Force implementation of JADC2). Air Force's Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO) leads the ABMS Digital Infrastructure Consortium for "secure processing, resilient communications, data management and open-architecture".
  146. ^ Theresa Hitchens (18 Jan 2023) Space acquisition office weighs mission priorities in case satellites go down "a new program office dedicated solely to 'resiliency' "
  147. ^ Colin Demarest (23 Sep 2022) Siemens, 29 others added to Air Force’s $950 million JADC2 contract
  148. ^ Tobias Naegele (16 Dec 2022) Air Force Vice Chief: B-21 Not Just a Bomber, Will Mesh with JADC2, NGAD
  149. ^ Tim Ryan Mitchell Institute (11 Jan 2023) To ensure JADC2, and to win in future conflicts, look to the transport layer in space Ground Moving Target Identification (GMTI) and Air Moving Target Identification (AMTI)
  150. ^ Amanda Miller (3 Nov 2022) Refining the JADC2 Concept "Agreeing to share data is easy. Actually doing it is hard". —Derek M.Tournear, SDA: °First) beyond-line-of-sight targeting. "Think mobile missile launchers—think ships. Detect them. Track them. Calculate a fire control solution and send it down directly to the war fighter so they can use that in their solution"; °Second) enable that same thing 'for advanced missiles in flight'. That is, to detect and track a hypersonic glide vehicle in flight, then "calculate a fire control solution [and] send it down to an interceptor to take out that threat immediately".
  151. ^ Courtney Albon (7 Jul 2022) US Space Force rapid capabilities office to deliver first project this year Kelly Hammett directs Space RCO. Space RCO is colocated with Space Systems Command’s Innovation and Prototyping Delta, and Air Force Research Laboratory’s Space Vehicles Directorate
  152. ^ Theresa Hitchens (29 Jun 2022) New Space Force acquisition exec eschews more reorganization Frank Calvelli
  153. ^ Theresa Hitchens (28 Jun 2021) Loft Orbital’s ‘Rideshare’ Sats: Take An Uber To Space Yam-2, Yam-3
  154. ^ Theresa Hitchens (1 Jul 2021) SMC Eyes MEO Sats For Missile Tracking Raytheon & Boeing Millennium Systems are designing digital prototypes which are in Critical design review (CDR) by Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) for launch to MEO in late 2022. Missile Track Custody Prototype (TCD)
  155. ^ Sandra Erwin (4 Jan 2023) Raytheon selects Lockheed Martin bus for U.S. Space Force missile-tracking satellite "Raytheon's infrared sensing payload will be integrated on a Lockheed Martin LM400" 2026 launch
  156. ^ Nathan Strout (29 Nov 2021) Raytheon acquires SEAKR Engineering
  157. ^ Marjorie Censer (18 Dec 2022) L3Harris moves to acquire Aerojet Rocketdyne for $4.7 billion, after Lockheed Martin ended its attempt for Rocketdyne in Feb 2022
  158. ^ Nathan Strout (3 May 2020) SEAKR moving forward with DARPA’s Pit Boss project
  159. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 Jun 2020) DARPA’s Blackjack Jumps Forward With Payload, Bus, Demo Awards
  160. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 Mar 2023) Project Blackjack: DARPA’s test of satellite laser links delayed
  161. ^ Theresa Hitchens (9 Jul 2021) Space RCO Head: Too Soon For Single Acquisition Shop 50 to 55 contracts by year-end 2021
  162. ^ Tony Capaccio (10 Jul 2021) Pentagon Sees China’s Offensive Space Technology ‘On the March’ Jamming, dazzling, kinetic kill
  163. ^ Theresa Hitchens (16 Jul 2021) NTS-3, Aiming To Improve On GPS, Starts Integration Tests In August Toolkit of PWSA techniques
  164. ^ Nathan Strout (29 Jul 2021) Space Force launches small satellite to test new sensor possibilities 6U vs 12U bus
  165. ^ CTO Advanced Capabilities (2021) Advanced Capabilities Roles
  166. ^ Theresa Hitchens "OCX On Track, Says Raytheon; Begins New Upgrade". May 5, 2021. OCX See GPS signals
  167. ^ Loren Blinde "Raytheon I&S wins GPS OCX contract". May 6, 2021.
  168. ^ Barry Rosenberg (20 Aug 2021) Next-Gen GPS Satellites Get Ground-Control Modernization control segment: OCX 3F
  169. ^ (updated 9 Dec 2021) " Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX)". (PB2022) Exhibit R-2A, RDT&E Project Justification: PB 2022 Air Force Presidential budget justification for OCX activities
  170. ^ Michael Marrow (27 Sep 2022)  Space Force sees another schedule slip for OCX delivery, risking GPS IIIF delay on IOC of Apr 2023: "OCX will replace the legacy Global Positioning System ground control apparatus as the Space Force plans the launch of a new series of GPS satellites"
  171. ^ Courtney Albon (3 May 2023) Raytheon, Lockheed to compete for Space Force satellite ground system Ground Resilient Integration and Framework for Operational Nuclear Command, Control and Communication system (GRIFFON)
  172. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (4 May 2023)  Lockheed Reorganizes Its Space Division, Adding Plans to Sell Satellite Parts to Other Companies. Lockheed National Security Space "combine[s] its military space unit, which builds satellites; its special programs division for classified work; and its mission solutions unit, which connects the satellites to the military and intelligence community".
  173. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Dec 2022) NGA’s Stardust will modernize Earth models for GPS, mapping Geomatics
  174. ^ Theresa Hitchens (1 Jul 2022) Experimental missile warning satellite will test tech for Space Force use in multiple orbits WFOV to GEO, for OPIR
  175. ^ Nathan Strout (6 Aug 2021) Northrop Grumman, Ball Aerospace clear milestone for missile warning payload Next Gen Overhead Persistent Infrared to replace SBIRS
  176. ^ Colin Clark "SASC Frets DoD Missile Warning Satellite Efforts May Be Flailing". September 28, 2021.
  177. ^ Theresa Hitchens (11 Nov 2021) MDA: Hypersonic missile tracking prototypes on point for 2023 launch "What happens after the HBTSS prototype demonstrations, however, is yet to be determined"
  178. ^ Theresa Hitchens (20 Aug 2021) Exclusive: Pentagon Poised To Unveil, Demonstrate Classified Space Weapon to shoot down satellites —John Hyten
  179. ^ Therese Hitchens (15 Dec 2022) 'Huge, huge problem': DoD space policy chief says over-classification harming allied advantage
  180. ^ Tariq Malik (22 Jan 2022) You can watch SpaceX launch more than four dozen Starlink internet satellites tonight. Here's how.
  181. ^ Daviscourt, Joshua (28 June 2021). "COTS and Space-based Missile Defense". United States Air Force. Retrieved 1 December 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  182. ^ RevModPhys2004 "An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives". National Research Council. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  183. ^ Barton, David K.; Falcone, Roger; Kleppner, Daniel; Lamb, Frederick K.; Lau, Ming K.; Lynch, Harvey L.; Moncton, David; Montague, David; Mosher, David E.; Priedhorsky, William; Tigner, Maury; Vaughan, David R. (5 October 2004). "Report of the American Physical Society Study Group on Boost-Phase Intercept Systems for National Missile Defense: Scientific and Technical Issues". Reviews of Modern Physics. 76 (3): S1–S424. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.76.S1. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  184. ^ Theresa Hitchens (24 Aug 2021) "Kendall To Announce Space Acquisition Shake Up". August 24, 2021.
  185. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (24 Aug 2021) "Air Force's Kendall Creates Space Acquisition Office, Accelerates Absorption of Space Development Agency". Defense One.
  186. ^ Proposed budget FY21 "(FY2021 budget justification) Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Space Force (FY20) Proposed Budget Exhibit R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification: PB 2021 Air Force" (PDF).
  187. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (6 Feb 2023) Oversight or overkill? DoD faces new congressional order to detail Mid-Tier Acquisitions "While lawmakers worry over lack of oversight, MITRE's Pete Modilgiani tells Breaking Defense, 'The Middle Tier of Acquisition [MTA] pathway is one of DoD's most valuable tools to rapidly deliver capabilities ... to deter China’s threat' ".
  188. ^ Theresa Hitchens (11 Nov 2022) Space Development Agency missile tracking data will inform NC3 "While the timeframe for certifying SDA's Tracking Layer as part of the nuclear attack sensor network remains unclear, SDA Director Derek Tournear said there is 'plenty of time' to get it done". SBIRS and next-gen OPIR satellites are already ITWAA-certified. 2025-26 time frame.
  189. ^ Nathan Strout (27 Aug 2021) New hypersonic missile-tracking satellites pass critical design review for Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS) prototypes
  190. ^ Theresa Hitchens (4 Jan 2023) Space Force Missile Track Custody prototype effort moves to hardware stage 2 awards: to Raytheon Intelligence & Space (RI&S), and to Boeing’s Millennium Space Systems. Satellites in MEO by 2026.
  191. ^ Courtney Albon (6 Apr 2023) US Space Force's responsive space strategy taking shape Tactically responsive space strategy: Millennium to build (8 months), Firefly to launch (24 hours after build is complete)
  192. ^ Audrey Decker (10 Apr 2023) Three Years or Less: The Space Force's New "Simple Formula" to Go Fast Calvelli constraints on NRE, fixed price contracts
  193. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 Apr 2021) Antennas: The hard physics challenge for Space Force ‘hybrid’ SATCOM plan TITAN seeks "SATCOM signals from constellations in LEO, MEO and GEO"
  194. ^ Breaking Defense (24 Oct 2022) TITAN is a thing of great strength, intellect, and importance: For the Army, it’s all that for JADC2 "A tactical ground station that finds and tracks threats to support long-range precision targeting, TITAN promises to bring together data from ground, air, and space sensors".
  195. ^ Theresa Hitchens (21 Nov 2022) SDA ponders signal, tech trade-offs for alternate GPS satellite payloads "SDA is considering signals different to GPS, but offered within the same frequency bands. If SDA’s military PNT service is located within the existing GPS frequency bands, it will minimize integration cost of new antenna systems on terrestrial weapon systems".
  196. ^ C4ISRNET staff (16 Dec 2022) Space imaging company Maxar agrees to $6.4 billion takeover by Advent International. Maxar to remain in Westminster, Colorado. 4400 employees
  197. ^ Theresa Hitchens (19 Dec 2022) SES launches O3b mPower satellites, eyeing government, defense sectors Satellite uses 5000 digitally formed beams, each tuned to a different sovereign user. 2 satellites launched into MEO, 11 satellites planned
  198. ^ Stephen Chen, SCMP (24 Feb 2023) China aims to launch nearly 13,000 satellites to 'suppress' Elon Musk’s Starlink, researchers say in near-Earth orbit
  199. ^ Aaron Mehta, ed. (6 January 2022) 2021-2022 Military Space Survey 26 pages
  200. ^ Sandra Erwin (1 Feb 2023) Space Development Agency issues draft solicitation for 72 satellites beta 2026 Tranche 2 Transport Layer: "The Space Development Agency is planning a new procurement of 72 satellites to continue to build out a military constellation in low Earth orbit". Part of a 216 satellite tranche. 6 orbital planes.
  201. ^ Joshua Hartman, GEOST (4 Jan 2023) It’s time to rethink how to get the most out of a Space Domain Awareness architecture SDAAcislunarCubesat >Eric Berger (14 Nov 2022) The first cubesat to fly and operate at the Moon has successfully arrived  cislunar Cubesat
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