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Sociotechnical system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behaviour. In this sense, society itself, and most of its substructures, are complex sociotechnical systems. The term sociotechnical systems was coined by Eric Trist, Ken Bamforth and Fred Emery, in the World War II era, based on their work with workers in English coal mines at the Tavistock Institute in London.[1]

Sociotechnical systems pertains to theory regarding the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of organizational structure and processes. Here, technical does not necessarily imply material technology. The focus is on procedures and related knowledge, i.e. it refers to the ancient Greek term techne. "Technical" is a term used to refer to structure and a broader sense of technicalities. Sociotechnical refers to the interrelatedness of social and technical aspects of an organization or the society as a whole.[2] Sociotechnical theory therefore is about joint optimization, with a shared emphasis on achievement of both excellence in technical performance and quality in people's work lives. Sociotechnical theory, as distinct from sociotechnical systems, proposes a number of different ways of achieving joint optimisation. They are usually based on designing different kinds of organisation, ones in which the relationships between socio and technical elements lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing.

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  • ✪ Aquaponics
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Bill here. We're in a car driving from Santa Cruz down to Watsonville to go visit and aquaponics place. I'm here with my family. There's my kid, my mom, there's my dad. What's the name of the place we're going to? Do you know it dad? Viridis. Viridis. Viridis? Okay, Viridis Aquaponics. It's run by Drew? Drew Hopkins, and I don't know the other fellow. Okay, Drew Hopkins. So, we're going to meet up with Drew Hopkins. Miles, do you know what aquaponics is? No? Okay, well, I think you're going to find out. Alright. See y'all. My name is Curtis White. I've been here with the Viridis project from day 1. Fantastic. I'm Nick Kaufman, and I do education and outreach here at Viridis. Awesome. Fantastic. Well, let's take a look. Really everything we've got is over here. This is a fish tank. It's a 600-gallon tank. We've got White Pacific Sturgeon in here. I'll try and wrangle one up. There you go Miles. Whoa. These guys are about 8 months old. We'll sell them off when they're about 30 to 50 pounds each to be harvested for their meat. But for now, we feed them and they metabolize that food and as they metabolize that they excrete waste. You mean they poop. They poop. There in there, they're pooping up a storm. Basically fish excrete about 80% pure liquid, pure liquid ammonia, and then the rest comes out as a solid and that's really what has all your sulfur, potassium, magnesium and everything. They excrete all their waste in here and then it's a series, these two barrels which are a series of biological filtration. Basically these are designed to catch any solids and give them a place to be broken down by the bacterial processes. We rely on what are called nitrifying bacteria. A couple classes, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter bacteria that actually convert the ammonia that the fish produce. They convert it first to nitrites and then into nitrates. Both ammonia and nitrites are really toxic to fish so that's why in a conventional aquaculture system essentially you have a pond and when it starts to go fowl you simply drain off half the water and refill it with pure water. In an aquaponic system we never drain that water off. We simply have bacteria that converts the ammonia and nitrite into a bioavailable form of nitrogen for plants. Then the plants actually absorb the nitrates. They remove it from the water and clean it for the fish. Basically after it hits these two filtration barrels the water passes through what is called a wicking bed. If you can imagine the water is passing through these beds actually only about right here. Below that it's just gravel and above that it's a later of soil. You can imagine the waterline is right at the base of the soil so it's just kissing the bottom of the soil. Then if you've ever dipped a paper towel into water and you see it wick its way up, we utilize the capillary action to maintain a constant level of moisture in our soil so even just an inch down it's nice and moist and cool, but it's not wet. The soil is never saturated so it's ideal for root vegetables, carrots, beets, onions, garlic, things that would be really susceptible to an excess of water if they were ever waterlogged. It's great for peppers. I mean, obviously we've got chard and kale that are just doing great. So, it will go through the wick bin and at the end underground we have it piped over into these what are called deep water culture beds. This is our primary growing method here. It's about a 1 foot deep channel of water, 4 feet wide. We grow directly into these floating rafts. The roots just dangle straight into the water. It also makes the ease of harvest, transplant, seeding really easy. We feed directly into these plugs. When they have roots that start to protrude we'll actually just pop it right in just like that. Essentially there is no transplant shock, no lapse in growth. It also allows us to have seeding and transplanting be like a one or two person job instead of an entire operation. Okay, we need to do the test. Hey, Miles, how's the basil? Good. Is it fantastic? You want a second bite? Is it good enough for a second bite? Alright, cool. Do you use an IT system to support this? How do you know when the chemical composition of the water is right or whatever, or is that like dipping a stick in? We have electronic monitors for everything here. Right now it's all manually done. Once a day we do electronic testing and then once a week with reagent-based testing just to double check that our electronic probes are still functioning like they should. All the temperature controls and everything here in the greenhouse, that's all run by computer. Essentially as soon as it hits 78 degrees in here the roof vents will open. As soon as it gets below that they will close. The entire day they're opening, they're closing. It will actually be totally independent because that side of the greenhouse gets hit with sunlight much earlier in the morning than this side so it will usually heat up a lot faster. When I was a little kid man, the first sign of a sore throat or a cough mom would whisk us off to the doctor for a shot in the bum of antibiotics, right? Nowadays we know that we need some of this biology that's inside us to help us digest our meals and our immune system, our immune function. Some of that is biology that's on us, and if we kill everything we become immediate hosts to all kinds of other things if we lose all our protection. The same thing happens with this system. Instead of sterilizing our system all the time which makes it susceptible for all kinds of new residents, we nurture the biology. We're looking forward to this water becoming older and older and older because things show up in there that are beneficial, and that's what we're nurturing is beneficial bacterias. That's why we drink kombucha and probiotics. All those things are part of the age today where we start to respect the helpful biologies. I need more coffee. Our neighbors here in this valley which is the most abundant valley in America, the salad bowl, Salinas Valley, is where 95% of the lettuce in America comes from. Third generation farmers here will tell you that they grow a head of lettuce per square foot two times a year. They turn their crops once, twice, and then winter is here again. Two heads of lettuce per square foot for a year compared to our 60 per square foot per year. So, inside this 10 acres we grow a million heads of lettuce a month. To do that out there requires 450 acres once. When you consider the amount of water that is going on that mud as those seeds are taking hold, the amount of tractors that are tilling that land, the harvesters that are breaking their backs down low, the pesticides, the fertilizers, everything, none of which we use in here. Look, there is no dirt, there are no furrows, there are no sprinklers. We use 99% less water than they do because ours is all preserved and we have hundreds of times the yield. This is the agriculture of the future. One thing I asked your colleagues but I was wondering on your thoughts on it as well, and Viridis have other thoughts on it since the course is focusing on information technology, they were mentioning to me a couple of the ways that IT features into the system as you currently have it. Do you have a sense for how might information technology be used over the next 10 or 20 years in an endeavor like this? Oh, man, dramatically. One of the fortunate things we're looking at is we caught the eye of NASA. Williams Research Center has offered us something called the Space Act Agreement where we will have a co-collaborative effort in the sciences. They want to study the nitrification process and the feasibility of growing food in space for the space station and further exploration, as well as just humanity on earth. We have a great deal of impact happening in agriculture. NASA is putting 14 scientists in a laboratory here on this site to perform data collection and study why this is working so well. That science will be shared by us and them. What we're looking forward to immediately in information technology is a way to test our water and the production cycles, the nitrification processes, what happens to the mineralization of elements in the soils being able to be uptaken by plants, the oxygen levels, the dissolved oxygen in the tank, the pH levels in the tank. There are so many things that we need to test for, and we have dramatic massive catastrophic failures when that occurs. We have an acre of water here and if chemically something happens we lose a massive crop so we have to monitor consistently. That monitoring needs to happen minute by minute wirelessly and be sent to our phones, and this is Viridis 1 of thousands. We're going to put thousands of these all over the world. We need this modernized and wired. In this house we really have our chard, kale, cucs, a substantial amount of tomatoes introduction, mostly Cherokee Purple and a few other varieties. After time these sprouts will actually spiral around these buckets because they grow so long. It's kind of like weaving almost. We already have tomatoes going on here. They're braided together. These are all indeterminant tomatoes so essentially as long as they have the right conditions they will keep growing and keep growing and keep growing. We'll let these get to be like 25 even 50 feet long before they'll really start to have diminishment in the amount of fruit set. I only come down a few days a week and these were transplanted two weeks ago, these cucumbers. Now they're producing fruit. They were maybe 6 to 8 inches tall each and now they're well over a foot and a half, two feet tall each. They're producing cucumbers. They're really just an idea of the rapid growth that we experience on this farm. We're beyond organic. Organic has 226 different pesticides that are approved for use on organic produce. We didn't want to stoop to that. We can use none. Everything in our system has to be digestible. We have to be to feed that to our kids to spray it on our plants because otherwise it will kill the fish or the bacteria which must be protected so we can use no fertilizers. UC Santa Cruz, hippie college of California and the growers of the world, understand what we are talking about and they are pretty enthused about our products. It didn't take but two tours from the procurement department and then the entire dining staff, which 20 more will be here tonight on a tour, they gave us a beautiful food purchasing contract for thousands of dollars and that's just to supply all of the lettuce, tomatoes, any specialty goods. Anything we grow we're first in line now at UC Santa Cruz over the food service contracts. Now we've been contacted by the Office of the President of the UC Association and are looking at a similar contract for the entire UC network to be able to provide this beautiful food to all the students at UC. Awesome.



Sociotechnical refers to the interrelatedness of social and technical aspects of an organization. Sociotechnical theory is founded on two main principles:

  • One is that the interaction of social and technical factors creates the conditions for successful (or unsuccessful) organizational performance. This interaction consists partly of linear "cause and effect" relationships (the relationships that are normally "designed") and partly from "non-linear", complex, even unpredictable relationships (the good or bad relationships that are often unexpected). Whether designed or not, both types of interaction occur when socio and technical elements are put to work.
  • The corollary of this, and the second of the two main principles, is that optimization of each aspect alone (socio or technical) tends to increase not only the quantity of unpredictable, "un-designed" relationships, but those relationships that are injurious to the system's performance.

Therefore, sociotechnical theory is about joint optimization,[3] that is, designing the social system and technical system in tandem so that they work smoothly together. Sociotechnical theory, as distinct from sociotechnical systems, proposes a number of different ways of achieving joint optimization. They are usually based on designing different kinds of organization, ones in which the relationships between socio and technical elements lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing, rather than the all too often case of new technology failing to meet the expectations of designers and users alike.

The scientific literature shows terms like sociotechnical all one word, or socio-technical with a hyphen, sociotechnical theory, sociotechnical system and sociotechnical systems theory. All of these terms appear ubiquitously but their actual meanings often remain unclear. The key term "sociotechnical" is something of a buzzword and its varied usage can be unpicked. What can be said about it, though, is that it is most often used to simply, and quite correctly, describe any kind of organization that is composed of people and technology. But, predictably, there is more to it than that.


Some of the central principles of sociotechnical theory were elaborated in a seminal paper by Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth in 1951Template:Human Relations; Feb1951, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p3-38, 36p. This is an interesting case study which, like most of the work in sociotechnical theory, is focused on a form of 'production system' expressive of the era and the contemporary technological systems it contained. The study was based on the paradoxical observation that despite improved technology, productivity was falling, and that despite better pay and amenities, absenteeism was increasing. This particular rational organisation had become irrational. The cause of the problem was hypothesized to be the adoption of a new form of production technology which had created the need for a bureaucratic form of organization (rather like classic command-and-control). In this specific example, technology brought with it a retrograde step in organizational design terms. The analysis that followed introduced the terms "socio" and "technical" and elaborated on many of the core principles that sociotechnical theory subsequently became.

Responsible autonomy

Sociotechnical theory was pioneering for its shift in emphasis, a shift towards considering teams or groups as the primary unit of analysis and not the individual. Sociotechnical theory pays particular attention to internal supervision and leadership at the level of the "group" and refers to it as "responsible autonomy".[4] The overriding point seems to be that having the simple ability of individual team members being able to perform their function is not the only predictor of group effectiveness. There are a range of issues in team cohesion research, for example, that are answered by having the regulation and leadership internal to a group or team.[5]

These, and other factors, play an integral and parallel role in ensuring successful teamwork which sociotechnical theory exploits. The idea of semi-autonomous groups conveys a number of further advantages. Not least among these, especially in hazardous environments, is the often felt need on the part of people in the organisation for a role in a small primary group. It is argued that such a need arises in cases where the means for effective communication are often somewhat limited. As Carvalho[6] states, this is because "...operators use verbal exchanges to produce continuous, redundant and recursive interactions to successfully construct and maintain individual and mutual awareness...". The immediacy and proximity of trusted team members makes it possible for this to occur. The coevolution of technology and organizations brings with it an expanding array of new possibilities for novel interaction. Responsible autonomy could become more distributed along with the team(s) themselves.

The key to responsible autonomy seems to be to design an organization possessing the characteristics of small groups whilst preventing the "silo-thinking" and "stovepipe" neologisms of contemporary management theory. In order to preserve "...intact the loyalties on which the small group [depend]...the system as a whole [needs to contain] its bad in a way that [does] not destroy its good".[4] In practice,[7] this requires groups to be responsible for their own internal regulation and supervision, with the primary task of relating the group to the wider system falling explicitly to a group leader. This principle, therefore, describes a strategy for removing more traditional command hierarchies.


Carvajal[8] states that "the rate at which uncertainty overwhelms an organisation is related more to its internal structure than to the amount of environmental uncertainty". Sitter in 1997 offered two solutions for organisations confronted, like the military, with an environment of increased (and increasing) complexity: "The first option is to restore the fit with the external complexity by an increasing internal complexity. ...This usually means the creation of more staff functions or the enlargement of staff-functions and/or the investment in vertical information systems".[9] Vertical information systems are often confused for "network enabled capability" systems (NEC) but an important distinction needs to be made, which Sitter et al. propose as their second option: "...the organisation tries to deal with the external complexity by 'reducing' the internal control and coordination needs. ...This option might be called the strategy of 'simple organisations and complex jobs'". This all contributes to a number of unique advantages. Firstly is the issue of "human redundancy"[10] in which "groups of this kind were free to set their own targets, so that aspiration levels with respect to production could be adjusted to the age and stamina of the individuals concerned".[4] Human redundancy speaks towards the flexibility, ubiquity and pervasiveness of resources within NEC.

The second issue is that of complexity. Complexity lies at the heart of many organisational contexts (there are numerous organizational paradigms that struggle to cope with it). Trist and Bamforth (1951) could have been writing about these with the following passage: "A very large variety of unfavourable and changing environmental conditions is encountered ... many of which are impossible to predict. Others, though predictable, are impossible to alter."[11]

Many type of organisations are clearly motivated by the appealing "industrial age", rational principles of "factory production", a particular approach to dealing with complexity: "In the factory a comparatively high degree of control can be exercised over the complex and moving "figure" of a production sequence, since it is possible to maintain the "ground" in a comparatively passive and constant state".[11] On the other hand, many activities are constantly faced with the possibility of "untoward activity in the 'ground'" of the 'figure-ground' relationship"[11] The central problem, one that appears to be at the nub of many problems that "classic" organisations have with complexity, is that "The instability of the 'ground' limits the applicability ... of methods derived from the factory".[11]

In Classic organisations, problems with the moving "figure" and moving "ground" often become magnified through a much larger social space, one in which there is a far greater extent of hierarchical task interdependence.[11] For this reason, the semi-autonomous group, and its ability to make a much more fine grained response to the "ground" situation, can be regarded as "agile". Added to which, local problems that do arise need not propagate throughout the entire system (to affect the workload and quality of work of many others) because a complex organization doing simple tasks has been replaced by a simpler organization doing more complex tasks. The agility and internal regulation of the group allows problems to be solved locally without propagation through a larger social space, thus increasing tempo.

Whole tasks

Another concept in sociotechnical theory is the "whole task". A whole task "has the advantage of placing responsibility for the ... task squarely on the shoulders of a single, small, face-to-face group which experiences the entire cycle of operations within the compass of its membership."[4] The Sociotechnical embodiment of this principle is the notion of minimal critical specification. This principle states that, "While it may be necessary to be quite precise about what has to be done, it is rarely necessary to be precise about how it is done".[12] This is no more illustrated by the antithetical example of "working to rule" and the virtual collapse of any system that is subject to the intentional withdrawal of human adaptation to situations and contexts.

The key factor in minimally critically specifying tasks is the responsible autonomy of the group to decide, based on local conditions, how best to undertake the task in a flexible adaptive manner. This principle is isomorphic with ideas like effects-based operations (EBO). EBO asks the question of what goal is it that we want to achieve, what objective is it that we need to reach rather than what tasks have to be undertaken, when and how. The EBO concept enables the managers to "...manipulate and decompose high level effects. They must then assign lesser effects as objectives for subordinates to achieve. The intention is that subordinates' actions will cumulatively achieve the overall effects desired".[13] In other words, the focus shifts from being a scriptwriter for tasks to instead being a designer of behaviours. In some cases, this can make the task of the manager significantly less arduous.

Meaningfulness of tasks

Effects-based operations and the notion of a "whole task", combined with adaptability and responsible autonomy, have additional advantages for those at work in the organization. This is because "for each participant the task has total significance and dynamic closure"[4] as well as the requirement to deploy a multiplicity of skills and to have the responsible autonomy in order to select when and how to do so. This is clearly hinting at a relaxation of the myriad of control mechanisms found in more classically designed organizations.

Greater interdependence (through diffuse processes such as globalisation) also bring with them an issue of size, in which "the scale of a task transcends the limits of simple spatio-temporal structure. By this is meant conditions under which those concerned can complete a job in one place at one time, i.e., the situation of the face-to-face, or singular group". In other words, in classic organisations the "wholeness" of a task is often diminished by multiple group integration and spatiotemporal disintegration.[14] The group based form of organization design proposed by sociotechnical theory combined with new technological possibilities (such as the internet) provide a response to this often forgotten issue, one that contributes significantly to joint optimisation.


Sociotechnical system

A sociotechnical system is the term usually given to any instantiation of socio and technical elements engaged in goal directed behaviour. Sociotechnical systems are a particular expression of sociotechnical theory, although they are not necessarily one and the same thing. Sociotechnical systems theory is a mixture of sociotechnical theory, joint optimisation and so forth and general systems theory. The term sociotechnical system recognises that organizations have boundaries and that transactions occur within the system (and its sub-systems) and between the wider context and dynamics of the environment. It is an extension of Sociotechnical Theory which provides a richer descriptive and conceptual language for describing, analysing and designing organisations. A Sociotechnical System, therefore, often describes a 'thing' (an interlinked, systems based mixture of people, technology and their environment).


Standalone, incremental improvements are not sufficient to address current, let alone future sustainability challenges. These challenges will require deep changes of sociotechnical systems. Theories on innovation systems; sustainable innovations; system thinking and design; and sustainability transitions, among others, have attempted to describe potential changes capable of shifting development towards more sustainable directions.[15]

Autonomous work teams

Autonomous work teams also called self-managed teams, are an alternative to traditional assembly line methods. Rather than having a large number of employees each do a small operation to assemble a product, the employees are organized into small teams, each of which is responsible for assembling an entire product. These teams are self-managed, and are independent of one another.[16]

Job enrichment

Job enrichment in organizational development, human resources management, and organizational behavior, is the process of giving the employee a wider and higher level scope of responsibility with increased decision-making authority. This is the opposite of job enlargement, which simply would not involve greater authority. Instead, it will only have an increased number of duties.[17]

Job enlargement

Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities. This contradicts the principles of specialisation and the division of labour whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is performed repetitively by an individual worker. Some motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused by the division of labour can actually cause efficiency to fall.

Job rotation

Job rotation is an approach to management development, where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation. The term job rotation can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices, especially in public offices, prior to the end of incumbency or the legislative period. This has been practiced by the German green party for some time but has been discontinued


Motivation in psychology refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.[18] Motivation is a temporal and dynamic state that should not be confused with personality or emotion. Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something. A motivated person can be reaching for a long-term goal such as becoming a professional writer or a more short-term goal like learning how to spell a particular word. Personality invariably refers to more or less permanent characteristics of an individual's state of being (e.g., shy, extrovert, conscientious). As opposed to motivation, emotion refers to temporal states that do not immediately link to behavior (e.g., anger, grief, happiness).

Process improvement

Process improvement in organizational development is a series of actions taken to identify, analyze and improve existing processes within an organization to meet new goals and objectives. These actions often follow a specific methodology or strategy to create successful results.

Task analysis

Task analysis is the analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task. This information can then be used for many purposes, such as personnel selection and training, tool or equipment design, procedure design (e.g., design of checklists or decision support systems) and automation.

Job design

Job design or work design in organizational development is the application of sociotechnical systems principles and techniques to the humanization of work, for example, through job enrichment. The aims of work design to improved job satisfaction, to improved through-put, to improved quality and to reduced employee problems, e.g., grievances, absenteeism.


Deliberations are key units of analysis in non-linear, knowledge work. They are 'choice points' that move knowledge work forward. As originated and defined by Cal Pava (1983) in a second-generation development of STS theory, deliberations are patterns of exchange and communication to reduce the equivocality of a problematic issue; for example, for systems engineering work, what features to develop in new software. Deliberations are not discrete decisions--they are a more continuous context for decisions. They have 3 aspects: topics, forums, and participants.

See also


  1. ^ Susan Long. Socioanalytic Methods: Discovering the Hidden in Organisations and Social Systems. ISBN 1780491328.
  2. ^ For the latter, see the use of sociotechnical in the works of sociologist Niklas Luhmann and philosopher Günter Ropohl.
  3. ^ Cooper, R., & Foster, M. (1971). Sociotechnical systems. American Psychologist, 26, 467-474.
  4. ^ a b c d e Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.7-9.
  5. ^ Siebold, G. L. (1991). "The evolution of the measurement of cohesion". In: Military Psychology, 11(1), 5-26.
  6. ^ P.V.R. Carvalho (2006). "Ergonomic field studies in a nuclear power plant control room". In: Progress in Nuclear Energy, 48, pp. 51-69
  7. ^ A. Rice (1958). Productivity and social organisation: The Ahmedabad experiment. London: Tavistock.
  8. ^ R. Carvajal (1983). "Systemic netfields: the systems' paradigm crises. Part I". In: Human Relations 36(3), pp.227-246.
  9. ^ Sitter, L. U., Hertog, J. F. & Dankbaar, B., From complex organizations with simple jobs to simple organizations with complex jobs, in: Human Relations, 50(5), 497-536, 1997. p. 498
  10. ^ D.M. Clark (2005). "Human redundancy in complex, hazardous systems: A theoretical framework". In: Safety Science. Vol 43. pp. 655-677.
  11. ^ a b c d e Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.20-21.
  12. ^ A. Cherns (1976). "The principles of sociotechnical design". In: Human Relations. Vol 29(8), pp.783-792. p.786
  13. ^ J. Storr (2005). A critique of effects-based thinking. RUSI Journal, 2005. p.33
  14. ^ Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.14.
  15. ^ Savaget, Paulo; Geissdoerfer, Martin; Kharrazi, Ali; Evans, Steve (2019). "The theoretical foundations of sociotechnical systems change for sustainability: A systematic literature review". Journal of Cleaner Production. 206: 878–892. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.208.
  16. ^ Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  17. ^ Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porte, Motivation and Work Behavior, 1991. pages 215, 322, 357, 411-413, 423, 428-441 and 576.
  18. ^ Geen, R. G. (1995), Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole.

18. Pava, C., 1983. Managing New Office Technology. Free Press, New York, NY.

Further reading

  • Kenyon B. De Greene (1973). Sociotechnical systems: factors in analysis, design, and management.
  • Jose Luis Mate and Andres Silva (2005). Requirements Engineering for Sociotechnical Systems.
  • Enid Mumford (1985). Sociotechnical Systems Design: Evolving Theory and Practice.
  • William A. Pasmore and John J. Sherwood (1978). Sociotechnical Systems: A Sourcebook.
  • William A. Pasmore (1988). Designing Effective Organizations: The Sociotechnical Systems Perspective.
  • Pascal Salembier, Tahar Hakim Benchekroun (2002). Cooperation and Complexity in Sociotechnical Systems.
  • Sawyer, S. and Jarrahi, M.H. (2014) The Sociotechnical Perspective: Information Systems and Information Technology, Volume 2 (Computing Handbook Set, Third Edition,) edited by Heikki Topi and Allen Tucker. Chapman and Hall/CRC. |
  • James C. Taylor and David F. Felten (1993). Performance by Design: Sociotechnical Systems in North America.
  • Eric Trist and H. Murray ed. (1993).The Social Engagement of Social Science, Volume II: The Socio-Technical Perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • James T. Ziegenfuss (1983). Patients' Rights and Organizational Models: Sociotechnical Systems Research on mental health programs.
  • Hongbin Zha (2006). Interactive Technologies and Sociotechnical Systems: 12th International Conference, VSMM 2006, Xi'an, China, October 18–20, 2006, Proceedings.
  • Trist, E., & Labour, O. M. o. (1981). The evolution of socio-technical systems: A conceptual framework and an action research program: Ontario Ministry of Labour, Ontario Quality of Working Life Centre.
  • Amelsvoort, P., & Mohr, B. (Co-Eds.) (2016). "Co-Creating Humane and Innovative Organizations: Evolutions in the Practice of Socio-Technical System Design": Global STS-D Network Press

External links

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