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South Carolina gubernatorial election, 1904

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The 1904 South Carolina gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1904 to select the governor of the state of South Carolina. Governor Duncan Clinch Heyward faced no opposition in the Democratic primary nor the general election to win a second two-year term as governor.

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  • Jubal Early and the Molding of Confederate Memory (Lecture)
  • Social Impact of Prince Hall Freemasonry in D.C., 1825-1900
  • Ohio: 200 Years
  • Furled and Unfurled: A History of the Confederate Battle Flag at Gettysburg (Lecture)


Jubal Early and the Lost Cause believe this I forget what the official title of this thing was in your brochures. I can't remember so I just put Profit of the Lost Cause. I thought some people might like the word profit over there but basically what Jubal Early is going to do is he is going to be a key player in the postwar years, meaning in memory. And that is a big thing among academics. Memory. The word memory. They want to study how people remember things, and how things are interpreted in and so forth and you've probably heard in the Civil War jargon that the South may have lost the war but they definitely won the history books or something along those lines. Well old Jube is one of the big catalyst for that so we're going to look into that and see why that is and if you look in the Encyclopedia of the Confederacy, some of you may have that four or five volumes, right there, if you look under the letter E the first entry that you will see in the Encyclopedia of the Confederacy is Jubal Early and I always thought when I open that up to get some biographical information I thought that was apropos, that he would be first. He really doesn't need any introduction. All of you Gettysburg buffs know him by name or by reputation which we'll talk about in a minute but Jubal Early was quote unquote Lee's bad old man he was an unreformed bachelor he was somebody that freely stated his opinion sometimes when it was asked for and most of the time when it was not right here and he was reportedly the only man that had the audacity to swear in front of Robert E Lee you can imagine doing that and that is why he was referred to by Lee as my bad old man right here Old Jube he's quite a character often thought you know when that when that generic question is posed if you had a time machine who would you go back who would you go back and have dinner with who he would be high on my list right you know that won't be picked up on camera its fantastic alright so to show you a little bit about his character maybe not show you a little bit about his character Does anybody know before I tell you where what this guy symbolizes to me does anybody know what usually is underneath him the south will rise again or forget hell no that's right when I was a kid the church took us down I think we went to Disney World or something don't quote me that we were going down to Florida and back in the seventies and I'll never forget I could never get over all the confederate stuff you want to call it that for sale in all these trinkets stores along the way in Florida right there and I still have my sticker right there but I didn't have I didn't have anything else to illustrate this point right here so I thought he was apropos in 1890 remember this is way after the war it was twenty-five years after the war toward his final days Early's final days General George Crook was more famous I think for Indian fighting than the Civil War came to see Early in Lynchburg Virginia and Crook recorded "while waiting we met General Early he has much stooped and feeble but as bitter and violent as an adder he has no use for the government or the northern people and boast of his being unreconstructed in that he won't accept a pardon for his rebellious offenses he is living entirely in the past" what does that tell you it's gonna be a theme here Jubal Early is going to be completely living in the past and he will never forget the past now Jubal Early is stands over six foot kind of a striking figure but despite his height he was stooped by rheumatism during the war one sold remarked that Jubal Early would spend all night the saddle quote "for he has the rheumatism so bad that if he once gets out of the saddle he can't get into it again" another soldier described him as quote "one of the great curiosity curiosities of the war he is a man of considerable corporacity" notice he didn't say glib "with a full face which has the appearance of a full moon when at its height his voice sounds like a cracked Chinese fiddle and comes from his mouth with a long drawl" good southern drawl "accompanied by the inner loption of os- he is as brave as he is homely and is homely a man as any man you ever saw" he's born Old Jube is born on November 3rd 1816 at Rocky Mount in Franklin County Virginia probably known more today from hit TV series Moonshiners right there ok during the war i watch it all the time during the war one soldier remarked that let me back up Early is gonna enter United States Military Academy West Point in 1833 and he's going to graduate four years later in 1837 his class included Joe Hooker the Union General future Union General John C Pemberton who is that? Vicksburg Its a quiz a lot of you came to that presentation and Uncle John will be the Union General Sedgewick right there alright but not before he did not graduate before Armistead and what did Armistead do to Early at West Point? that's right he broke a plate over Jubal Early's head and for that Lewis Armistead of Gettysburg fame was expelled now Early is going to resign his commission in 1838 but he is going to return to serve in the Mexican War where he contracted the rheumatism I have talked about that would plague him and instead after that and said he would resign again I suppose or in civil life after that Early will become a lawyer so if you think about Jubal Early and you wanna know where he's coming up with his arguments or how he makes it so well law is his background military and law what a better fit could you have for somebody who needs to fight battles and then argue about them afterwards so he's a lawyer I once heard about a poor lawyer did you ever hear about that it was a town that had a poor lawyer until one day another lawyer moved to town then there were two rich lawyers now in 1861 that will be edited out too in 1861 Franklin County elected him to be one of the delegates to the secession convention that's the document obviously probably surprisingly to some of you will be a surprise to some of you that Early was a staunch unionist very staunch unionist at the convention he earned the nickname quote "the Terrapin from Franklin" for his slow evolution to the southern side Early believed in the supremacy of the US Constitution and it influences a large reason why Virginia remained in the Union as long as it did you recall that Virginia did not secede until Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers That's when Virginia left even after Fort Sumter though and the call for the volunteers Jubal Early is still going to vote to remain in the Union and you do not know how hard I worked on blowing this document up on the left side you have the yeas on the right side you have the nays and you will clearly see right here that there is a check mark on the final role for secession with Jubal Early voting NO to leave the Union so but when Lincoln did call for those troops Early completely did a flip flop I don't think many people as an aside I think people sometimes fail to realize how that galvanized a lot of moderates or or people that wanted to remain in the Union when they heard that Lincoln was sending the troops and that a lot of people going into the southern the Confederate Army Early felt that it was the right to prevent the right of the states by the state authorities to repel any invasion any doubts that Early had about secession quote "were soon dispelled by the unconstitutional measures of the authorities of Washington and the frenzy clamor of the people of the North for war upon their former brethren of the south" as he put it in the postwar years Early would point to his pro-union stance and would justify secession by comparison to the Revolutionary War Early claimed the same right for the states as the colonies did against Great Britain however Early believe the states have more right to secession Early believed the states had more right to secession then the colonies ever did because the states were sovereign entities that it conceived quote "the government of which they complained so he thought they were more on a legal footing with the as far as secession in the colonies had been like my rights now this is you know Early threw himself wholeheartedly into the war here's a quick biography our point here today is not really to study the words to study the aftermath so I'll gloss over it he earned his first star for his actions at Bull Run he was wounded at the Battle of Williamsburg Virginia May of 62 and he''ll return for Malvern Hill, Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas and Harpers Ferry Both Jackson and Lee praised his leadership at the Battle Sharpsburg and at Fredericksburg now at Gettysburg Early will always be united with Richard Ewell's decision not to try to take Cemetery Hill on the first day of the battle a lot of what we know about the conversations that went on between the Confederate Chiefs as the sun set on Gettysburg comes from Early the problem with that is that Early was a lawyer ok so it depends you know and I say that and I shouldn't pick on Early too much but it's really I've said this before it's really a shame that how many people had so much to tell us but yet they had an axe to grind in some way form or the other Early will probably disagree with that statement he would tell you he was telling the truth but that's the way it goes right here but Early is going to be one of the chief recorders of that now on July 2nd as you remember you Gettysburg buffs his division is going to attack East what we call East Cemetery Hill right over here that's going to be Hays and Avery and he will not be supported on his right the Confederate right flank by Robert Rhodes attacking from behind the McDonalds right back there alright and supposedly warm words were passed between Early and Rhodes after the engagement that night on July 2nd at least a newspaper reporter recorded that he didn't say a Confederate officer considered Early to be quote "one of the ablest and wittiest of our generals of quaint dry humor grinning like a possum his voice an old woman's thin high tenor always joking someone and always the butt of a joke." given temporary commands of both Hill and Ewell's corps separate times in the Overland campaigns that's 1864 Early took over the permanent commander of Richard Ewell's corps upon that commander being relieved by Lee in the summer of 64 he received an independent command in the Shenandoah Valley Upon personally arriving in Lynchburg right before the Union cavalry took the town itself remember that Early is going to save Lynchburg Early raised himself in the saddle as he arrived upon the field and hollered across quote "ain't no buttermilk Rangers after you now you god damn blue butts" I can't do it as high pitched that'll be edited out too John Paul Strain I believe painted that Now Early found initial success in the in the valley even getting to the gates of Washington before getting turned back that's gonna be the Battle of Monocacy and Phil Sheridan then took command of the Union forces and long story short proceeded to kick Old Jube's tail for the rest of 64 places like 3rd Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek all defeats for Jubal Early many people blamed Early's defeats on his drinking which he was not a teetotaler but I think this is patently false I think it's lost on a lot of people though how and this is going to blend into the post-war years so I want to make this point I'll come back to Early's military wisdom in just a second but do not fail to recognize how loyal Jubal Early was to Robert E Lee and I mean that even though I make a lot of jokes and he's a funny character sarcasm and so for Jubal Early loved Robert E Lee and would do anything he could to please his commander if Lee wanted something to do like he had just I'll give you an example after 3rd Winchester Fisher's Hill, he gets thrown back across the valley don't quote me think Lee sends in Wilcox's division or maybe its Kershaw's division but anyway he said he sends him some reinforcements and Lee writes to him he says this is all I can give you you must do the most you can with the little that you have and that's Cedar Creek if you if you look up Cedar Creek you'll see what Early did and that is all being by Lee galvanizing Early's action look at what Lee wants Lee can't be everywhere he's got to have a commander that can think independently and Jubal Early despite a lot of flaws can make a decision and is an aggressive commander so I think both men actually appreciated each other Early recognized quote "that he was never what is called a popular man" despite that Lee place the faith in Jubal and Jubal reciprocated tenfold after a final defeat at the Battle Waynesboro on March 2nd 1865 Robert E Lee is going to remove Early from command and out of all the laurels that he gained in the war the one thing that Jubal like to show visitors in the postwar years was the letter from Robert E Lee removing him from command if you came to see Jubal Early that's what you would see right there alright and in this Robert E Lee if you want to see how to paint it Jubal actually published it in his memoirs at the end if you want to see how to write a letter letting somebody down Robert E Lee can teach you how to do that I'll read you a brief excerpt - "my telegram will inform you that I deem a change of commanders in your department necessary ; but it is due to your zealous and patriotic services that I should explain the reasons that prompted my action." Lee then goes on to say that the country basically has lost faith in Jubal Early after all of his setbacks. "I have reluctantly arrived at the conclusion that you cannot command the united willing cooperation which is so essential to success while my own confidence in your ability zeal and devotion to the cause is unimpaired" notice he said the cause - this is in 1865 - the cause - this is not something invented the words are not something in the postwar years "while your devotion to the cause is unimpaired I've never less felt that I could not oppose what seems to be the current of opinion without injustice to your reputation in injury to the service I therefore felt constrained to endeavor to find a commander who would be more likely to develop the strengths and resources of the country and inspire the soldiers with confidence and to accomplish this purpose I thought it proper to yield to my own opinion and to defer to that of those to whom alone we can look for support." He goes on, "I am sure that you will understand and appreciate my motives" Lee writes him, "and no one will be more ready than yourself to acquiesce in any measures which the interest of the country may seem to require regardless of all personal considerations thank you for the" - he closes this way - " thank you for the fidelity and energy with which you have always supported my efforts and for the courage and devotion you have ever manifested in the service of the country." and that's the way you fire somebody at least that's the way you get fired by Robert E Lee the remarkable thing about it is most of time Robert E Lee didn't write people you had to be up there you know he didn't write colonels when he relieved now after Lee surrendered Early didn't wait around to surrender himself but let out for Texas and reportedly Confederate forces were still fighting there and Early was bound to join them finding Texas played out though and the Confederacy at an end he decided quote "to get out from under the rule of the infernal Yankees I cannot live under the same government with our enemies I go there for a voluntary exile from the home and graves of my ancestors to seek my fortunes anew in the new world Early therefore continued on to Mexico where he hoped to find another war against the United States brewing remember France was down there He just wants to fight more Yankees when that didn't pan out Early eventually took a steamer to Canada and settled across the water from Niagara Falls while there he read about the policies being enacted against the South and declared at one point quote "I got to the condition that I think I could scalp a Yankee woman and child without winking my eyes in 1866 he wrote a memoir of the last year of the war for independence which did not sell well as well as he hoped but keep in mind 1866 he is one of the first Confederate generals one of the chief lieutenants to get his story out there with President Andrew Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation I couldn't find Early' signature. why? becuase he never signed one right there Early never less returned to Virginia in 1869 and settled into a law practice again Early never accepted a pardon. Oh no. quote "ooking upon this proclamation is in the final acknowledgement by the government of it's inability to hold us responsible under the laws and constitution as they stood for our resistance to their usurpations and encroachments, I accepted in the in that light and not as a pardon for any offence committed I think I can now return without any compromise of principal and it is certainly a great deal better for me to do so then remain a burden in the hands of friends who have to submit to the ills of a Yankee rule in order to be able to furnish the means on which I live." He is not bitter here's the thing but he needs a job he's gonna get a job and who is the guy on the right? in 1877 early took a position as a commissioner with PGT Beauregard of Louisiana state lottery you wouldn't take the job? I'd probably take the job. I think he got an annual salary of $10,000 at least at one point not too bad now the Louisiana Lottery how many you bought a lottery ticket for tomorrow or tonight? it's tonight isn't it? well, you just wasted your money because here's the winner you gonna come back next time its gonna be the Matt Atkinson Auditorium buffet, smorgasbord, white gloves. There you go. I was sitting with this person other night we were sitting in Subway and she's supposed to split it with me if she wins I'm like we're going over how we're going to spend this money and she's gonna build a new church I said heck no we ain't building no church we gonna get a limo. That didn't work out either I guess it's gonna be the Matt Atkinson church That will be something. Alright so anyway I'm digressing. I probably have ADD but I don't treat it because that's half the fun. The Louisiana Lottery was a lottery unlike today's lottery that it's sort of the same I mean a lottery is a lottery but it was it was a lot of back-door stuff going on I will not say that because Jubal Early and I should say this for Beauregard and Early I wouldn't say that the lottery was dirty was playing dirty pool however the lottery had some questionable practices such as the lottery sometimes will buy their own tickets so when they won the prize they didn't have to pay out you think about that so what would happen is Jubal Early about once a month will board the train from Lynchburg Virginia and he would ride down there and him and Beauregard would get on the stage and they had a big wheel like like what you guys cylinder yeah thats name for it and it had a door on so what they would do is cranked it around had all the lottery tickets in their and Early would reach inside the cylinder and retrieve the number he would say the number and then he would hold it up to the crowd to ensure that there was no fraud going on they would then they would draw like forty or fifty prizes and then after they had done the numbers Beauregard would come up and they would have a separate cylinder and Beauregard would reach into this cylinder and draw out the prize and some of these prizes just like the lottery that's going on tonight you know was that seven or eight hundred million is being drawn tonight some of these you know we'll get up to $100,000 that is an astronomical amount of money for the time period but nobody ever won it but they people did win I mean you know five ten thousand something like that so anyway Early's getting a piece of the pie because he's given it legitimacy right there what you need to know is far as the Lost cause is what we're about to go into is that the lottery salary the important part for what we're doing here today is the lottery salary allowed Jubal Early the freedom to devote his time to writing and that's how he's going to because he didn't have to worry about making a living now getting into the subject matter here what is the Lost Cause that's the only slide that does that so i cant I feel I can overemphasize that right there and they don't know how I did that what is the Lost Cause? well that's a hard thing to answer a lost cause I don't know I mean how do you like shorten that answer the short answer might be is that the Lost Cause is the postwar arguments of southerners and why they fought and that's a very broad brush I'm painting right there today's debate about the Lost Cause is over whether those arguments were true or not the name the Lost Cause comes from the ever popular book The Lost Cause this a standard southern history of the war of the Confederacy was published in 1866 and this espoused the southern point of view what is already showed you and Robert E Lee's letter to Early firing him the the Lost Cause was not something that was invented by Pollard it was just you know most famous book to come out opponents of the Lost Cause lists a number of different grievances against the southern arguments and it's hard to jail all the opponents arguments together so I decided to do the best I could and what I went out to do is I sat down and I had all these people that all these historians that attack the Lost Cause and arguments and everything that came up with it and so I sat there at my desk and I said who is the person who hates the Confederacy the most is that would give me credibility because I'm from the south so you can't blame me I'm quoting the guy so the guy I came up with and he actually does makes a susinct argument is a gentleman named Alan T. Nolan and he wrote an essay it went to Gary Gallagher's essay books about the Lost Cause and so I took his views on it and put those up here now I come from a different mindset than some people I'm not saying all people are like this etc. I'm going to give you the arguments this is going to be a radical new old idea for you you're going to have to make up your own mind whether you agree with them or not remember when you used to have independent thinking right here my gosh yeah somebody asked me says neither here nor there not about this but they asked me why do you think that way I said was what my eyes told me so anyway tenets of the Lost Cause right here now I tried I could not find anybody on the staff that could make the bullet points slide in so you're not getting that ok first one slavery was not the sectional issue the war wasn't over slavery according to the tenets of the southern historians of the Lost Cause the war was over state's rights alright so you already know see Early was successful the abolitionist as provocateurs northern abolitionists manufactured a disagreement between the sections in other words the abolitionists were the ones that stirred up all the trouble they were minority in the north and yet they managed to get the north to go to war the nature of slaves Pollard in the book the Lost Cause says quote "the occasion of that conflict was what the Yankees called by one of their convenient libels in political nomenclature slavery but what was in fact nothing more than a system of Negro servitude in the South one of the mildest in most beneficent system of servitude in the world." nobody's going to touch that one but what do the southerners argue they actually argued that slavery was a benefit I don't know how anybody would agree with it but that is one of the arguments the nationalistic cultural difference this is the Cavaliers and nights of old view of the Civil War in 1860 the Southern Literary Messenger is before the Civil War in the Southern Literary Messenger described northerners is being descended from anglo-saxons the anglo-saxons were conquered by William the Conqueror and the Normans the Southern Literary Messenger claim that southerners to be descended from Normans all right now there are cultural differences ok there are you can like go through their I invite you to like to spend an hour or two volunteering for me at the front door and you will see cultural differences ok I see it every day welcome up to the front desk and sometimes my fellow Americans my fellow Northerners I walk away from the front desk from an from talking to you all and I think to myself my gosh I know why the war began now military loss "the Confederates had not really been defeated they had instead been overwhelmed by massive northern manpower and material" well the idealized home front everybody pulled toward the same goal and all supported the Confederacy wholeheartedly the biggest monument in the state of Mississippi easily to the Confederacy is the statue on the capitol grounds in Mississippi and it is actually dedications monument is actually dedicated to the women of the Confederacy and the sacrifices so the idealized homefront next one is the idealized Confederate soldier "heroic indefatigable gallant and law-abiding" "in many ways he was the principal victim of the Lost Cause myth" Nolan surprisingly adds I like this by him I'll say it again in many ways he was the principal victim of the Lost Cause Myth "nor do I contend" Nolan says "that the majority of Confederate soldiers believed they were fighting to preserve slavery in fact they were but many of them thought in terms of defending their homeland and families and resisting what their leaders had told them was northern aggression so he's making the argument the government may have supported slavery but probably the average southern soldiers did not directly the lawfulness of secession saints go marching in which we're going to touch on a minute which involves the beatification big word for you beatification of Lee, Jackson, and the others is there anybody else besides Lee and Jackson now what do you think so what do you think of that that's a lot of points you know and I'm not looking for a roundtable discussion I'm just looking to give Caitlin a hard time filming me right now so I just keep pacing all the way over here to the corner so what do you think those are arguments that are summed up by the southerners now you probably don't agree with them all but do you agree with some of them and would you say what some of them are probably lies or bending the truth I guess to a certain extent but would you say that the majority of them are untrue or are we simply saying that the southerners are emphasizing something one point of the war over another point of the war I don't tell you what's right or wrong answer here right here but as you know it has become very hot the subject of the Confederacy lately and especially anything related to the Confederacy now Early getting back to him is going to be one of the top defenders of what is called the Lost Cause with the war over in the south in shambles Early would write "the true and brave soldier who suffers defeat while fighting for a just cause at the hands of a vindictive enemy and therefore suffers the agonies of a thousand deaths indeed a real death too many would be preferable think about that Jubal Early's gonna be emphasizing different points but what did Jubal Early's eyes tell him during the war what did Jubal Early see during the war I mean for instance do any of yall recall what was called this will test you Civil War knowledge to recall what was called the the burning in the Shenandoah Valley in 64 Early arrives in Lynchburg around that time I believe David Hunter is involved in that Union General side and basically long story short that's going to allow Early to march all the way into that. Indirectly the burnings in the Shenandoah Valley are going to be gin up the retaliation which is going to take place by the Confederates right beside us in Chambersburg in 1864. The Confederates will burn that town in retaliation for the things that have been done in the Shenandoah Valley Early is seeing this and he's seen a lot of smaller stuff on a daily basis I mean this is what his eyes are telling him now the Southern Historical Society papers was organized in New Orleans in 1869 the Southern Historical Society paper sought to preserve "the true history of the Civil War one that emphasize that honor and nobility of the Confederate cause." initially the society did not garner more than a hundred members so to jump-start membership the group met at White Sulphur Springs in today's West Virginia in 1873 Jubal Early was elected President. If I say SHSP you know Southern Historic Society Papers. The SHSP starts publishing in 1876 ironic though I found this interesting that the peak circulation there was only around 1,500 members I thought there'd be a lot more but despite setting up auxiliary chapters in other Southern states too in 1885 publication went from monthly to annually so it was never really that big as far as it's circulation but the papers helped develop and present southern veterans points of view an advertisement in the SHSP asserted "our papers interesting to all lovers of historic truth and simply INVALUABLE to those who desire to see vindicated the name and fame of those who made our great struggle for constitutional freedom." not a bias publication at all as you can see articles primarily concentrated on three things on the greatness of Lee, the fight against overwhelming northern resources in men, and in the early days of the publication the tardiness of James Longstreet at Gettysburg. more about all that later after 1910 volumes only appeared sporadically Douglas Southall Freeman took over as editor in 1926 and published the proceedings of the Confederate Congress the last volume from the SHSP came out in 1952 and with Freeman's death in 1953 the SHSP archives was donated to the Virginia Historical Society backing up a little bit as SHSP will become the organ for Early's voice. in a prior letter to Robert E Lee in 1866 Early said "the most that has left us is the history of our struggle and I think that ought to be accurately written we lost nearly everything but honor and that should be religiously guarded and harking back to my earlier points about what Confederate veterans in the postwar years when Early became president of the SHSP in 1873 the publication would start really popunding in those three main things I said earlier Robert E Lee, northern resources, and James Longstreet. let's look at the first thing Confederate soldiers being far superior to their opponents this idea you know how hard I had work to find that picture type in confederates superior to northern and see what you come up with the idea that Early would put forth is that southerners came from a superior race and that northerners were descended from an inferior perhaps akin to Mongral race of "Yankees, negroes, germans, and Irish." think about covered everybody and this argument was juxtaposed with the greater population numbers of the north and then and their industrial might and this lent itself to the argument "might does not make right" and the Confederates could still claim the moral high ground the South "have been gradually worn down by the combined agencies of numbers, steam power, railroads, mechanisms, and all the resources of physical science " All this "finally produced that exhaustion of our army and resources and that accumulation of numbers on the other side that Roth the final disaster." Early took personal exception when northern writers who portrayed the two armies is numerically close and reviewing the war Early mocked Union General George McClellan's tendency to overestimate Lee's numerical strength saying "I might multiply the instances of the attempts of our enemies to falsify the truth of history in order to excuse their manifold failures, and to conceal the inferiority of their troops and all the elements of manhood, but I will become too tedious." you know the one thing I like about the show is I get to read these nice quotes to you when Adam Badeau Grant's military secretary in the late war period wrote the London Standard newspaper that U.S. Grant's Army at the start of 1864 spring campaign was 98,000 and Robert E Lee had 72,000 Early had a conniption Early retorted it was more like a 141,000 to 50,000 thousand the actual numbers were probably closer 220,000 60,000 Early proclaimed that the southern people "were overpowering crushed in a struggle for their rights" and he wrote the newspaper that they had only history to appeal for for vindication now Grant of course cannot be the equal of Lee. Early held Grant up to be the ultimate symbol of northern supremacy a man that had no strategy at all only brute force behind him all things being equal Lee would have bested Grant on any field according to Early Early gested the Grant's title for a book on strategy should be "The Lincoln Grant" or "Pegging Hammer Art of War." speaking of Lee now I put in I put in Google Robert E Lee saint and then I didn't get anything I put in deity and I didn't get anything so so I was surprised and so the only thing I could come up with is this is the cross picture what's so funny about that? That wasn't no joke great program that brings us to our second theme the beatification of Lee from Alan T. Nolan's list Early and numerous southern writers sought to elevate Lee to a Christ-like status the anointing came in the form of a speech Early made at Washington and Lee University on the anniversary of Lee's birthday in 1872 Early took a chronological look at the campaigns Lee had fought each opponent took a each opponent he faced was given short shrift from McClellan to Pope to Hooker the man who did defeat him Grant was a sale with the argument already illustrated of superior numbers and resources bracing for this word even the mag magnanimity of Grant at Appomattox garnered no praise from Early Appomattox only demonstrated Lee's "superiority over his antagonist and all the qualities of a great captain of the Confederate soldier over the northern. General Lee had not been conquered in battle but surrendered because he had no longer an army with which to give battle." but Lee was defeated by U. S. Grant so you got something you need to explain right there so how do you explain it who ultimately led to Robert E Lee being defeated? Longstreet now Longstreet is going to be attacked on three fronts first he should have attacked earlier on July 2nd here at Gettysburg that's the sunrise order we discount that today but do not discount how big a deal that was in the 1870 and 1880s I mean it that that sunrise order argument or myth whatever you wanna call it got so big that Jefferson Davis and is in his two volumes Rise and Fall of the Confederacy he referred to when he got to Gettysburg he referred to the SHSP because there was nothing else to say about the argument. the sunrise order it was just the gospel truth is second thing Longstreet was attacked on which he criticized Robert E Lee while defending his actions third Longstreet on a personal note had committed an apostasy by becoming a catholic and joining the republican party what is the South democrat while relating his narrative about the war when the subject of Gettysburg came up Early stated that during the Battle Lee wished for longstreet "to begin the attack at dawn the next morning" of course you can guess the next argument if Longstreet would have attacked iat dawn so says Early Little Round Top would have been undefended Early also made the assertion that during Pickett's Charge the Confederate assault was not properly supported now here do we have a lecture on the second wave believe we do the second charge obviously Robert E Lee did not make any dawn attack order and even some of Lee staff officers Charles Venable and Charles Marshall repudiated it in 1872 but the next year 1873 William Pendleton Lee's chief of artillery here made the same assertion during the birthday speech at W&L University again and that's how the legend in the dawn attack really began to take hold the ensuing controversy unfolded over the next several years and Early upped the ante for years later in 1877 in the pages of the SHSP "we unequivocally stated the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg was Longstreet's fault. not Stuart, Ewell or even himself it was James Longstreet. Fitz Lee, William Allen, Walter Taylor ,then followed with other articles reinforcing Early's accusations Longstreet did not stand idle he would write an article to the Philadelphia weekly towns in 1877 entitled Lee in Pennsylvania in this he accused Lee "losing the matchless equipos that usually characterized him that whatever mistakes were made were not so much matters of delivered judgment as the impulses of a great mind disturbed by unparallel conditions." Longstreet further stated that Lee's remark the end of Pickett's Charge that "it has been all my fault" was said in the context that he should have never left the tactical defensive policy agreed with with Longstreet before the campaign now you think about that the paragraph I just read do you think about how that hit the southern veterans right here Longstreet is missing a huge point and that point is despite being a wounded Confederate veteran owned and Lee's chief lieutenant in the only one still living by the way Longstreet failed to see how firmly the memory of Lee had become unassailable these things get it he also made the cardinal sin of making himself Robert E Lee's equal on the field of battle in strategy etc wrong time in the wrong place When Longstreet published those articles surprisingly JuablEarly had the whole article reprinted in the SHSP in this magnanimous act Early let Longstreet damn himself as own words and Longstreet was not finished though he promptly wrote another article for the Philadelphia Times in March of 1878 whoring Early's quote ill natured and splenetic attacks everybody listening this on youtube that their computer splenetic I'll go down the water cooler be like you're so splenetic well guess what JuablEarly had that article promptly reprinted in SHSP and ripped that to shreds to an 1880s Longstreet wrote for articles for the Century Magazine that were later reprinted in Battles and Leaders although invited by the editors Early did not respond to these The SHSP test period done its job and Longstreet's reputation lay in tatters Longstreet's death in 1904 less than 5% of the United Confederate Veteran chapters approve resolutions of tribute to James Longstreet that's how thorough Jubal Early destroyed him now a lot of you Gettysburg buffs that have been interested in this battlefield along time can remember when they were raising funds for the erection of a monument to James Longstreet what year was it 92 93 here and ride out here and what was their campaign slogan it's time it's about time ok where is that go back to that my name it never gets corrected because it didn't have any support while the Confederate Veterans were alive and that is a large part due to do Jubal Early that coincides with the rise of Robert E Lee in the fall of James Longstreet speaking of that ladies and gentlemen as I include here it's hard to think that one man can have that much influence own one thing like southern history or you know the the way that we remember and so forth but Jubal Early is going to be that man it unto himself I urge you if you have a chance I don't know if you watch for you or you I guess I consume information like I read information for instance I got kicked out of the best office in the whole bill they kick me down the basement in the library yeah so anyway I'm down in the basement and I'm surrounded by buy books which is that you know make lemonade out of lemons and I've got nine thousand volumes each one of them is slightly different if I pull out those books and I have a book if I'm preparing a program I'll unfold three or four books and each one of them have all opened it once and each one will be slightly different and then I have to make a judgment which one i think is correct and then since I've been doing that so long since I've been doing that so long I translate that into my personal life people tell me stories automatically thinking wow how could that be true you know or sit down I watch the news and I think what does this person bias right here so I urge you going back to the original point when somebody tells you something when you're studying the American Civil War and you take something for granted because you've heard it so many times why don't you take a fresh look at it why don't you make up your own mind you but Early would not like that well depends on how you made up your mind right there ok but I hate that I feel that you know along with the new getting off on a tangent here but the news and so forth you know whatever happened to neutral neutrality alright you think I wanted to read Alan T. Nolan to you you really think I name my kid after Robert E Lee but I did it because that's the fair thing to do they give you both sides of the coin right there and everything that early said was not true but everything that Jubal Early said was not untrue either and that is what I leave for you to ponder here today what is true and what is untrue an unreconstructed rebel to the in Jubal Early would die on March 2nd 1894 southern veteran Robert Stiles wrote that "no man ever took up his pen to write a line about the great conflict without the fear of Jubal Early before his eyes." ladies and gentlemen Jubal Early thank you very much


Democratic primary

Governor Duncan Clinch Heyward faced no opposition from South Carolina Democrats and avoided a primary election.

General election

The general election was held on November 8, 1904 and Duncan Clinch Heyward was reelected governor of South Carolina without opposition. Turnout increased over the previous gubernatorial election because there was also a presidential election on the ballot.

South Carolina Gubernatorial Election, 1904
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Duncan Clinch Heyward 52,007 100.0 0.0
Majority 52,007 100.0 0.0
Turnout 52,007
Democratic hold
1904 South Carolina gubernatorial election map, by percentile by county.   65+% won by Heyward
1904 South Carolina gubernatorial election map, by percentile by county.
  65+% won by Heyward

See also


  • "Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina. Part II." Reports and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume II. Columbia, South Carolina: 1905, pp. 376–377.

External links

Preceded by
South Carolina gubernatorial elections Succeeded by
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