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Social relation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agency form the basis of social structure and the basic object for analysis by social scientists.[citation needed] Fundamental inquiries into the nature of social relations feature in the work of sociologists such as Max Weber in his theory of social action.[citation needed]

Categorizing social interactions enables observational and other social research, such as Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (lit. "Community and Society"), collective consciousness, etc. However different schools and theories of sociology and other social sciences dispute the methods used for such investigations.

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Forms of relation and interaction

According to Piotr Sztompka, forms of relation and interaction in sociology and anthropology may be described as follows: first and most basic are animal-like behaviors, i.e. various physical movements of the body. Then there are actions – movements with a meaning and purpose. Then there are social behaviors, or social actions, which address (directly or indirectly) other people, which solicit a response from another agent. Next are social contacts, a pair of social actions, which form the beginning of social interactions. Social interactions in turn form the basis of social relations. Symbols define social relationships. Without symbols, our social life would be no more sophisticated than that of animals. For example, without symbols we would have no aunts or uncles, employers or teachers-or even brothers and sisters. In sum, Symbolic integrations analyze how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others. They study face-to-face interaction, examining how people make sense out of life, how they determine their relationships.

This sociological hierarchy is illustrated in the table below:[1]

Physical movement Meaning Directed towards others Await response Unique/rare interaction Interactions Accidental, not planned, but repeated interaction Regular Interactions described by law, custom, or tradition A scheme of social interactions
Behavior Yes
Action Yes Maybe
Social behavior Yes No Yes
Social action No Yes Yes No
Social contact Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Social interaction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Repeated interaction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Regular interaction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Regulated interaction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Social relation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

See also

Related disciplines


  1. ^ Sztompka (2002), p. 107


  • Piotr Sztompka, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, ISBN 83-240-0218-9
  • Reza Azarian 2010 "Social Ties: Elements of a Substantive Conceptualisation" Acta Sociologica, 53: 4: 323–38

Further reading

  • Max Weber The Nature of Social Action in Runciman, W.G. 'Weber: Selections in Translation' Cambridge University Press, 1991.
This page was last edited on 24 July 2017, at 13:35.
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