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South Andean deer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

South Andean deer
Reserva Cerro Castillo.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Hippocamelus
Species:
H. bisulcus
Binomial name
Hippocamelus bisulcus
Molina, 1782
Hippocamelus bisulcus distribution.svg
Geographic range

The south Andean deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus), also known as the southern guemal,[2] Chilean huemul or güemul (/ˈwml/ WAY-mool, Spanish: [weˈmul]), is an endangered species of deer native to the mountains of Argentina and Chile. One of two mid-sized deer of the Hippocamelus genus, the south Andean deer ranges across the high mountainsides and cold valleys of the Andes. The distribution and habitat, behaviour, and diet of the deer have all been the subject of study. The viability of the small remaining population is an outstanding concern to researchers.

The huemul is part of Chile's national coat of arms and it is since 2006 a National Natural Monument.

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Transcription

Hey YouTube, Jim here! Welcome to Top10Archive! No, no obvious jokes about how delicious chili is here! Just another stop on our journey around the world, this time to the southwestern edge of South America, to the coastal paradise of Chile. So practice with your Trompo, brush up on your football, and watch out for the indio picaro as we divulge these top ten amazing facts about Chile! 10. Chileans of Notoriety Ever wonder who’s somewhat to blame for Jersey Shore? The city of Santiago, Chile can take a little credit for being the birth-town of Nicole ‘Snooki’ Polizzi; but we’d rather not get caught up in the blame game and instead focus on incredibly notable people like first Chilean Saint Teresa of the Andes or Google’s Vice President of Design, Matias Duarte. Other names that may ring a bell include painter Miguel Venegas; actors Pedro Pascal, Horatio Sanz, and Cote de Pablo; Slayer leader singer and bassist Tom Araya; and for you YouTube fans, be sure to check out the likes of HolaSoyGerman, JuegaGerman, DogmasFour and Lele. 9. Cuisine of Chile In Chile, rather than hear people ask for a Jack and Coke, you’ll likely find locals asking for a Pisco and cola or even the native version of a Pisco sour, two beverages that feature Chile’s national drink, the clear, brandy-like Pisco. To pair with your beverage, there’s always curanto, a method of cooking similar to an imu oven adopted from early Chilean natives. A selection of meats, shellfish, and vegetables are layered on heated stones in a near 5’ (1.5 m) hole and covered with wet sacks, dirt, and grass to simulate a pressure cooker. 8. Chilean Wildlife or Festivals Though they’re often depicted as cold-weather animals, four species of penguin are known to call Chile home. In fact, outside of Punta Arenas, you’ll find the Seno Otway Penguin Colony, which, outside of being a tourist attraction, is also a habitat for the Otway Sound Penguin. Other species found in Chile include the Southern Rockhopper and Humboldt penguin. Other endemic species to the South American country include the pygmy deer, or shy pudu, llama and alpaca, and vicuna, a camelid known for its sought-after fur. 7. The Sights of Chile Often considered the “cleanest” place on the planet, the South American region known as Patagonia is a wildlife paradise that stretches across Argentina and Chile, brimming with stunning visuals of crystalline glaciers, rolling green plains, and sparkling blue lakes. Within Patagonia, you’ll find Torres del Paine National Park, home to Cordillera del Paine, or the small grouping of towering mountains. Off the coast of South American lies the well-known Chilean island, Easter Island, which houses Rapa Nui National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for 887 strange statues known as moai. 6. The Moai of Easter Island Speaking of the moai of Easter Island, the incredible statues are said to date back to sometime between the 15th and early 17th centuries, which dates around when Spanish conquistadors started to arrive at mainland South American to colonize what’s now present-day Chile. The 86-ton, 33’ (10 m)-tall statues were carved from the Rano Raraku volcano and were created to pay tribute to the current and prior chieftains of the island. Though many of the statues were overtaken by Earth, full-bodied examples of these towering figures can still be seen having survived the test of time at Ahu Tongariki. 5. Chile and Sports Even if you love football, chances are you don’t love it nearly as much as a Chilean does! Formed in 1895, the Federacion de Futbol de Chile, or the Football Federation of Chile, is the second oldest South American federation and Chile itself is one of four founding members of the South American Football Confederation. The Chilean team has been around since the beginning, having been one of 13 teams to partake in the very first FIFA World Cup in 1930. Since then, the nation has enjoyed a series of wins, specifically at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, where the men’s soccer team took home the bronze, and in the 2015 and 2016 Copa America, where their team took first place. 4. Chilean World Records And if you need even more proof of Chile’s love for football, consider that in 2016, 2,357 amateur and professional football players gathered for a five-day, 120-hour football match. The stunt earned the Guinness World Record for most players in a match but didn’t beat Scotland’s current record for longest game of 105-hours due to lack of verification. Other records earned for Chile include the “tree with most different fruit,” earned by Luis Carrasco who grafted five different fruit trees into one; the “largest virus,” awarded for the megavirus chilensis; and the “largest single copy of newspaper,” which measured at about 11' 9" x 8’ 4” (3.6 x 2.56 m). 3. What’s in a Name? Was the food named after the country? Or the country after the food? Neither is true, actually, as the pepper derived from their Nahuatl name, spelled with two “L’s.” The etymology of the nation’s moniker, on the other hand, is a little more difficult to pinpoint. Some researchers theorize it was a bastardization of Tili, the Picunche tribal chief that ruled over the region during the 15th century. Other theories claim Chile was pulled from the Native American word for “ends of the earth” or “seagulls,” the Mapuche word for “where the land ends,” or even from the Quechua words “chiri” or “tchili,” meaning cold and snow respectively. 2. The Truth is Out There It’s not often you hear a government touting the existence of UFOs, let alone come across a government-funded group devoted to the practice of extraterrestrial and UFO discovery and studies. Instead of blaming swamp gas and weather balloons, Chile’s Committee for the Studies of Anomalous Aerial Phenomena (CEFAA) will outright claim something as being an unknown phenomenon. In fact, Chilean residents experience so many UFO sightings that the town of Sam Clemente dedicated a 19-mile (30 km)-long trail through the Andes Mountains to the country’s alleged ET epidemic. 1. The Chilean Independence On September 18th, 1810, after Napoleon’s intervention in Spain initiated steps towards full autonomy in Chile, high-powered representatives gathered for a town meeting to alter the current administration and elect a council of native leaders. Despite a period of peace and progress under the new rule, Spain sought to step in to regain control, which it achieved at the Battle of Rancagua in 1814. Three years later, Chilean patriots fed up with Spanish rule marched against the militaristic supremacy, once again earning their emancipation from Spain. On February 12th, 1818, Chile declared independence from Spain, though it wasn’t recognized until April 25th, 1844.

Contents

Description

The south Andean deer is well-adapted to broken, difficult terrain with a stocky build and short legs. A brown to greyish-brown coat tapers to white undersides and a white marked throat; the long, curled hairs of the coat provide protection against cold and moisture. Does are 70 to 80 kg. (154-176 lbs.) and stand 80 cm. (31 in.), while bucks are 90 kg (198 lbs.) and 90 cm (35 in).[3] (Other weight suggestions are lower.)[4] There is no sexual size difference amongst fawns, which are born unspotted.[3]

Sexual dimorphism is notable. Only the bucks have antlers, which are shed each year toward the end of winter. Males also have a distinctive black "face mask", which curves into an elongated heart-shape surrounding a forehead of the principal brown colour.[3] Unusually for a dimorphic ungulate, research has shown south Andean deer will congregate in mixed-sex groups, and the length of time spent inter-mixing increases with group size. The farther the animals are from rocky slopes the larger the size of observed groups, suggesting predation rates are lowest on slopes and greatest in open areas such as valley bottoms.[5]

Distribution and habitat

Huemul resting in Cochrane, Chile
Huemul resting in Cochrane, Chile

The animal ranges across a variety of often difficult habitat. Open periglacial scrubland, low bluffs and other rocky areas, and upland forests and forest-border are principal range types.[3] One study of coastal fjord populations found males and juveniles preferred periglacial grassland; females were mainly found on bluffs, and fawns exclusively so. Gunnera plants were a principal dietary item.[6]

While it was previously found over much of southwestern South America, the current status of the south Andean deer is critical. Numbers in Argentina were estimated at 350–600, in fragmented groups, as of 2005.[7] Argentinian national authorities have been criticized for calling the species' situation satisfactory, where research shows declining numbers; further research on habitat viability and conservation centers have been urged.[7]

Pressures on huemul populations include economic activities and invasive species. One study in Argentina's Nahuel Huapi National Park found thirty-two plant items in its diet. The most common of these, the Lenga beech, was also a primary food item of the red deer, causing displacement to marginal areas and increased vulnerability for the smaller South Andean Deer.[8] Both decreased reproduction rates and increased morbidity may be affecting the population in Argentina; predation by the cougar, the South Andean deer's only natural predator, remains a principal cause of mortality in Argentina.[9]

Conservation

According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the species’ original global population is estimated to have suffered reductions of 99 per cent in size and more than 50 per cent in distribution range. Therefore, the species is listed as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List.[10] Habitat fragmentation and poaching remain the main threats to the species.

Under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) (the Bonn Convention), a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Conservation of the huemul was concluded between Argentina and Chile, and came into effect on 4 December 2010. The MoU aims to improve the conservation status of the species by close cooperation between the two range States, since the species migrate across the border region of these countries.

Memorandum of Understanding on Conservation

Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of the South Andean Huemul
Huemul verdadero.JPG
Contextnature conservation
Effective4 December 2010
Signatories
LanguagesSpanish

The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Conservation of the South Andean Huemul is a Bilateral Environmental Memorandum of Understanding between the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile. It was concluded under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, on 4 December 2010 and came into effect immediately. The MoU has to improve the conservation status of the South Andean Huemul by close cooperation between the two range States, since the species migrate across the border region of these countries. The MoU covers two range States (the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile), both of which have signed.

Development of MoU

To implement the decision of the Fifth Conference of the Parties of CMS to list the South Andean Huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus)[11] on Appendix I of the Convention due to its worrying conservation status, an Article IV agreement was concluded between the two range States, the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile, and entered into effect immediately on 4 December 2010.

Signatories to South Andean Huemul MoU:

  • The Argentine Republic (4 December 2010)
  • The Republic of Chile (4 December 2010)

Aim of MoU

With fewer than an estimated 1500 animals in the wild, grouped in small, largely isolated populations in 2010, and due to the fact that the South Andean Huemul's habitat partly covers border areas between the two range States, both countries recognize the need to work in close collaboration in order to improve the situation and to prevent the species from extinction. Through this MoU both countries can take measures to address illegal hunting, habitat degradation, introduction of diseases and other threats to the species.

Species covered by MoU

The MoU protects all populations of the Huemul occurring within the range of Argentina and Chile. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the species’ original global population is estimated to have suffered reductions of 99 per cent in size and more than 50 per cent in distribution range. Therefore, the species is listed as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List.[10] Habitat fragmentation and poaching remain the main threats to the species.

Fundamental components

Both range States agree to work in close collaboration to:[12]

  1. Make efforts aimed at ensuring an effective protection of the populations of South Andean Huemul, shared by both countries, as well as at identifying and conserving those habitat which are essential for the survival of the species
  2. Identify and monitor the factors and processes which have a detrimental effect on the conservation status of the species, such as illegal hunting, degradation of habitats and introduction of diseases, and recommend appropriate measures to regulate, manage and/or control those factors and processes
  3. Elaborate a Bilateral Action Plan and report to the CMS Secretariat on its implementation
  4. Facilitate the sharing of scientific, technical and legal information necessary to coordinate conservation measures and facilitate professional, technical and park ranger staff sharing, and cooperate with national and international specialists and organizations in the implementation of the Action Plan
  5. Submit, at intervals of no more than one year, a report on the development of the MoU to the CMS Secretariat and the Sub-Commission for the Environment of Argentina and Chile, established within the framework of the Treaty of 2 August 1991 between the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile on the Environment
  6. Hold annual meetings alternately in the territories of the two countries

The MoU took effect immediately following the signature by both range States (4 December 2010). It has a duration of three years and will be automatically renewed unless one Signatory withdraws from it.

Meetings

The MoU states that the two countries shall hold annual meetings, continuing the bilateral technical meetings held since 1992. In the framework of these meetings, the Action Plan implementation shall be evaluated and actions for the following year shall be planned and coordinated. Similarly, exchange of research results, as well as any other technical or legal information, which might be of benefit to the conservation of the species will be shared.

Secretariat

The secretariat functions are provided by the two Signatories themselves on a rotational basis. During the periods between the annual meetings, the country hosting the next meeting shall serve as interim Secretariat and shall be responsible also for the organization of the meeting. The CMS Secretariat – located in Bonn, Germany – only acts as a depositary of the MoU.

Action Plan

National technical agencies of the two countries are developing a joint, bi-national Action Plan, based on existing national plans. This Action Plan will promote the exchange of scientific, technical and legal information as well as training of professional staff and park rangers to coordinate conservation measures. Research will be promoted to better understand the ecology and biology of the species as well as factors preventing the recovery of individual groups. Monitoring will be enhanced to collect more data on distribution, abundance and threats. Educational activities and media campaigns will raise awareness about the Huemul's poor conservation status.

Activities

Between September 26 and 27 2011 a workshop entitled “Towards an Action Plan for the Conservation of Huemul in the Austral Zone” was held in Valdivia, Chile.[13] The purpose of this workshop was to develop the preliminary guidelines for the bi-national Action Plan.[14]

Meanwhile, Argentina has taken some actions to implement the national plans. These include monitoring in the Los Alerces National Park, new Huemul survey work in Estancia Los Huemules, and continued updating of a database of records maintained by the National Parks Administration for both protected and unprotected areas. Contributions have been made to a study of the phylogeography and demographic history of the Huemul by Bio-Bio University in Chile. Work has also been underway in Argentina to update the management plans for the Lanín National Park and the Andino Norpatagónica Biosphere Reserve, with specific reference to measures for Huemul conservation. A project proposal has been developed for controlling livestock in the area occupied by Huemuls in the Los Alerces National Park. Awareness activities have included public talks, production of a two booklet on the conservation of the species linked to the Andino Norpatagónica Biosphere Reserve, and posters distributed in three of the country's National Parks.[15]

In Chile, similar activities are underway, with an emphasis on monitoring by rangers of hunting, and future plans for reintroduction work, measures to reduce habitat competition with livestock, awareness raising and strengthening of regulations.[15]

References

  1. ^ Jiménez, J.; Guineo, G.; Corti, P; Smith, J.A.; Flueck, W.; Vila, A.; Gizejewski, Z.; Gill, R.; McShea, B. & Geist, V. (2008). "Hippocamelus bisulcus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of endangered.
  2. ^ "Mammals and Other Wildlife in South America during Focus On Nature Tours". focusonnature.com.
  3. ^ a b c d Van Winden, Jasper. Diet and habitat of the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’ Higgins National Park, Chile (2006). THESIS, Department of Science, Technology and Society, University of Utrecht. (PDF Archived 2008-04-10 at the Wayback Machine)Retrieved on: 2007-06-07
  4. ^ Walker, Mark (2005). "South Andean Deer Hippocamelus bisulcus". World Deer. Biology Department, Siegen University. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  5. ^ Frid, Alejandro (1999). "Huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) sociality at a periglacial site: sexual aggregation and habitat effects on group size". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77 (7): 1083–1091. doi:10.1139/cjz-77-7-1083. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
  6. ^ Frid, A. (1994). "Observations on habitat use and social organization of a huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus coastal population in Chile". Biological Conservation. 67 (1): 13–19. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90003-5. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  7. ^ a b Flueck, W.T.; J. M. Smith-Flueck (June 2005). "Predicaments of endangered huemul deer, Hippocamelus bisulcus, in Argentina: a review". European Journal of Wildlife Research. 52 (2): 69–80. doi:10.1007/s10344-005-0020-4. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
  8. ^ Gladys, Galende; Ramilo, Eduardo; Beati, Alejandro (April 2005). "Diet of Huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 40 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1080/01650520400000822. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  9. ^ Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M.; W. T. Flueck (September 2001). "Natural mortality patterns in a population of southern argentina huemul(Hippocamelus bisulcus), an endangered andean cervid". Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft. 47 (3): 178–188. doi:10.1007/BF02241548. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  10. ^ a b South Andean Huemul IUCN Red List: http://oldredlist.iucnredlist.org/details/10054/0
  11. ^ South Andean Huemul Nature Footage: http://www.naturefootage.com/stockfootage/Southern_Andean_Huemul/owner%3Dslittlejohn
  12. ^ Text of South Andean Huemul Memorandum of Understanding: http://www.cms.int/species/Huemul/MoU/MoU_Huemul_E.pdf
  13. ^ CMS Press release: http://www.cms.int/news/PRESS/nwPR2011/02_feb/nw_160211_South_Andean_Huemul.htm
  14. ^ http://biodiversity-l.iisd.org/news/argentina-chile-sign-agreement-to-conserve-the-south-andean-huemul/
  15. ^ a b COP10 Document on Agreements: http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop10/docs_and_inf_docs/doc_09_%20artiv_agreements_e.pdf[permanent dead link]
This page was last edited on 24 December 2018, at 12:08
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