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Sognamål dialect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sognamål (literally "Sogn language", in Sognamål; sognamaol) is a Western Norwegian dialect which is spoken in the area of Sogn. One of the most prominent features of Sognamål is the pronunciation [aʊ] instead of [ɔː] in many words, i.e. exactly how the letter "á" is pronounced in modern Icelandic. The folk/black metal band Windir from Sogndal used the Sognamål dialect in their lyrics.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[1]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive /
Affricate
voiceless p t c͡ç k
voiced b d ɟ͡ʝ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s h
voiced v
Trill r
  • /m, p, b/ are bilabial, whereas /f, v/ are labiodental.
  • /p, b, t, d, k, ɡ/ are plosives, whereas /c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ/ are affricates.[1]
  • Phonetically, /r/ can be trilled [r] or tapped [ɾ].[1]

Vowels

Monophthongs of Sognamål, from Haugen (2004:30)
Monophthongs of Sognamål, from Haugen (2004:30)
Monophthong phonemes of Sognamål[2]
Front Back
unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close i ʊ ʊː
Mid ɛ ø øː ɔ ɔː
Open a
  • /eː/ is close-mid front []. Its short counterpart is the open-mid front [ɛ].[2]
  • /ʊ, ʊː/ are close-mid [o, ].[2]
  • The long /øː/ is open-mid front [œː], whereas the short /ø/ varies between open-mid front [œ] and near-close front [ʉ̞˖].[2]
  • /ɔ, ɔː/ are open-mid [ɔ, ɔː].[2]
  • /a, aː/ are central [ä, äː].[2]
Part 1 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Part 1 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Part 2 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Part 2 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Diphthong phonemes of Sognamål[3]
Starting point Ending point
Front Back
unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close iʉː
Close-mid ei eiː eʉː
Open-mid ɔi ɔiː øy øyː oʊː
Open ai aiː aʊː
  • /iʉ, iʉː/ are phonetically [iʉ̟, iʉ̟ː].[4]
  • /ei, eiː/ are phonetically [ei, eiː].[4]
  • /eʉ, eʉː/ are phonetically [eʉ̟, eʉ̟ː].[4]
  • /øy, øyː/ are phonetically [œy, œyː].[4]
  • /ɔi, ɔiː/ are phonetically [ɔ̟i, ɔ̟iː].[4]
  • /oʊ, oʊː/ are phonetically [ɔo, ɔoː].[4]
  • /ai, aiː/ are phonetically [äi, äiː].[4]
  • /aʊ, aʊː/ are phonetically [äo̟, äo̟ː].[4]

Samples

Icelandic Sognamål Nynorsk Bokmål English
cf. ambátt (handmaid) ambå verktøy verktøy tools, equipment
cf. áklæði aokle åkle teppe lap robe, a blanket
cf. betla (to beg) betla klaga klage to whine
brjóstsviði brennesot halsbrann halsbrann heartburn
dós daose dåse dåse a small box
dilla didla (hondn didla pao rompao) vifta, dilla vifte oscillate or as in, the dog wags its tail
dikkedarie without further ado
lag ein laot ein låt en låt musical piece or song
fiðrildi fivreld sommarfugl, fivreld sommerfugl a butterfly
hjólbara hjulebåra trillebår trillebår wheelbarrow
cf. illur iddle ill, vond vond, ille As in it hurts, e.g. iddle fing; the finger hurts
igraol ein grådig person en grådig person a greedy person
í gærkvöldi jaftes i går kveld i går kveld yesterday evening
í gær jaor i går i går yesterday
cf. hérna jedna kanskje kanskje perhaps
hvar? kest? kvar? hvor? where?
læmingi lomhond lemen, lomhund lemen, lomhund a lemming
nossa seg nossa seg, kosa seg kose seg have an enjoyable time
rua rue (ku)ruke cow droppings
skemill skammedl skammel skammel a short bench
skompa skumpa skumpe as a shove/pushing
spøt spøt strikketøy knitting
eldspýtustokkur stikkedaose fyrstikkøskje fyrstikkeske matchbox
íkorni ikådn ekorn, ikorn ekorn (literally "tree bear"); squirrel
trebolar calluses
treneve treneve fommel about someone unable to work proper with his hands
þrútinn tråten opphovna opphovnet swollen
haorbådlajakedl
lakabodl a scrotum that has been left to stew in some kind of salty liquid, profanity
mokkok A cellar used to store fertilizer
viskustykki bidnetvåga tvoge, oppvaskklut oppvaskklut a small rag commonly used in the kitchen

References

  1. ^ a b c Haugen (2004), p. 32.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  3. ^ Haugen (2004), pp. 30–31.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Haugen (2004), p. 31.

Bibliography

  • Haugen, Ragnhild (2004), Språk og språkhaldningar hjå ungdomar i Sogndal (PDF), Bergen: Universitetet i Bergen


This page was last edited on 15 March 2020, at 01:59
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