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Solomon's Temple

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Solomon's Temple
בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ
Solomon's Temple Jerusalem.jpg
Artistic depiction of the First Temple in Jerusalem
Basic information
Location Ancient Jerusalem
Deity Yahweh
Architectural description
Creator Solomon
Destroyed 587 BC

According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ‬: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.

The Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, and is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, and ten days after it was built".[1]

Because of the religious sensitivities involved, and the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times. Therefore, there are very few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple.[2] An Ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house "of ---h", and an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy.

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Transcription

Solomon's temple stood in Jerusalem for almost 400 years. It was the crown jewel of Jerusalem, and the center of worship to the Lord. Almost half of the Old Testament writings took place during the time when Solomon's temple was still standing. Understanding the significance of its location, history, and design can greatly add to one's reverence for one of the most holy places in the world. The city of Jerusalem is located in an area of three major valleys, the Hinnom, the central or Tyropoeon, and the Kidron valley. The mountain range between the Central and Kidron valley is called Mount Moriah. The peak of the mountain is a large protruding flat rock, which is now located under the Dome of the Rock. According to Genesis 22:2 Abraham was commanded to sacrifice Isaac in the "region of Moriah" connecting the temple mount with this significant event. At the time of king David, the area of Jerusalem was controlled by the Jebusites, the city only occupying the southern part of the central ridge. When David captured the city in about 1000 BC, he made Jerusalem his capital. David then moved the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem and began preparations for building a permanent structure to replace the portable Tabernacle of Moses that had been used for over 400 years. With the ancient city of Jerusalem being fairly small, David purchased the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite so he could expand the size of the city. Being higher than the city of David, the hilltop would make a beautiful place to build the Temple of the Lord. Under the reign of David’s son, King Solomon the Temple construction began. After seven years of construction, in about 960 BC, Solomon finished building the temple, most likely built over this same protruding rock of mount Moriah. Solomon also built himself a new palace just south of the temple and expanded the walls and the city up towards the peak of mount Moriah. The Temple of Solomon was modeled after the Tabernacle of Moses. Because of the many similarities between the Tabernacle and the Garden of Eden, many scholars believe that the Garden of Eden was the prototype for the Tabernacle, and thus later temples. According to Jewish tradition, Eden was located on a hill, with the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil at the center of the hill. The Bible teaches that when Adam and Eve transgressed and partook of the forbidden fruit, they were cast out towards the east. Cherubim and a flaming sword were then placed at the east entrance to prevent them from partaking of the tree of life, as they would then live forever in their sin. In order to return back into the presence of God, Israel had to symbolically retrace the steps of Adam and Eve, passing the cherubim and reentering the garden in a westward direction. The Tabernacle was set up in this same east to west progression, seeming to replicate the Garden of Eden. The Tabernacle was divided into three main courts, the outer court, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies. The outer court represented the fallen world, while the inner courts represented a more sacred and holier way of life. In essence, as the high priest, who represented all of Israel, progressed through the Tabernacle, or temple, he left the world to enter a more holy state, and then was enabled to reenter the presence of the Lord, passing the angels or cherubim who were embroidered on the veil. Solomon's temple replicated this same three level progression, doubling the floor plan size of the Tabernacle sanctuary for the temple structure. As one approached the Temple of Solomon, the first thing noticed was the brazen altar of sacrifice. The altar was 20 cubits long and wide, and 10 cubits high, a cubit being the length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or about one and a half feet. On the four corners of the altar were four horns, horns often repressing power. This is where the sacrificial animals were burned, representing the future sacrifice of the Savior Jesus Christ. On the southeast side of the temple was the molten or brazen sea, which rested on the backs of 12 oxen, three pointing in each of the cardinal directions. In ancient times, oxen represented strength, and the number 12 often represented the 12 tribes of Israel. Water from the larger brazen sea was poured into ten bronze water basins on both sides of the temple, which could then be wheeled around the outer court for various washing and cleaning rituals by the priests. Around the south, west and north sides of the temple were three floors of chambers or storage rooms. The inside wall of the chambers was stepped, so as to create a ledge where the timbers of the floors could rest. The storage rooms were accessed by a door on the south side of the temple, with wooden ladders going up into each of the floors. At the front of the temple were two large bronze pillars that flanked the porch. The pillar on the left was named Boaz and the pillar on the right was named Jachin. The tops were decorated with lily flower petals and pomegranates. Pomegranates were a sign of prosperity and posterity, because of their many seeds, and were also found on the bottom hem of the clothing of the high priest. The main temple doors were made of two large bi-folding doors covered in gold with cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers. The Bible describes the doorframe as being a "fourth part of the wall" which most scholars believe means that the door had four stepped frames. The interior doorway of the Holy of Holies was similar, except having five frames instead of four. The priests, who represented Israel, were the only ones allowed into the inner temple. This means that Israel only could enter through being represented by the priests. Once you entered the main doors you entered the Holy Place, a large room, 40 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and 30 cubits tall. The room was overlaid with gold, and decorated with cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers, possibly alluded to the beauty of the Garden of Eden. The room was lit by the ten large menorahs, five on each side of the room, that were constantly burning, and narrow windows on each side of the top of the room. On the right side of the room was located the table of showbread which had twelve large flat pita like loaves. The priests ate and then replaced the showbread every Sabbath, similar to our weekly partaking of the communion or sacramental bread. Breaking bread and sharing a meal with someone in ancient times represented that you were at peace with them and was a sign of brotherhood, love and forgiveness. Directly in front of the Holy of Holies was the altar of incense. The altar was similar to the altar of sacrifice in that it had a square footprint, and also had four horns, one on each of the corners. However, on the altar of sacrifice was burned the flesh of animals, while upon the altar of incense burned a sweet combination of incenses. The incense burning before the veil of the temple represented the prayers of the saints ascending to God before the veil. A reminder that before we can enter God's presence, our lives, prayers, and actions must become a sweet savor unto the Lord. Only the High Priest was able to enter the Holy of Holies, and only on one day a year, the Day of Atonement. Before entering, the High Priest passed through a beautifully embroidered veil woven from purple, red, blue, and white threads. The colors were the same as used in the ephod and breastplate of the clothing of the high priest, minus the gold thread. Embroidered on the veil were cherubim, who symbolically guarded the dwelling place of God. As the High Priest passed through the veil he had to pass these angels, who like in the Garden of Eden, guarded the way back to the presence of Lord. Upon entering the Holy of Holies, you would find that the room is the shape of a perfect cube, being 20 cubits wide, long and tall. The walls were likewise overlaid with gold and decorated with cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers. Two large cherubim flanked the ark of the covenant, which was in the center of the room, with their wings stretching from one side of the room to the other. This room is where the presence of the Lord would dwell and represented the final goal and destiny of all Israel. Solomon's Temple was not only a landmark for the city of Jerusalem, but more importantly, the dwelling place of the Lord. The layout represented Israel’s progression back into God’s presence and was designed to teach Israel that it was only through the infinite sacrifice of the sinless Messiah, that they could once again enjoy the presence of the Lord. A sacrifice that would be performed on a cross only a short distance from this holy mountain.

Contents

In the Tanakh

In an artistic representation, King Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem (painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902)
In an artistic representation, King Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem (painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902)

The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh.[3] According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah. The Bible describes Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects, workmen and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally Solomon at Jerusalem. He also co-operated with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE. This puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE.[4] Schmid and Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a Jebusite shrine which Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the Jebusites and Israelites.[5] 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took Solomon 20 years altogether to build the Temple and his royal palace. The Temple itself finished being built after 7 years.[6] During the united monarchy the Temple was dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Israel, and housed the Ark of the Covenant.[7] Rabbinic sources[8] state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.[9]

The exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated.[citation needed]

According to the Tanakh, the Temple was plundered by the Neo-Babylonian Empire king Nebuchadnezzar II when the Babylonians attacked Jerusalem during the brief reign of Jehoiachin c. 598 BCE (2 Kings 24:13). A decade later, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem and after 30 months finally breached the city walls in 587 BCE, subsequently burning the Temple, along with most of the city (2 Kings 25). According to Jewish tradition, the Temple was destroyed on Tisha B'Av, the 9th day of Av (Hebrew calendar).[10]

Architectural description

Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Plan of Solomon's Temple with measurements
Plan of Solomon's Temple with measurements

The Temple of Solomon is considered to be built according to Phoenician design, and its description is considered the best description of what a Phoenician temple looked like.[11] The detailed descriptions provided in the Tanakh are the sources for reconstructions of its appearance. Technical details are lacking, since the scribes who wrote the books were not architects or engineers.[12] Nevertheless, the descriptions have inspired modern replicas of the temple and influenced later structures around the world.

Reconstructions differ; the following is largely based on Easton's Bible Dictionary and the Jewish Encyclopedia:[citation needed]

Holy of Holies

The Holy of Holies, or Kodesh haKodashim in Hebrew, (1 Kings 6:19; 8:6), also called the "Inner House" (6:27), (Heb. 9:3) was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. The usual explanation for the discrepancy between its height and the 30-cubit height of the temple is that its floor was elevated, like the cella of other ancient temples.[12] It was floored and wainscotted with cedar of Lebanon (1 Kings 6:16), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold (6:20, 21, 30) amounting to 600 talents (2 Chr. 3:8) or roughly 20 metric tons. It contained two cherubim of olive-wood, each 10 cubits high (1 Kings 6:16, 20, 21, 23–28) and each having outspread wings of 10 cubits span, so that, since they stood side by side, the wings touched the wall on either side and met in the center of the room. There was a two-leaved door between it and the Holy Place overlaid with gold (2 Chr. 4:22); also a veil of tekhelet (blue), purple, and crimson and fine linen (2 Chronicles 3:14; compare Exodus 26:33). It had no windows (1 Kings 8:12) and was considered the dwelling-place of the "name" of God.

The Kodesh haKodashim (the Holy of Holies) was prepared to receive and house the Ark (1 Kings 6:19); and when the Temple was dedicated, the Ark, containing the original tablets of the Ten Commandments, was placed beneath the cherubim (1 Kings 8:6).

Hekhal

The Hekhal, or Holy Place, (1 Kings 8:8–10), is also called the "greater house" (2 Chr. 3:5) and the "temple" (1 Kings 6:17); the word also means "palace",[12] was of the same width and height as the Holy of Holies, but 40 cubits in length. Its walls were lined with cedar, on which were carved figures of cherubim, palm-trees, and open flowers, which were overlaid with gold. Chains of gold further marked it off from the Holy of Holies. The floor of the Temple was of fir-wood overlaid with gold. The door-posts, of olive-wood, supported folding-doors of fir. The doors of the Holy of Holies were of olive-wood. On both sets of doors were carved cherubim, palm-trees, and flowers, all being overlaid with gold (1 Kings 6:15 et seq.)

Etymology

The noun hekhal (Hebrew: היכל‎, borrowed from Sumerian 𒂍𒃲 (É.GAL) "big house") means "a large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in Jerusalem (that is the nave, or sanctuary, of the Temple), or a palace such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the King of Babylon.

Hekhal is used 80 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD (in Hebrew Bible בֵּית יְהוָה beit Yahweh), the other 10 are references to palaces. There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in the Hebrew Bible.

In the year that king Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the hekhal (sanctuary).

— Isaiah 6:1.
Use in architecture

In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James Version, the term temple is used to translate hekhal. In modern versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and archaeologists generally agree on the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with the main building, the hekhal, in English now sometimes called "the sanctuary", the devir, the inner sanctuary, and finally the Holy of Holies.[13]

This main building was between the outer altar, where most sacrifices were performed, and inside at the far end was the entry to the Holy of Holies, originally containing the Ark of the Covenant. The main hekhal contained a number of sacred ritual objects including the seven branched candlestick, the inner altar for incense offerings (also called the "Golden Altar"), and the table of the showbread.

The same architectural layout of the temple was adopted in synagogues leading to the hekhal being applied in Sephardi usage to the Ashkenazi Torah ark, the equivalent of the nave.[14]

Porch

The Ulam, or porch, acted as an entrance before the Temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3; 2 Chr. 3:4; 9:7). This was 20 cubits long (corresponding to the width of the Temple) and 10 cubits deep (1 Kings 6:3). (ESV 2 Chr. 3:4) notes that this porch was 120 cubits high. The description does not specify whether a wall separated it from the next chamber. In the porch stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings 11:14; 23:3), which were 18 cubits in height.

Chambers

Chambers were built around the Temple on the southern, western and northern sides (1 Kings 6:5–10). These formed a part of the building and were used for storage. They were probably one story high at first; two more may have been added later.[12]

Courts

According to the Bible, two courts surrounded the Temple. The Inner Court (1 Kings 6:36), or Court of the Priests (2 Chr. 4:9), was separated from the space beyond by a wall of three courses of hewn stone, surmounted by cedar beams (1 Kings 6:36). It contained the Altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the Brazen Sea laver (4:2–5, 10) and ten other lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). A brazen altar stood before the Temple (2 Kings 16:14), its dimensions 20 cubits square and 10 cubits high (2 Chr. 4:1). The Great Court surrounded the whole Temple (2 Chr. 4:9). It was here that people assembled to worship. (Jeremiah 19:14; 26:2).

Molten Sea

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Molten Sea or Brazen Sea (ים מוצק "cast metal sea") was a large basin in the Temple for ablution of the priests. It is described in 1 Kings 7:23-26 and 2 Chronicles 4:2-5. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. According to the Bible it was five cubits high, ten cubits in diameter from brim to brim, and thirty cubits in circumference. The brim was "like the calyx of a lily" and turned outward "about an hand breadth"; or about four inches. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. The Book of Kings states that it contains 2,000 baths (90 cubic meters), while Chronicles (2 Chr. 4:5–6) states it can hold up to 3,000 baths (136 cubic meters) and states that its purpose was to afford opportunity for the purification by immersion of the bodies of the priests.

The fact that it was a wash basin which was too large to enter from above lends to the idea that water would likely have flowed from it down into a subcontainer beneath. The water was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from Solomon's Pools. The molten sea was made of brass or bronze, which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chronicles 18:8). Ahaz later removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (2 Kings 25:13).

The lavers, each of which held "forty baths" (1 Kings 7:38), rested on portable holders made of bronze, provided with wheels, and ornamented with figures of lions, cherubim, and palm-trees. The author of the books of the Kings describes their minute details with great interest (1 Kings 7:27–37). Josephus reported that the vessels in the Temple were composed of orichalcum in Antiquities of the Jews. According to 1 Kings 7:48 there stood before the Holy of Holies a golden Altar of Incense and a table for showbread. This table was of gold, as were also the five candlesticks on each side of it. The implements for the care of the candles–tongs, basins, snuffers, and fire-pans–were of gold; and so were the hinges of the doors.

Dedication

1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony,[15] "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord" (1 Kings 8:10–11; 2 Chronicles 5:13, 14). Solomon interpreted the cloud as "[proof] that his pious work was accepted":[15]

The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you an exalted house, a place for you to dwell in forever. (1 Kings 8:12-13)

The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2:

The Lord said to Moses:
Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat that is upon the ark, or he will die; for I appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.

Solomon then led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, and highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot really be contained within a single building. The dedication was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep".[16]

Archaeology

Because of the religious and political sensitivities involved, no archaeological excavations and only limited surface surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted since Charles Warren's expedition of 1867–70.[17][18][19] There is no archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple, and the building is not mentioned in surviving extra-biblical accounts.[20] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman argue that the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem was not built until the end of the 7th century BCE, around three hundred years after Solomon.[20] They believe the temple should not really be assigned to Solomon, who they see as little more than a small-time hill country chieftain, and argue that it was most likely built by Josiah, who governed Judah from 639 to 609 BCE.[20]

  • An ostracon (excavated prior to 1981), sometimes referred to as the House of Yahweh ostracon, was discovered at Tel Arad, dated to 6th century BCE which mentions a temple which is probably the Temple in Jerusalem.[21]
  • A thumb-sized ivory pomegranate (which came to light in 1979) measuring 44 millimetres (1.7 in) in height, and bearing an ancient Hebrew inscription "Sacred donation for the priests in the House of ---h,]", was believed to have adorned a sceptre used by the high priest in Solomon's Temple. It was considered the most important item of biblical antiquities in the Israel Museum's collection.[22] However, in 2004, the Israel Antiquities Authority reported the inscription to be a forgery, though the ivory pomegranate itself was dated to the 14th or 13th century BCE.[23] This was based on the report's claim that three incised letters in the inscription stopped short of an ancient break, as they would have if carved after the ancient break was made. Since then, it has been proven that one of the letters was indeed carved prior to the ancient break, and the status of the other two letters are in question. Some paleographers and others have continued to insist that the inscription is ancient, some dispute this so the authenticity of this writing is still the object of discussion.[24]
  • Another artifact, the Jehoash Inscription, which first came to notice in 2003, contains a 15-line description of King Jehoash's ninth-century BCE restoration of the Temple. Its authenticity was called into question by a report by the Israel Antiquities Authority, which said that the surface patina contained microfossils of foraminifera. As these fossils do not dissolve in water, they cannot occur in a calcium carbonate patina, leading initial investigators to conclude that the patina must be an artificial chemical mix applied to the stone by forgers. As of late 2012, the academic community is split on whether the tablet is authentic or not. Commenting on a 2012 report by geologists arguing for the authenticity of the inscription, in October 2012, Hershel Shanks (who believes the inscription is genuine) wrote the current situation was that most Hebrew language scholars believe that the inscription is a forgery and geologists that it is genuine, and thus "Because we rely on experts, and because there is an apparently irresolvable conflict of experts in this case, BAR has taken no position with respect to the authenticity of the Jehoash Inscription."[25]
  • By 2006, the Temple Mount Sifting Project had recovered numerous artifacts dating from the 8th to 7th centuries BCE from soil removed in 1999 by the Islamic Religious Trust (Waqf) from the Solomon's Stables area of the Temple Mount. These include stone weights for weighing silver and a First Temple period bulla, or seal impression, containing ancient Hebrew writing which includes the name Netanyahu ben Yaush. Netanyahu is a name mentioned several times in the Book of Jeremiah while the name Yaush appears in the Lachish letters. However, the combination of names was unknown to scholars.[26][27]
  • In 2007, artifacts dating to the 8th to 6th centuries BCE were described as being possibly the first physical evidence of human activity at the Temple Mount during the First Temple period. The findings included animal bones; ceramic bowl rims, bases, and body sherds; the base of a juglet used to pour oil; the handle of a small juglet; and the rim of a storage jar.[28][29]

Other contemporary temples

There is archaeological and written evidence of three Israelite temples, either contemporary or of very close date, dedicated to Yahweh (Elephantine temple, probably Arad too), either in the Land of Israel or in Egypt. Two of them have the same general outline as given by the Bible for the Jerusalem Temple.

Freemasonry

Rituals in Freemasonry refer to King Solomon and the building of his Temple.[34] Masonic buildings, where Lodge members meet, are sometimes called 'temples'; an allegoric reference to King Solomon's Temple.[35]

Kabbalah

Kabbalah views the design of the Temple of Solomon as representative of the metaphysical world and the descending light of the creator through Sefirot of the Tree of Life. The levels of the outer, inner and priest's courts represent three lower worlds of Kabbalah. The Boaz and Jachin pillars at the entrance of the temple represent the active and passive elements of the world of Atziluth. The original menorah and its seven branches represent the seven lower Sephirot of the Tree of Life. The veil of the Holy of Holies and the inner part of the temple represent the Veil of the Abyss on the Tree of Life, behind which the Shekhinah or Divine Presence hovers.[36]

Islam

The Temple in Jerusalem is mentioned in verse 7 of the surah Al-Isra in the Quran; commentators of Quran such as Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur [37] postulate that this verse refers specifically to the Temple of Solomon.

Popular culture

Solomon's Temple appears in Solomon and Sheba (1959) and in the novel King Solomon's Mines (1885). It also appears in the video game Assassin's Creed where the main character Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad deal with Robert de Sablé.[38][39] It appears too on Assassin's Creed Unity (2014) where the Knight Templar Jacques de Molay is burned and died.[40][41]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Josephus, Jew. Ant. 10.8.5
  2. ^ "Science & Nature – Horizon". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
  3. ^ Dever, William G. Did God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. Wm B. Eerdmans. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0802828521. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  4. ^ Stevens, Marty E. (2006), Temples, tithes, and taxes: the temple and the economic life of ancient Israel, Hendrickson Publishers, p. 3, ISBN 1-56563-934-0
  5. ^ Clifford Mark McCormick (2002). Palace and Temple: A Study of Architectural and Verbal Icons. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-3-11-017277-5.
  6. ^ 1 Kings 6:38
  7. ^ Achtemeier, Paul J.; Boraas, Roger S. (1996), The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, San Francisco: HarperOne, p. 1096
  8. ^ "Temple In Rabbinical Literature". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
  9. ^ Yeisen, Yosef (2004), Miraculous journey: a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present, Targum Press, p. 56, ISBN 1-56871-323-1
  10. ^ Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Ab, Ninth Day of". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  11. ^ According to Finkelstein in The Bible Unearthed, the description of the temple is remarkably similar to that of surviving remains of Phoenician temples of the time, and it is certainly plausible, from the point of view of archaeology, that the temple was constructed to the design of Phoenicians.
  12. ^ a b c d De Vaux, Roland; McHugh, John, ed. (1961). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. NY: McGraw-Hill.
  13. ^ Peter Schäfer The Origins of Jewish Mysticism. 2011. p. 59: "Scholars have long observed that this three-part structure resembles the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3, 5: the hekhal (sanctuary), the devir (inner sanctuary) or qodesh ha-qodashim (Holy of Holies)..."
  14. ^ Meir Ben-Dov, The Golden Age: Synagogues of Spain in History and Architecture, 2009: "Among Ashkenazic Jewry, even though these two were the main foci of the synagogue, the terms used for them were different. The hekhal (literally, "the Temple") was known as the aron ha-kodesh (literally, ..."
  15. ^ a b Pulpit Commentary on 1 Kings 8, accessed 2 October 2017
  16. ^ 1 Kings 8:10-66
  17. ^ Warren, Charles (1876). Underground Jerusalem: An Account of Some of the Principal Difficulties Encountered in Its Exploration and the Results Obtained. With a Narrative of an Expedition through the Jordan Valley and a Visit to the Samaritans. London: Richard Bentley.
  18. ^ Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats (3rd, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576071120.
  19. ^ Handy, Lowell (1997). The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Brill. pp. 493–94. ISBN 978-90-04-10476-1.
  20. ^ a b c Finkelstein, Israel & Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon & Schuster. pp. 128–29. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.
  21. ^ T. C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 397. ISBN 978-0521227179.
  22. ^ Myre, Greg (December 30, 2004). "Israel Indicts 4 in 'Brother of Jesus' Hoax and Other Forgeries". The New York Times.
  23. ^ "Ivory pomegranate 'not Solomon's'". BBC News. December 24, 2004.
  24. ^ Shanks, Hershel (November–December 2011). "Fudging with Forgeries". Biblical Archaeology Review. 37 (6): 56–58. ISSN 0098-9444.
  25. ^ Shanks, Hershel (November–December 2012). "Authentic or Forged? What to Do When Experts Disagree". Biblical Archaeology Review. First Person (column). ISSN 0098-9444. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  26. ^ "Building Remains From The Time Of The First Temple Were Exposed West Of The Temple Mount". Israel Antiquities Authority. March 13, 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2015. a personal Hebrew seal made of a semi-precious stone that was apparently inlaid in a ring. The scarab-like seal is elliptical and measures c. 1.1 cm (0.4 in) x 1.4 cm (0.6 in). The surface of the seal is divided into three strips separated by a double line: in the upper strip is a chain decoration in which there are four pomegranates and in the two bottom strips is the name of the owner of the seal, engraved in ancient Hebrew script. It reads: לנתניהו בן יאש ([belonging] to Netanyahu ben Yaush). The two names are known in the treasury of biblical names: the name נתניהו (Netanyahu) is mentioned a number of times in the Bible (in the Book of Jeremiah and in Chronicles) and the name יאש (Yaush) appears in the Lachish letters. The name Yaush, like the name יאשיהו (Yoshiyahu) is, in the opinion of Professor Shmuel Ahituv, derived from the root או"ש which means “he gave a present” (based on Arabic and Ugaritic). It is customary to assume that the owners of personal seals were people that held senior governmental positions. It should nevertheless be emphasized that this combination of names – נתניהו בן יאוש (Netanyahu ben Yaush) – was unknown until now.
  27. ^ Shragai, Nadav (October 19, 2006). "Temple Mount dirt uncovers First Temple artifacts". Haaretz.
  28. ^ "Temple Mount First Temple Period Discoveries". The Friends of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
  29. ^ Milstein, Mati (October 23, 2007). "Solomon's Temple Artifacts Found by Muslim Workers". National Geographic News.
  30. ^ Avraham Negev & Shimon Gibson (2001). Arad (Tel). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. p. 43. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
  31. ^ Mazar, Amihai. “The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some Archaeological Issues.” pp. 159–80 in The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel (Archaeology and Biblical Studies) Society of Biblical Literature (Sep 2007) ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 p. 176
  32. ^ "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Investigating the Origin of the Ancient Jewish Community at Elephantine: A Review".
  33. ^ "Searching for the Temple of King Solomon". Biblical Archaeology Society. 6 January 2017.
  34. ^ "Lodge Chelmsford No 261". Lodgechelmsford.com. Retrieved 2015-01-29.
  35. ^ Invalid Input. "Freemasons NSW & ACT – Home". Masons.org.au. Retrieved 2015-01-29.
  36. ^ The Way of Kabbalah, Warren Kenton, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Weiser Books, 1976, p. 24.
  37. ^ Ibn Ashur, Muhammad al-Tahir. "al-Tahrir wa'l-tanwir". Al-Dar Al-Tunasia Publication. Tunisia. 1984. vol. 15, p. 13
  38. ^ Bowden, Oliver (June 23, 2011). Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade. Penguin UK. p. 464. ISBN 9780141966717.
  39. ^ Dansereau, François; Lowe, Ivan; Nadiger, James; Podar, Nitai; Sutton, Megan; Whelton-Pane, Johathan; Wright, William (November 2011). Assassin's Creed Encyclopedia. UbiWorkshop. p. 256. ISBN 978-2-924006-03-0.
  40. ^ Worley, Seth. "Assassin's Creed Unity (Video Game Review)". BioGamer Girl Magazine. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  41. ^ Bowden, Oliver (November 20, 2014). Assassin's Creed: Unity. Penguin UK. p. 480. ISBN 9781405918855.

References

Further reading

21st century resources
Post-1945 resources
Pre-1945 resources

External links

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