To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Eastern portion of the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount
Eastern portion of the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount

The Southern Wall is a wall at the southern end of the Temple Mount and the former southern side of the Second Temple (also called Herod's Temple) in Jerusalem. It was built during King Herod's expansion of the Temple Mount platform southward on to the Ophel.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    313
    1 637
    3 135
    605
    2 946
  • Video Southern Wall Systems Trailer
  • A Video Tour to the Southern Wall of Temple Mount in Jerusalem
  • Western Wall (Part 4 of 5) Southern Steps: Where Jesus walked; Davidson Ctr, Robinson's Arch
  • John Hagee Ministries 2015: 'Live From Israel 2014 Southern Wall Steps' with John Hagee pastor
  • The exposed southern part of Jerusalem 2nd Temple Western (wailing) Wall. Temple's Hidden Wall -6

Transcription

Contents

Construction

The Southern Wall is 922 feet (281 m) in length, and which the historian Josephus equates as being equal to the length of one furlong (Greek: stadion).[1] Herod's southern extension of the Temple Mount is clearly visible from the east, standing on the Mount of Olives or to a visitor standing on top of the Temple mount as a slight change in the plane of the eastern wall, the so-called "Straight Joint."[2] Herod's Royal Stoa stood atop this southern extension.[2] The enormous retaining wall is built of enormous blocks of Jerusalem stone, the face of each ashlar (block) is edged with a margin, the boss is raised about 3/8" above the surrounding margins. The unmortared blocks are so finely fitted together that a knife blade cannot be inserted between the ashlars.[2]

An enormous flight of steps leads to the Southern Wall from the south. They were excavated after 1967 by archaeologist Benjamin Mazar and are the northernmost extension of the Jerusalem pilgrim road leading from the Pool of Siloam to the Temple Mount via the Double Gate and the Triple Gate. These are the steps that Jesus of Nazareth[2][3] and other Jews of his era walked up to approach the Temple, especially on the great pilgrimage festivals of Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot. [2] The stairs that lead to the double gate are intact and "well-preserved."[4] The steps that lead to the triple gate were mostly destroyed.[4] / The risers are low, a mere 7 to 10 inches high, and each step is 12 to 35 inches deep, forcing the ascending pilgrims to walk with a stately, deliberate tread.[2] The pilgrims entered the temple precincts through the double and triple gates still visible in the Southern Wall.[5][2] Together, the double and triple gates are known as the Hulda Gates, after the prophetess Huldah.[2]

 Pilgrim steps leading to the Double Gate
Pilgrim steps leading to the Double Gate

The present iteration of the Triple Gates is not Herodian. The only Herodian element visible from the outside is the doorjamb on the bottom of the left-hand arch.[2] The Double Gate is substantially concealed by a Crusader-era addition to the Temple Mount. Only half of the right-hand arch of the double gate is visible today from the outside. [2] Over the part of the right-hand Herodian arched doorway that is visible is an ornate, decorative half-arch dating to the Umayyad period (661–750 CE).[2] Just above it, the stub of an Herodian relieving arch is visible.[2]

Inside the Temple Mount, much of the original staircase and the arched, elaborately carved Herodian ceilings survive.[2] According to archeologist Meir Ben-Dov, "On his way in and out of the Temple, Jesus must have walked here."[3]

The domed ceilings of the great staircases are carved with elaborate floral and geometric designs.[2] The internal parts of the Herodian Double Gate survive, although the waqf rarely permits visitors to see it.[2] Unlike the austere exterior gate, the interior of the gateway is elaborately decorated with ornately carved columns and ornamented domes. Two pairs of domes and their elaborate, surrounding columns survive intact.[2] Intricately carved vines, rosettes, flowers and geometric patterns cover "every inch" of the "impressive" entry to the ancient Temple.[2]

Archaeology

 Eastern set of Hulda gates
Eastern set of Hulda gates

In a post-1967 dig led by archaeologists Benjamin Mazar and Meir Ben-Dov, it was discovered that the Hulda gates led into a grand staircase and served as the principal entrance to the temple in the Roman period.[6]

During the post-1967 digs, an elaborate group of Umayyad administration buildings and palaces were uncovered just outside the Southern Wall.[7] They have been carefully preserved and are now part of an archaeological park.[7] The Umayyad Caliphate is understood to have repaired damage to the Huldah Gates and Pilgrim stairs caused by the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70, in order to use them for access to the newly built Dome of the Rock.[7]

Repair work

In the early 21st century, a new bulge was noticed in the Southern Wall, threatening the structural integrity of the masonry. Unauthorized underground construction of the el-Marwani Mosque was cited as the cause.[8] In a compromise between Israel, the Palestinian Authority and the Muslim Waqf that manages the property, it was decided that Jordan would manage the repairs.[8] The Jordanian repair, visible as a bright, white patch in the photo above, has been criticized as "unsightly", an "eyesore", and a "terrible job" because it is out of keeping with the common practices of historical restoration in being of a lighter color and smoother surface than the original stone.[8]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Josephus, Antiquities (15.11.3; XV.415–416), who described the dimensions of the Temple Mount in the following terms (apparently not including the extension made to the Temple Mount): “This hill was walled all round, and in compass four furlongs; [the distance of] each angle containing in length a furlong (Gr. stadion).” Compare Mishnah Middot 2:1 which states that the Temple Mount measured five-hundred cubits (Heb. amah) by five-hundred cubits. If it can be ascertained that Josephus' stadion is equivalent to the 500 cubits mentioned in the Mishnah, and being that the Southern Wall measured 281 meters, this would place each cubit (Heb. amah) at 56.205 cm. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, on the other hand, holds that a stadion was equivalent to only 470 cubits (v. Uziel Fuchs, "Millot HaMishnah" by R. Saadia Gaon — the First Commentary to the Mishnah, Sidra: A Journal for the Study of Rabbinic Literature, pub. Bar-Ilan University Press (2014), p. 66), in which case , each cubit was 59.792 cm, close to the 60 cm. cubit espoused by the Chazon-Ish.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Shanks, Hershel (1995). Jerusalem, an Archaeological Biography. Random House. pp. 141–151. ISBN 978-0-679-44526-5. 
  3. ^ a b Moshe, Janet Mendelsohn (June 1, 2001). "Walking through Jerusalem 2,000 Years Ago". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affair, Israel Magazine-On-Web. 
  4. ^ a b Mazar, Eilat (2002). The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. pp. 55–57. ISBN 965-90299-1-8. 
  5. ^ Har-El, Menashe (2004). Golden Jerusalem. Gefen Publishing House. pp. 228–242. ISBN 978-965-229-254-4. 
  6. ^ Rubinstein, Danny (September 12, 2004). "Remnants of the Temple?, Not in this Garbage". Haaretz. 
  7. ^ a b c "Umayyad Administration Center and Palaces". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Archaeological Sites in Israel. July 29, 1998. 
  8. ^ a b c Shanks, Hershel (2010). "First Person: Temple Mount Repairs Leave Eyesores". Biblical Archaeology Review. 36 (5). 

External links

This page was last edited on 14 December 2017, at 16:03.
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.