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Socialist Party USA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Socialist Party USA
  • Holly Carpenter (CA)
  • Pat Noble (NJ)
Vice Chair
  • Jamie Keesling (NY)
  • Adam Powell (AL)
National SecretaryGreg Pason (NJ)
National TreasurerPat Noble (NJ)
Executive EditorAdam Powell (AL)
FoundedMay 30, 1973; 46 years ago (1973-05-30)
Split fromSocial Democrats, USA
Preceded bySocialist Party of America
Headquarters168 Canal Street, 6th Floor New York City, New York 10013
Democratic socialism
Socialist feminism
Political positionLeft-wing
International affiliationNone
Colors     Red
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
0 / 5,411
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
0 / 97
Territorial Lower Chamber Seats
0 / 91
Local Offices1 (2018)[1]

The Socialist Party USA, officially the Socialist Party of the United States of America (SPUSA),[2] is a multi-tendency democratic socialist party in the United States. The SPUSA was founded in 1973 as a successor to the Socialist Party of America, which had been renamed Social Democrats, USA a year before.

The party is officially committed to multi-tendency democratic socialism. Along with its predecessor, the Socialist Party USA has received varying degrees of support when its candidates have competed against those from the Republican and Democratic parties. The SPUSA advocates for complete independence from the Democratic Party. Self-described as opposing all forms of oppression, specifically capitalism and authoritarian forms of communism, the party advocates for the creation of a "radical democracy that places people's lives under their own control", a "non-racist, classless, feminist, socialist society" in which "the people own and control the means of production and distribution through democratically-controlled public agencies, cooperatives, or other collective groups"; "full employment is realized for everyone who wants to work"; "workers have the right to form unions freely, and to strike and engage in other forms of job actions"; and "production of society is used for the benefit of all humanity, not for the private profit of a few".[3]

Headquartered at the A. J. Muste Institute, the SPUSA's National Office is located at 168 Canal Street in the Chinatown neighborhood of New York City. The party has four chartered state organizations in California, Michigan, Maine and New Jersey as well as twenty eight chartered locals throughout the country.[4] In October 2015, the Socialist Party USA nominated Mimi Soltysik for President and Angela Nicole Walker for Vice President.[5]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Why is there no American Left Wing Party?
  • ✪ Socialist Party of America - Split of the Left Wing
  • ✪ Interview with Stewart Alexander, Socialist Party USA candidate.


If there’s one thing you hear over and over again in the American political discourse, it’s socialism as a word to represent generic badness. And America indeed doesn’t appear to have a left-wing party in their political system. Many other countries have democratic socialist parties, but the US seems to act as a strange exception to this. So… why? Hi, I’m Tristan Johnson, and this is Step Back History. Be sure to click the subscribe button as well as the bell notification to never miss a new Step Back video or live stream. Unlike in Canada, a good chunk of Europe, and Oceania, a social democratic party never entered the halls of Congress. It almost rings as just political wisdom in American political speech. Never mention socialism. Everything private is better than public, corporations always good, unions always bad, progressive taxation bad, trickle down good. You saw accusations of encroaching socialism from the American right for over half a century now. Most recently it was the Limbaugh's and the Gingrich's arguing that the tiniest government regulation from Obama meant the imminent rise of Soviet communism, even when all his best friends were bankers. Well, to channel Morpheus, what if I told you Socialism isn’t some foreign ideology, antithetical to American values? What if I told you that it was the work of Socialists that you have all your fingers, and you likely worked 8 hours today? This is the story of a group of political activists who without getting to play in congress or the white house, still made a lot of modern America. What we could call socialist communities in America date all the way back to the early 19th century. Groups like the Shakers, activists like Josiah Warren, and communities founded by people like Charles Fournier experimented with socialist type policies and actions, just without the name. As industrialisation expanded in America, you saw a massive increase in the country’s wealth. In the 19th century, the per capita wealth increased by about 1000 dollars, but it was incredibly uneven. In 1901, one percent of the population owned about 54 percent of the wealth. This is around double of their share today. This economic situation is often credited for the spread of socialist ideas in America. Funny that. So in the late 19th century, socialist movements started to bubble up in America. One such example is the presidential run of Victoria Woodhull. She was the publisher of the Communist Manifesto in America and ran for president under the Equal Rights Party all in 1872. The law at the time said that women couldn’t vote, but nothing said they couldn’t run for office. At one point she even tried to court Frederick Douglass as her running mate. Her platform was to reform political and social abuses, emancipate labour, and give women the vote. She also wanted to abolish the death penalty and improve civil rights. Socialist groups, trade unions, and suffragists supported her bid for the white house. However because she was under the age of 35, she wasn’t allowed on the Ballot. Now President Woodhull is an alternate history scenario I want to read! Socialism in the late 19th century usually wasn’t in these electoral arenas. Groups formed from trade unions and were popular amongst British, German, and Jewish immigrants. There were a few attempts to build a party, including the 1874 workingmen’s party and the 1877 Socialist Labour Party, but the real big step for Socialism in America was the founding of the... Socialist Party of America in 1901. Its primary goals were to collectivise those means of production. The party was, however, very decentralised to allow for flexibility and to serve diverse interests around the country. It attracted a motley crew of both immigrant and native-born workers, tenant farmers, middle-class intellectuals, a few champagne socialist rich people, urban reformers, and the nascent feminist movement. The party did pretty well for itself, claiming about 10,000 members on its founding, and growing to 150,000 by 1912, the high watermark for the party electorally. Socialist magazines like Appeal to Reason had circulations over 760,000. This period also saw the rise in Anarchist activism. A group of left-leaning folks who believe that there’s no government like… no government. Anarchists were active parts of this surge in left-wing politics going on, albeit with a few objecting to their tactics. Assassinating the president, not exactly the best PR. In May of 1883, a labour demonstration exploded in violence. Literally, there were bombs. This event, which I am glossing over because it really should be its own video, is called the Haymarket affair, or by people on the left, the Haymarket Massacre. It spawned International Workers Day, which is a holiday around the world. Except in America and Canada, where they instead have a labour day in September very few people even know is about labour. Several anarchists were found guilty of conspiracy after the event and executed for their involvement with the bombing. Anarchists in this period had a reputation for liking bombs. So what were these labour activists goals? The big move around the world among socialists was an 8 hour work day, but many had the long-term goal of eradicating capitalism. Where they fought was in how. Some were revolutionaries who wanted to use bullets and bombs to overthrow the state, and some argued for a reformist approach. Things were looking good after 1912, but it wouldn’t last. The drums of war began to beat over in Europe in 1914. The empires of the world clashed in one of the biggest, deadliest, and most pointless wars in human history. Most socialists opposed the struggle, claiming that it was a result of empires competing over colonies. They implored the US to stay neutral in such a conflict. However, in 1917, the US declared war on the central powers. This war led to a lot of changes in America. It was the beginning of the income tax, but also when the US passed the espionage act. This very constitutional law made it a crime to make speeches undermining the war effort. It resulted in the imprisonment of a lot of anti-war protestors. Among them was Socialist Party leader Eugene Debs. Socialist magazines were forced shut, except for Appeal to Reason which decided to support the war to keep its doors open. After the war, the attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer became convinced that communists were planning to take over America. See, the Russian revolution in what would become the USSR really freaked him out. He recruited a special assistant, J. Edgar Hoover, and used that espionage act as well as a similar Sedition Act to attack pretty much every left of centre organisation. On the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution, over 10,000 activists were arrested under what is today called the Palmer Raids. Those arrested who were immigrants found themselves facing deportation. By the way, that revolution Palmer was convinced entirely was going to happen was bogus. They found no evidence of such an activity. However, that didn't stop many of these activists from being held without trial for a very long time. Most were released, but some famous activists like Emma Goldman were deported to Russia. The Socialist party began to decline in the 20s. However, that didn’t stop Eugene Debs from raking in almost a million votes in the 1920 election while in prison. In the 1930s, the Socialist party was supplanted by Communist Party USA, often called CPUSA. People were afraid of the consequences of supporting these causes. As a result of the government crackdowns, many socialist newspapers, even the ones that survived the war, had to shut down. As the Depression took hold, and the New Deal began to show a lot of success, many socialists decided to vote Democratic. Socialist party membership dropped over 80 percent between 1932 and 1936. However, there were some holdouts. One place the Socialists succeeded was in Milwaukee, where Daniel Hoan served as the mayor from 1916, all the way to 1940. The second punch came in the 1950s. During the peak of the cold war with the USSR, a senator named Joseph Mccarthy, who looks a lot like Ted Cruz, capitalised on paranoia about Soviet spies and began a witch hunt for secret communists. This led to a lot of destroyed lives of anyone who ever associated with these socialist groups, even if that association was decades ago. It also resulted in a lot of closeted LGBT people suffering threats of being outed. It’s called the lavender scare and a story for another video if you want it. Due to this second red scare, membership in the socialist party fell to below 2,000 members as people either retreated in fear or joined the Democrats in hopes that they could push their ideas there. Gosh, that’s been going on for a long time… In the 60s, some high profile American socialists actually were called in by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations to help with the war on poverty and the great society. Socialists also began to show up in the civil rights movement, and to a much lesser extent amongst the 60s counterculture. Speaking of the 60s, there was a rise in a liberal pro-capitalist, but still socially progressive...ish group called the new left. After the 60s, this began to be what would take over the Democratic party. That being said, over the late 60s and early 70s the socialists tended to throw their support behind the Democratic candidate. In 1976, the Socialist party ran its first presidential candidate in two decades, and the candidate was a former mayor of Milwaukee. Since then, the Socialist party pretty much broke with the Democrats. Well, through their policy positions, it's more the Democrats broke up with them. So the socialists do seem at quite a low point, but things seem to be open to change. The cold war is long dead, and in 2013 a poll of identified Democrats found a 49% support for socialism, compared to a 39% support for capitalism. The presidential campaign of Senator Bernie Sanders and the organised young fight against the Trump administration has resulted in an explosion of support for socialism in America. Since the Sanders campaign, the Democratic Socialists of America have reported that their membership has more than doubled. It’s still unclear how socialism will fit into the future of American politics, but it seems that it will be part of it. Did you know that I do a stream every Sunday night? It’s true! It’s a show called So that Happened, and in it, I hang out with the Emperor Tigerstar, and Cody from the Alternate History Hub. If a show like that piques your interest, you can find it at 7PM eastern time every Sunday on the Alternate History Hub Channel. This video was made possible by these beautiful people, as well as the rest of my Patrons over at Patreon. I’d especially like to thank Don and Kerry Johnson as well as Kolbeinn Mani for their generosity. The theme song is by 12Tone and come back next time for more Step Back.




In 1958, the Independent Socialist League led by Max Shachtman dissolved to join the Socialist Party of America. Shachtman[6] had written that Soviet communism was a new form of class society, bureaucratic collectivism, in which the ruling class exploited and oppressed the population and therefore he opposed the spread of communism.[7][8] Shachtman also argued that democratic socialists should work with activists from labor unions and civil rights organizations to help build a social democratic "realignment" of the Democratic Party. Though he died on November 4, 1972 and had little involvement with the Socialist Party in the year proceeding his death, his followers, identitified as "Shachmanites", exercised a tremendous amount of influence on the party.[7]

In its 1972 convention, the Socialist Party changed its name to Social Democrats, USA by a vote of 73 to 34.[9] The change of name was supported by the two Co-Chairmen, Bayard Rustin and Charles S. Zimmerman of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU);[10] and by the First National Vice Chairman James S. Glaser—these three were re-elected by acclamation.[9]

Renaming the party as SDUSA was meant to be "realistic". The New York Times observed that the Socialist Party had last sponsored Darlington Hoopes as its candidate for President in the 1956 election, who received only 2,121 votes, which were cast in only six states. Because the party no longer sponsored candidates in presidential elections, the name "party" had been "misleading"—"party" had hindered the recruiting of activists who participated in the Democratic Party, according to the majority report. The name "Socialist" was replaced by "Social Democrats" because many American associated the word "socialism" with Soviet communism.[9] The party also wished to distinguish itself from two small Marxist parties.[11]

The convention elected a national committee of 33 members, with 22 seats for the majority caucus, 8 seats for Harrington's coalition caucus, 2 for the Debs caucus and one for the "independent" Samuel H. Friedman,[12] who also had opposed the name change.[9] The convention voted on and adopted proposals for its program by a two-one vote, with the majority caucus winning every vote.[12] On foreign policy, the program called for "firmness toward Communist aggression". However, on the Vietnam War the program opposed "any efforts to bomb Hanoi into submission" and to work for a peace agreement that would protect Communist political cadres in South Vietnam from further military or police reprisals. Harrington's proposal for an immediate cease fire and an immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces was defeated.[12] Harrington complained that after its previous convention, the Socialist Party had endorsed George McGovern with a statement of "constructive criticism" and had not mobilized enough support for McGovern.[11]

After their defeat at the convention, members of two minority caucuses helped to found new socialist organizations. At most 200 members of the Coalition Caucus joined Michael Harrington in forming the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC),[13] which later became the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA).[14][15] At its start, DSOC had 840 members, of which 2 percent served on its national board in 1973 when SDUSA stated its membership at 1,800, according to a 1973 profile of Harrington.[13] Second, many members of the Debs Caucus joined David McReynolds in reconstituting the Socialist Party USA also in 1973.[16]


The Debs Caucus formed the Union for Democratic Socialism and on May 30, 1973 incorporated the Socialist Party of the United States of America,[16] usually simplified as the Socialist Party USA.[17][third-party source needed] Many activists from the local and state branches of the old Socialist Party, including the party's Wisconsin, California, Illinois, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. organizations, participated in the reconstitution of the Socialist Party USA.[15][third-party source needed]

After its founding, the party promoted itself as the legitimate heir of the Socialist Party of America.[18] Former Mayor of Milwaukee, Frank Zeidler, was elected the first national chairperson of the party. Zeidler also helped re-organizing the party structure during its early years. He was later nominated as the party's candidacy for the presidential office, with Zeidler believing the party would be able to collaborate with other socialist parties nationwide to spread the message of socialism.[19]

Subsequent history

Since 1976, a member of the party was elected to the city council of Iowa City and several members have won tens of thousands of votes in elections for statewide offices. In 1992, Socialist Iowa City Councilwoman Karen Kubby won her re-election with the highest vote in a contested election in the history of the Iowa City Council and was re-elected until retiring from the Council in 2000.[20] In 2000, Socialist Wendell Harris received 19% of the vote for Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the primary.[21] In 2008, Socialist Jon Osborne pulled in 22% of the vote for Rhode Island's 34th District State Senate seat while listed on the ballot under the Socialist Party USA label.[22] During the 2010 United States Senate elections, Dan La Botz of the Socialist Party of Ohio received 25,368 (0.68%) votes in Ohio.[23] In 2011, Socialist Matt Erard was elected to a three-year term on the city of Detroit's Downtown District Citizens' District Council.[24] In 2012, Socialist Pat Noble unseated his incumbent opponent in winning election to the Red Bank Regional High School Board of Education,[25] Socialist John Strinka received 10% of the vote while running with the party's ballot label for Indiana's 39th district State House seat[26] and Socialist Troy Thompson received 27% of the vote for Mayor of Floodwood, Minnesota.[27] Also in 2012, candidate Mary Alice Herbert received 13.1% of the vote for Vermont Secretary of State while running with the dual nomination of both the Socialist and Vermont Liberty Union parties.[28][29]

2016 candidates

For the 2016 general election, the Socialist Party nominated Mimi Soltysik and Angela Nicole Walker to be its presidential ticket. Other party members ran for office as well, including Jarrod Williams for United States Senate in Nevada, Seth Baker for Maine Senate and Michael Anderson for the Michigan House of Representatives.[30]


According to the party's first chairman, Frank Zeidler, the party had around 500 members nationwide in 1975.[19] The Socialist Party experienced substantial growth during the late 1970s and early to mid-1980s, expanding from only around 600 dues-paying members to around 1,700.[31] In 2008, WMNF claimed that the party had around 3,000 paying members.[32] However, a CommonDreams article suggested that the organization had only 1,000 members in 2010, with party members claiming it to be an increase in the number of members.[33] In May 2011, an article from The New York Times stated that the party has "about 1,000 members nationally".[34] In February 2012, an article from The Root stated that the party had a "membership around 1,500".[35]

Pat Noble, National Co-Chair of the Socialist Party and the party's only member holding elected public office
Pat Noble, National Co-Chair of the Socialist Party and the party's only member holding elected public office

Current elected officials

Local Boards of Education



Stephanie Cholensky, Convener of the party's Women's Commission
Stephanie Cholensky, Convener of the party's Women's Commission

While some party members favor a more gradual approach to socialism, most others envision a more sweeping or revolutionary transformation of society from capitalist to socialist through the decisive victory of the working class in the class struggle.[36] Some party members also advocate revolutionary nonviolence or pacifism while some consider armed struggle a possible necessity. The party's Statement of Principles rejects equating socialism with a "welfare state" and calls for democratic social revolution from below.[36] The party is strongly committed to principles of socialist feminism and strives to further embody such commitment in its organizational structure. Its national constitution requires gender parity among its national Co-Chairs and Co-Vice Chairs, its National Committee members and alternates and seated members of its branch- and region-elected delegations to the party's biennial National Conventions.[36][37][38] The Socialist Party also rejected the new healthcare reform law of 2010 approved by the Obama administration, with Socialist Party National Co-Chair Billy Wharton claiming it to be "a corporate restructuring of the health insurance industry created to protect the profit margins of private insurance companies".[39]

During his campaign, 2008 Socialist Party candidate for President Brian Moore was very vocal against the idea that Barack Obama was a socialist of any kind.[40] He further commented on the issue, saying it was "misleading of the Republicans" to spread that message.[41] In a later statement about Obama's policies, Wharton called Obama's 2010 State of the Union Address a "public relations ploy" and concluded saying: "The time for slick public relations campaigns has ended—the time for building our grassroots movements is more urgent than ever. The Socialist Party USA stands ready to join in such a political revitalization".[42]

International affairs

The Party's National Action Committee condemned the Israeli actions during the Gaza War. The party demands that the Federal government of the United States cease providing military aid to Israel as a precondition for peace. The party also seeks to begin an immediate withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan.[43] During the 2008 presidential election, the Socialist Party continued to place a strong emphasis on its full-scale opposition to American wars abroad, with Brian Moore, the presidential candidate, claiming the war was destroying small communities throughout the country. He also criticized what he called "pressure on the local governments" by the Bush administration.[44] The Socialist Party of Connecticut denounced Obama's troop surge in Afghanistan, claiming that the President wasted needed resources the country needed to get pulled out of the financial crisis. After denouncing him, the state affiliate organized a protest in front of the federal building in Hartford.[45]

In April 2017, the party issued a statement opposing further United States intervention into the Syrian Civil War.[46] Ten days later, the party issued a follow-up statement opposing both the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack and United States' subsequent missile strike.[47] In May 2017, the party condemned the Manchester Arena bombing and stood "against any attempt to turn this tragedy into political capital to further right-wing agendas and target oppressed communities".[48]


Greg Pason has run for office on the Socialist Party ticket many times starting in 1994
Greg Pason has run for office on the Socialist Party ticket many times starting in 1994

Socialist Party candidates, such as New Jersey gubernatorial and senate candidate Greg Pason, have also emphasized immediate public service demands—these reforms include socializing the United States health care system, a steeply graduated income tax, universal rent control and the elimination of all educational debts and tuition fees.[49] In 1997, Pason called auto insurance "a regressive tax against working people".[50] Moore was also vocal of his support for public healthcare and socialized medicine.[51] Moore believes that capitalism is a system based on both exploitation and selfishness, which operates to serve the interests of corporations and the ruling class at the expense of workers and the poor. During his presidential campaign, he claimed that the lack of available remedy to collapsing economic conditions stems from the capitalist system's foundation upon "greed" and advocated its replacement with a new system founded upon economic democracy through social ownership and workers' control of our reigning industrial and financial institutions.[40]

State and local parties

As of August 2017, the Socialist Party had twenty four chartered locals and five chartered state parties.[52]

State parties


  • Socialist Party of Central Alabama
  • Los Angeles Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Ventura County
  • Bay Area Socialists (Oakland, California)
  • Front Range Socialist Party (Denver, Colorado)
  • Washington DC Socialist Party
  • Chicago Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Greater Springfield (Illinois)
  • Greater Indianapolis Socialist Party
  • Northern Indiana Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Central Kentucky
  • Socialist Party of Southern Maine
  • Socialist Party of Eastern Maine
  • Socialist Party of Boston
  • Socialist Party of Twin Cities Metro (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
  • Socialist Party of Northern New Jersey
  • Central New Jersey Socialist Party
  • Capital District Socialist Party of New York
  • Socialist Party of Central New York
  • Socialist Party of New York City
  • Northern Piedmont of North Carolina Local
  • Socialist Party of Philadelphia

Presidential tickets

David McReynolds was twice the nominee for President
David McReynolds was twice the nominee for President
2012 nominee Stewart Alexander
2012 nominee Stewart Alexander
Year Results Candidates Ballot
Votes Percent For President For Vice President
1976 6,038 0.01% Frank Zeidler J. Quinn Brisben 7 [53][54]
1980 6,898 0.01% David McReynolds Diane Drufenbrock 10 [55][56]
1984[‡] 72,161 0.08% Sonia Johnson Richard Walton 19 [57][58]
1988 3,882 0.0% Willa Kenoyer Ron Ehrenreich 6 [59][60]
1992 3,057 0.0% J. Quinn Brisben Barbara Garson 4 [61][62]
1996 4,764 0.0% Mary Cal Hollis Eric Chester 5 [63][64]
2000 5,602 0.01% David McReynolds Mary Cal Hollis 7 [65][66]
2004 10,822 0.01% Walt Brown Mary Alice Herbert 8 [67][68]
2008 6,581 0.01% Brian Moore Stewart Alexander 8 [69][70]
2012 4,430 0.0% Stewart Alexander Alejandro Mendoza 3 [71][72]
2016 4,061 0.0% Mimi Soltysik Angela Nicole Walker 3 [73]

† In each line the first note refers to candidates and results, the second (if any) to ballot access
(the number of state + D.C. ballots, out of 51, on which the Socialist Party candidates appeared)
^ Endorsed the Citizens Party's candidates in 1984.

See also


  1. ^ "Socialist WebZine: Green Shoots of Red Electoralism". Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  2. ^ "The article of this organization shall be the Socialist Party of the United States of America, hereinafter called 'the Party'". Art. I of the "Constitution of the Socialist Party USA".
  3. ^ "Socialism As Radical Democracy: Statement of Principles of the Socialist Party USA". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  4. ^ "States & Locals". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  5. ^ Winger, Richard (October 17, 2015). "Socialist Party National Ticket Nominated". Ballot Access News. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
  6. ^ 2008, p. 63.
  7. ^ a b Drucker (1994):
    Drucker, Peter (1994). Max Shachtman and his left: A socialist's odyssey through the "American Century". Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-03816-8.
  8. ^ Beichman, Arnold (July 28, 2002). "Communism to anti-communism in lives of two rival editors (review two ISI books, James Burnham and the struggle for the world: A life by Daniel Kelly and Principles and heresies: Frank S. Meyer and the shaping of the American conservative movement by Kevin J. Smant)". The Washington Times. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d The New York Times reported on the Convention for other days, e.g.
  10. ^ Gerald Sorin, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals, 1880-1920. Bloomington. Indiana University Press. 1985. p. 155.
  11. ^ a b Anonymous (December 27, 1972). "Young Socialists open parley; to weigh 'New Politics' split". The New York Times. p. 25. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Anonymous (January 1, 1973). "'Firmness' urged on Communists: Social Democrats reach end of U.S. Convention here" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 11.
  13. ^ a b O'Rourke (1993, pp. 195–196):
    O'Rourke, William (1993). "L: Michael Harrington". Signs of the literary times: Essays, reviews, profiles, 1970-1992'. The Margins of Literature (SUNY Series). SUNY Press. pp. 192–196. ISBN 0-7914-1681-X.
    Originally: O'Rourke, William (November 13, 1973). "Michael Harrington: Beyond Watergate, Sixties, and reform". SoHo Weekly News. 3 (2): 6–7.
  14. ^ Mitgang, Herbert (August 2, 1989). "Michael Harrington, Socialist and Author, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
  15. ^ a b Busky 2000, pp. 164.[third-party source needed]
  16. ^ a b "Constitution of the Socialist Party of the United States of America". Archived from the original on 2010-05-24.
  17. ^ Busky 2000, pp. 165.[third-party source needed]
  18. ^ "Socialists Pick '76 candidate". St. Petersburg Times. September 3, 1975. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  19. ^ a b "Socialists pick ex-mayor for presidency". The Modesto Bee. September 2, 1975. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  20. ^ Lowenstein, Adam (May 26, 1999). "Kubby won't run again for City Council". The Gazette. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  21. ^ "Norquist, Watts Win Mayoral Primary Election in Milwaukee" St. Paul Pioneer Press February 16, 2000; p. 2B.
  22. ^ "2008 General Election Results - Senator in General Assembly District 34". State of Rhode Island: Board of Election. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  23. ^ "State of Ohio 2010 General Election November 2, 2010 Unofficial Results". Ohio Secretary of State. November 2, 2010. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  24. ^ "Socialist Candidate Elected To City Of Detroit Downtown Citizens District Council". Detroit's Downtown District Citizens' District Council. April 16, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
  25. ^ "New Jersey Socialist Party Secretary Elected to Regional High School Board of Education". Ballot Access News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  26. ^ "Election Results". Courier Journal. November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  27. ^ "MN Election Results". November 8, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  28. ^ "Official Report of the Canvassing Committee United States and Vermont Statewide Offices General Election, November 6, 2012" (PDF). Vermont Secretary of State Elections Division. November 13, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
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