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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sony Mavica (1981), the first still video camera in history.
Sony Mavica (1981), the first still video camera in history.
Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD5 (1997), the first digital camera of the Mavica series.
Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD5 (1997), the first digital camera of the Mavica series.

Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) was a brand of Sony cameras which used removable disks as the main recording medium. In August 1981, Sony unveiled a prototype of the Sony Mavica as the world's first electronic still camera.[1]

As with all Mavica cameras until the early 1990s (including later models sold commercially) this first model was not digital.[1] Its CCD sensor produced an analog video signal in the NTSC format at a resolution of 570 × 490 pixels. Mavipak 2.0" disks (later adopted industry-wide as the Video Floppy and labelled "VF") were used to write 50 still frames onto tracks on disk. The pictures were viewed on a television screen. Otherwise, this camera is positioned as the "pioneer of the digital era".[2][1]

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Sony reused the Mavica name for a number of digital (rather than analog) cameras that used standard 3.5" floppy disk or 8cm CD-R media for storage.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Back when cameras used... Floppy Disks? Sony Mavica
  • ✪ Sony Mavica MVC-FD85 Floppy Drive Camera


Hello, and welcome to another episode of the 8-Bit Guy. Today I’m going to show you four vintage digital cameras, and these do not use memory cards. Some of these use floppy disks, some use SuperDisks, and even 3 inch compact discs. Then I’m going to take you around Dallas and show you some interesting landmarks using these cameras to take pictures. OK, so the first camera I want to show you is the original Sony Mavica from 1997. By the way, the term Mavica actually stands for Magnetic Video Camera. So this is my friend Brandon, who runs an antique reproductions furniture store, and I met him through the synth meet because he is heavily into synthesizers and keyboards like I am on my other channel. But, he is also an original owner of a Sony Mavica. And since I never actually owned a Mavica back in the 1990s, I wanted to have Brandon here to tell you about his experience of actually using one. Now, before I can talk too much about this, I need to set the stage with a little history lesson. In 1997, you can easily say that 99% or more of the population was still using film cameras, with only a tiny percentage using digital cameras. So, we were at that stage where the early adopters were buying them, but the general population just really couldn’t see the point yet. They were happy with their film cameras, and the digital cameras were pretty expensive. They didn’t know where they would get their prints made. But really, the biggest challenge, I think for most digital camera users of the 1990s was simply figuring out how to get the pictures from their camera to their computer. This was a typical computer that somebody might have in 1997. Most people were still running Windows 95, or even Windows 3.1 on their PCs. And the Macintosh was only just a few percent of the market share. One thing you might notice is that it has NO USB ports. You see, USB didn’t exist. Well, technically it was invented in 1996. But it wasn’t really available to consumers until 1998, a year after the Mavica came onto the market. And even then, 99% of the population still did not have USB on their computers. So in 1997 there were a handful of 1st generation digital cameras on the market, and nearly all of them required use of the serial port in order to transfer photos. So, serial ports, they always had like IRQ conflicts and all kinds of software problems, and of course there was no native operating system support for these cameras. So you would have to install proprietary software and drivers in order to use these cameras, they often didn’t work right and there were lots of problems and each camera was completely different from the next camera, so there was no standardization on how anything worked. If you had a laptop, you might be lucky enough to get one of these devices, that allowed you to use a memory card and insert it into the PC card socket of your laptop, which appeared as a native storage device for the computer. I don’t believe any such devices existed for desktop computers. So the beauty of the Mavica was that you could take your photos, then remove the floppy disk and insert it directly into your PC and copy the files off, because every computer had a floppy drive back then! And if you compared to a roll of film, you could typically store 20 or 30 exposures on a roll. If you were going on vacation, it was probably just as convenient to carry around a bunch of floppy disks as it would have been film rolls. Even these old Kodak Disc film cartridges only had 15 exposures on a disk. The Mavica could store around 20 photos on a single disk. Not only that, but unlike film cameras of the time, it was possible to review your photos and delete the ones you didn’t want. I distinctly remember that about half of the photos I took on my film cameras ended up in the trash after getting them developed. So, you know, everybody is used to their cameras on their phone, and they just take pictures of everything. But, back in the days of film cameras, you know, you had 24 exposures on a roll of film, and you were pretty conservative as to what you took pictures of. You didn’t just go around shooting this, that, and the other. You were like “oh, this is a good shot, that I need to take a picture of.” But with the digital camera, having the convenience of the floppy disk, you know I was going around taking pictures of everything. And then, once I filled up the disk, I either popped a new one in, or I would take it to the computer and dump it to the hard drive, so yeah, I was taking tons of pictures. And, in my business, in the furniture business, pictures are important, when I have customers in other cities. I used to have to draw stuff on a piece of paper and send it through a fax machine and hope that they could figure out what the heck that I drew. But with email and cameras, yeah! Sony originally released two versions of the Mavica in 1997. There was the low end FD5 and the high end FD7. Both had the same 640x480 resolution, both had the same 2.5” color LCD on the back. But the FD5 had a fixed focus lens, and the FD7 had a 10X zoom, which is really nice. The low end model retailed for $599 and the high end for $799. So I happen to have the high end version, with the 10X zoom. Now the first thing people notice when I show them this camera is that it is unusually large and bulky. Despite being 20 years old, there are some things you are likely to be familiar with. For example, if you hold the shutter button down part of the way, the camera will lock the focus and wait for you to depress it the full way before taking the photo. At which point, the floppy drive will fire up and you will have to wait while it saves your photo. It does have a flash, and rather nice zoom controls, as well as a manual focus with an actual knob. The screen does have some menus but there aren’t many options to select. Incidentally, this screen only has 165 by 124 pixels. So it is barely good enough to use for menus and so the LCD was really just good enough for a basic viewfinder, you know just to know what the heck it is you’re actually pointing the camera at. You know, another interesting thing is that most digital cameras, even from this time period, had an option to select different photo resolutions. But you’ll notice no such setting in the menus on this thing. But it does have Field and Frame. Now you may be wondering what the heck that means. Well, you see, Sony didn’t use a dedicated CCD sensor for this camera. They actually borrowed one from their consumer camcorder line of products. So the CCD in this thing was one that you might have also found in a Handicam that used 8mm video cassettes. So the actual CCD had a horizontal resolution of 570 pixels. But the vertical resolution is much harder to explain. Since it is designed for interlaced NTSC video, it uses two fields, which are scanned 1/60th of a second apart. So, the first field is 245 pixels. And so if you have the camera in field mode, the resolution is 570 by 245, pretty simple! But if you put it into frame mode, it will also capture the second field, giving you a total of 570 by 490 resolution. So, regardless of the mode, it would always interpolate the images up to 640 by 480 resolution. Now, that resolution doesn’t sound very good, but really, it wasn’t too bad considering at that time, the typical screen resolution most computers were running at was 640 by 480. For example, if I display a photo from this camera, it actually fills the entire screen on this computer because, well, that’s the native resolution on this laptop. Let me show you an example of a photo I took in Field mode, you can see there’s a lot of jagged edges around this area here. Now here’s the same image taken in frame mode. Looks much better, right? So you might ask why they would even include the field mode in the first place. Well, the reason has to do with the way the CCD is designed to scan the two fields a few milliseconds apart from each other.. So if there is any motion it will turn out blurry in frame mode. In fact, if you notice, when I turn on the camera flash, it automatically disables frame mode, because the flash only lasts long enough to illuminate one field. So, I wanted to show you a few more photos, so I decided to take a little trip. In a previous episode I showed you some landmarks of Dallas/Fort Worth, and today I’m going to show you some interesting places in Dallas. Unfortunately, it was totally overcast on this Sunday in November. So here’s me arriving at Dallas city hall, fortunately they are closed on Sunday. I took advantage of their EV charging provided in the parking lot. It may not seem familiar on this side, but the other side should look familiar to you, because it was the headquarters in the 1987 movie Robocop! So even though Robocop is supposed to take place in Detroit, it was actually filmed all in Dallas. In fact, you can clearly see Reunion Tower in the backdrop of this car chase scene. Incidentally, Reunion Tower was also destroyed in the movie Asteroid. But don’t worry, Reunion Tower is still here and I can safely walk through these passageways at city hall without any fear of being attacked by a giant robot. And look what I found, an old vintage payphone, now this relic ought to be on my channel, this is a historical piece of technology isn’t it? I haven’t seen one of these in ages. OK, so here we are at the Dallas city hall, which you’ve seen in the Robocop movie, and it looks a little bit different because they put a matte painting to make it look like it was taller than it really was. But it’s still a very interesting architecture. And I’m going to take some pictures using my vintage floppy disk cameras and we’ll see what it looks like. Anyway, I setup a tripod and here’s a photo I took on the Mavica FD7. I also took some other shots of some of the surrounding areas. So, I thought I’d be an ultra hipster and take my 20 year old vintage digital camera to the Dallas auto show. Now, the irony here is that I’m using a vintage camera to take a picture of a brand new piece of high technology, the Chevrolet Bolt EV. So though the photos really aren’t that great of quality by today’s standards, and honestly they weren’t even that great by the standards of film cameras of the era. I went with the Mavica, the FD7, mainly because of the floppy drive. And the instant gratification that, being able to take a picture on the camera, popping it out, popping it into the computer, emailing my customer a picture of a piece of furniture, that was for me the way to go. So, if I went with a scanner, those guys were around $500 to $800, and they were better quality. You could get up to 300 DPI resolution for a full page, but you still had to take the pictures with a film camera, run them down to your hourly, you know one-hour-photo developer, then come back, look through all of the pictures, find the one that you like, scan it, and then email your customer. But with this guy, you could take 5 pictures, and then pick the best 2 or 3, I could email my customers a new piece of furniture that just came in, and hopefully I’ve got a sale. OK, now I want to move 3 years ahead and see how the Mavica evolved. This is the FD85. And while it is very similar to the one I just showed you, it has some very important evolutionary changes. For one thing, it has over 4 times the resolution, now clocking in at 1.3 Megapixels, using a CCD that is dedicated for digital cameras. Let me show you how much better these photos look that were taken with this camera. It’s amazing what 3 years can do for this technology. I would really say this is really the threshold where digital cameras quality surpassed film cameras, at least for personal use. The hardcore photographers held out another few years with film. Another interesting feature of this camera is that it has a 4X speed floppy drive. So, Listen to the old drive and how fast it changes tracks, and now listen to this one. That’s pretty interesting because in all of the time the floppy drive was in use for PCs, nobody really ever attempted to make the drive faster. You know, I guess there just wasn’t much of a need. But when the camera came out and people didn’t really want to wait around to take the next photo, I guess suddenly there WAS a need, so I guess there was a reason to make it faster. This camera also introduced the ability to use this nifty device. It’s a floppy disk adapter that takes a memory stick, and can be inserted into the camera. Now, unfortunately, this will not work with the older Mavicas because the firmware has to know how to actually use this. But, this allowed the Mavica to store a lot more photos. So you might ask if you could stick this thing into a regular PC’s floppy drive and read it like a disk? Well, The answer is yes and no. So, you see, it required a special driver to be installed, and the only driver I could find that works with this is for Windows XP. So, also, it requires an actual internal floppy drive using the original standardized controller. So that really limits the number of computers that you could use this on. So, for example, there’s no way you would ever be able to use it with one of these USB floppy drives, even if it were running on Windows XP, because it’s not a standard controller. The camera also included a composite video port so that you could play back your photos on a TV, so the whole family could see them. Another interesting feature added was the ability to take movie clips. Now, the resolution was a very low 320 by 240 and the clips could only be a few seconds long because the floppy disk simply can’t hold very much. But still, that’s certainly something your film camera couldn’t do! So, you would have needed to bring a separate video camera in order to do that! OK, so here’s a really rare camera I want to show you. This was a competitor to Sony’s Mavica. It was made by Panasonic. It came out around 1999, around the same time as the last Mavica I just showed you. Now, the major advantage this camera has is that it uses the LS-120 superdisk format. It can use regular 1.44 floppies, but who would want to when you can use these futuristic looking superdisks that store 120 MB per disk. You would need 84 floppy disks to store the same amount of data as a single superdisk. So you’ll notice that using a regular floppy disk, it says it can store 1 movie clip, 17 low-res photos, or 5 superfine photos. Now with a blank superdisk, it says you can store 90 movie clips, over 1500 low res photos, or 480 superfine photos. Now one huge disadvantage to the LS-120 format was that most computers could not read it unless you bought an LS-120 drive, and those weren’t cheap. So in a pinch you could still use a regular 1.44 floppy if you needed to. So one of the interesting things about this camera is that I can turn it over to PC mode. And at that point it just becomes a storage device. It will even work on my modern computer. And it just mounts itself as a disk and I can drag and drop the files right off of it. So, with the camera plugged into my PC like this, it really just becomes an external LS-120, just like this, so it kind of takes the place of having one of these. It’s not as elegant to use, but hey it works. Now unfortunately, when I went to Dallas, I accidentally had this camera set in low resolution mode, so these pictures don’t really do the camera justice. But I did get a sample of the video clip mode. So I did took a few extra photos around here in the proper resolution to give you something to look at. This is a 1.3 Megapixel camera, very similar to the second Mavica that I showed you. So the one annoying thing about this Panasonic camera is its size. I mean, it’s the biggest of all four of these and all four of these are really too large in my opinion, but this one is particularly bulky and it’s not something I want to be carrying around and using a lot. OK, so I want to jump ahead another 3 years. This camera represents the very end of the Mavica line. And, as you can see, they have ditched the floppy disk in favor of a 3 inch compact disc. Now, It can use regular CD-R or CD-RW discs. So naturally, it could hold quite a bit more data than a floppy disk, and yet still maintain compatibility with most computers of the time. Of course, today most computers don’t actually have optical drives. All of the computers I have around the house are slot-loading drives so they can’t mount the 3 inch discs anyway. In fact, the only computer I could find that could read these discs was this old iBook Clamshell of mine that has a spindle that I can manually pop the disc onto. Now the great thing is with this camera is that it does support USB so it doesn’t really even matter if you can read the discs, because all you’ve got to do is plug this into your modern computer’s USB port. And I can actually drag and drop the photos right off this camera without even needing to take the disc out. Some interesting aspects of using a CD for this is that you have to tell the camera to initialize the disc before you can use it. It warns that you have to sit the camera on a stable surface before doing this. When you are done with the disc, you have to finalize it if you want to be able to read it in a computer. However, if you use USB to grab the photos, it is really not necessary to finalize the disc. And while you can use any disc in the camera that will fit, it will always complain and suggest that you use special mavica branded CDs. For example, this one actually has the Mavica logo on it and it seems to like this one better. So what about the photo quality? Well, it is 3 megapixels and to be honest, even though this camera is 13 years old, I think the photo quality actually holds up very well even by today’s standards. This is my opinion, of course, but I think 3 megapixels is roughly the threshold where it’s really good enough for most uses, especially when viewed on a computer, and I think adding more megapixels beyond that, you get kind of diminishing returns. You have to add a whole let extra to really be able to notice any difference. And, a lot of the cheap cameras, especially the ones with plastic lenses, they can’t even resolve more than about 3 megapixels into focus on the imager. So I’ve seen cameras before that have 10 megapixel imagers but you really can’t see any difference in detail between 3 and 10 megapixel settings on that camera. This camera also has a 3X optical zoom. So I could use this as an everyday camera for both work and play, that is if I didn’t mind waiting for it to write those images to CD. And, of course, it does have video clip capability, it does 640 by 480 but the image is very soft and the frame rate is pretty low, but it is the best video quality of the 4 cameras I’ve shown today. OK, so I’ve got to open this old box of Kodak Disc film. I haven’t seen one of these in ages. Look! The expiration date was in 1990. Wow, I haven’t opened one of these in a long time. I don’t even think you can get these developed anymore. Well, there you go. There’s an old Kodak Disk cartridge. OK, So which of these 4 cameras is my favorite? Well, you might assume that I would immediately jump on this one, because it is after all the best and most advanced camera of this group. And if for some reason I was forced to use one of these cameras as my daily work and pleasure camera, well, this would be the one I would naturally pick. However, to be honest, I have no reason to do that, because I can just use my good, modern cameras or even my cell phone for that matter. So, my actually, my favorite is the original Sony Mavica FD7, because it is the most, I think, collectible. It’s the oldest and it’s got the most unique qualities to it. Speaking of collectibility, I only paid $15 for this on ebay. In fact, I didn’t pay more than $15 for any of these cameras. There seems to be quite a few of them around, with the exception of the Panasonic SuperDisk camera; this one was hard to find. But it still didn’t cost very much when I did find one. But the other cameras, the Mavicas, they just made so many of them, they are really easy to find. I think they’ll be good collectible cameras in the future. Well, I hope you enjoyed this and as always, stick around because I have more stuff coming up! Alright, so this is my friend Brandon, who runs a…. Never originally owned a Mavica, I’m only kind of...ahhh…. In the 1990s I thought…. I need a blooper roll on this one.


Original analog Mavica models

The unreleased original MAVICA as well as the later ProMavica MVC-5000 and MVC-7000 were designed as single-lens reflex systems with interchangeable lenses.[1][3] At least the ProMavica MVC-7000 also featured lens mount adapters for Nikon and Canon lenses.[4][5] The VF format soon evolved into the backward-compatible Hi-VF format, supported by the ProMavica MVC-7000 and the Hi-Band Mavica models.

Digital Mavica line

Inside the Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 Digital camera from 1997
Inside the Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 Digital camera from 1997
Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 x10 Lens Assembly. The 0.3M pixel sensor is on the right hand PCB. From 1997
Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 x10 Lens Assembly. The 0.3M pixel sensor is on the right hand PCB. From 1997
The 0.3 M pixel 640x480 sensor used in the Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 digital camera from 1997
The 0.3 M pixel 640x480 sensor used in the Sony Mavica MVC-FD7 digital camera from 1997

From the late 1990s on, Sony released a number of cameras based on digital (rather than analog) technology under the "Digital Mavica", "FD Mavica" and "CD Mavica" brands.

The earliest of these digital models recorded onto 3.5" 1.4 MiB 2HD floppy disks in computer-readable DOS FAT12 format, a feature that made them very popular in the North American market. With the evolution of consumer digital camera resolution (megapixels), the advent of the USB interface and the rise of high-capacity storage media, Mavicas started to offer other alternatives for recording images: the floppy-disk (FD) Mavicas began to be Memory Stick compatible (initially through a Memory Stick Floppy Disk adapter, but ultimately through a dedicated Memory Stick slot), and a new CD Mavica series—which used 8 cm CD-R/CD-RW media—was released in 2000.

The first CD-based Mavica (MVC-CD1000), notable also for its 10× optical zoom, could only write to CD-R discs, but it was able to use its USB interface to read images from CDs not finalized (CDs with incomplete sessions). Subsequent models are more compact, with a reduced optical zoom, and are able to write to CD-RW discs.[6]

A couple of the models were formed with a single lens reflex component combined with an interchangeable lens. And to give them flexibility, one or two versions also had lens mount adapters.

Later Sony digital cameras

The Mavica line has been discontinued. Sony continues to produce digital cameras in the Cyber-shot and Alpha series, which use Memory Stick and other flash card technologies for storage.

Mavica models

Still video cameras with storage on 2.0" video floppy

Mavica MVC 2000, an analog model from the late-1980s[7]
Mavica MVC 2000, an analog model from the late-1980s[7]
  • Sony MAVICA (1981) (Mavipak 2.0" VF, SLR design, 3 lenses, several prototypes)
  • Sony Mavica MVC-A7AF (1987) (Mavipak 2.0" VF)
  • Sony ProMavica MVC-2000 1989) (Mavipak 2.0" Hi-VF)
  • Sony Hi-Band Mavica MVC-C1 (1988) (Mavipak 2.0" Hi-VF)
  • Sony Hi-Band Mavica MVC-A10 (1989) (Mavipak 2.0" Hi-VF)
  • Sony ProMavica MVC-2010 (1990) (Mavipak 2.0" VF Hi-VF) [8]
  • Sony ProMavica MVC-5000 (1990) (Mavipak 2.0" VF, SLR design, various lenses)
  • Sony ProMavica MVC-7000 (1992) (Mavipak 2.0" Hi-VF, SLR design, 5 lenses, 2 lens adapters)

Digital still cameras with storage on 3.5" floppy disk

Sony Mavica MVC-FD75 with floppy disks
Sony Mavica MVC-FD75 with floppy disks
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD5 (late 1997, early 1998, fixed focal length lens)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD7 (late 1997, early 1998, 10× optical zoom lens)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD51 (mid-1998, fixed focal length lens)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD71 (mid-1998, 10× optical zoom lens)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD73 (1999)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD75 (2001) (10× optical zoom lens)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD81 (1998) (First mavica cam capturing video in 162x112 for 60s or 320x240 for 15s in 16fps,1024x768 common images)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD83 (1999) (1024x768 still images, 320x240 @16fps MPEG-1 video up to 15s)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD85 (1280x960 still images, 320x240 @16fps MPEG-1 video up to 15s)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD87 (2001) (6x digital zoom - 3x optical, 1280 x 960 image size max, 1.3 megapixel CCD)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD88 (1999) (8x optical zoom, 1280x960 still images, 320x240 @16fps MPEG-1 video up to 15s))
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD90 (same as MVC-FD80 with upscaling, external flash jack, and manual focus available. 1280x960 still images (upscaling to 1472x1104), 320x240 @16fps MPEG-1 video up to 15s)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD91 (1999) (14× optical zoom)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD92 (2001)
  • Sony Digital Mavica MVC-FD95 (2000)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD97 (2001) (10× optical zoom, 4× speed diskette and Memory Stick slot, similar to MVC-CD1000)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD100 (2002) (Floppy and Memory Stick)
  • Sony FD Mavica MVC-FD200 (2002) (same as above but 2MP)

Digital still cameras with storage on 8 cm compact disc

Sony Mavica CD400, front view
Sony Mavica CD400, front view
Sony Mavica CD400, rear view
Sony Mavica CD400, rear view
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD200 (2001)
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD250 (2002)
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD300 (2001)
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD350 (2003)
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD400 (2002) (First Mavica to use "Hologram AF" laser-assisted low-light autofocus)
  • Sony CD Mavica MVC-CD500 (2003)
  • Sony Mavica MVC-CD1000 (2000)

MaviCap digital still image capture adaptors

  • Sony MaviCap MVC-FDR1 (storage on 3.5" floppy)
  • Sony MaviCap MVC-FDR3 (storage on 3.5" floppy)

Cameras of similar concept

There were other digital cameras that used disk storage as memory media.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "1980-83 (subsection: SONY MAVICA ELECTRONIC CAMERA - 1981)". Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2018-12-11. On August 25, 1981 [..] Sony unveiled a prototype of the company's first still video camera, the Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) [which] was not a digital camera, but a TV camera capable of writing TV quality stills onto magnetic disks [..] The Mavica was a single lens reflex with interchangeable lenses. The original Mavica was provided with three bayonet-mounted lenses: a 25mm f/2, a 50mm f/1.4, and 16-65mm f/1.4 zoom.
  2. ^ "Объективный взгляд / №8 Январь 2001" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  3. ^ Brooke Clarke's PSC-6 web site showing a ProMavica MVC-5000 and mentioning an assortment of compatible lenses: 400mm, 60-300mm zoom, night vision lens, "Wide Lens 5mm 1:1.8 Sony" (MCL-05H), "Zoom Lens 9.5 - 123.5mm 1:1.8 Made by Canon" (MCL-913T)
  4. ^ Sony Product Flyer of ProMavica MVC-7000 listing camera features and mentions accessories including Sony-bayonet-mount lenses: "wide lens" (MCL-06T), "zoom lens" (MCL-903T), "zoom lens" (MCL-806H), "wide lens" (MCL-05H) and "zoom lens" (MCL-710H) as well as two lens adapters for Nikon (MCL-200N) and Canon (MCL-300C)
  5. ^ Forum thread showing a photo of the ProMavica MVL-7000 SLR with MCL-200N lens adapter
  6. ^ "Facts About Mavica Cameras". The Vintage Mavica.
  7. ^ "1986". Archived from the original on 2018-09-19. The MVC-2000PF was a pre-production, hand-built camera sent to specific photographers for testing. The production model went on sale in 1989.
  8. ^ Entry on
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