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Social Democratic Party (Romania)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat
AbbreviationPSD
PresidentMarcel Ciolacu
Secretary-GeneralPaul Stănescu
First-Vice PresidentsGabriela Firea
Sorin Grindeanu
Honorary PresidentIon Iliescu
Leader in the SenateLucian Romașcanu
Leader in the Chamber of DeputiesAlfred Simonis
Leader in the European ParliamentDan Nica
Founded16 June 2001; 20 years ago (2001-06-16)
Merger ofPDSR
PSDR
HeadquartersȘoseaua Kiseleff 10 Bucharest
Youth wingTSD
Women's wingOFSD
Membership (2014)509,000
Ideology
Political positionSyncretic[1]
National affiliationRed Quadrilateral
(1992–1996)
Social Democratic Pole of Romania (2000–2004)
Social Liberal Union
(2011–2014)
Centre Left Alliance
(2012–2014)
National Coalition for Romania (2021–present)
European affiliationParty of European Socialists
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
Socialist International
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours  Red
Senate
47 / 136
[a][14]
Chamber of Deputies
110 / 330
[b][15]
European Parliament
8 / 33
[16]
Mayors
1,362 / 3,176
[17]
County Presidents
20 / 41
[17]
County Councilors
362 / 1,340
[17]
Local Council Councilors
13,820 / 39,900
[17]
Ministers
8 / 21
[c]
Website
psd.ro

  • a. ^ 1 senator from PPU in PSD parliamentary group
  • b. ^ 4 deputies from PPU in PSD parliamentary group
  • c. ^ + a deputy prime minister

The Social Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is a social democratic[18][19] political party in Romania.[20] It was founded by Ion Iliescu, Romania's first democratically elected president at the 1990 Romanian general election.[21][22][23]

The PSD traces its origins to the Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN), a breakaway group established in 1992 from the post-Communist National Salvation Front (FSN). In 1993, this merged with three other parties to become the Party of Social Democracy in Romania (Romanian: Partidul Democrației Sociale in România, PDSR). The present name was adopted after a merger with the smaller Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSDR) in 2001. Since its formation, it has always been one of the two dominant parties of the country. The PDSR governed Romania from 1992 to 1996, while the PSDR was a junior coalition partner between 1996 and 2000. The merged PSD was the senior party in the coalitions governing from 2000 to 2004, and from March 2014 to November 2015, as well as one of the main coalition partners between December 2008 and October 2009 (with the Democratic Liberal Party) and again between May 2012 and March 2014 (as part of the Social Liberal Union). It is a member of the Progressive Alliance, which was founded in 2013,[24] Socialist International,[25] and Party of European Socialists.[26]As of 2014, the PSD had 509,000 members.[27][needs update]

The PSD left government after the prime minister Victor Ponta resigned in November 2015, only to return as the senior governing party in January 2017, when it achieved a major victory in the 2016 Romanian legislative election. Party founder Iliescu became the president of Romania, in office from the 1989 to 1996, and again from 2000 to 2004. The largest party in the Parliament of Romania with initially 47 seats in the Senate of Romania and 110 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (as obtained at the 2020 Romanian legislative election), it also has the largest number of mayors, as well as the second largest number of local and county councillors and county presidents, remaining the biggest and most influential political force in the country.[28][29]

History

On 7 April 1992, the struggle for power inside the National Salvation Front (Romanian: Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) between the more hardline group led by Ion Iliescu and the more reformist group led by Petre Roman resulted in the Iliescu group withdrawing from FSN and the founding of the Democratic National Salvation Front (Romanian: Frontul Democrat al Salvării Naționale, FDSN), which would later become the PDSR until 2003, when it rebranded as the PSD.

The FDSN won the 1992 Romanian general election and went on to govern Romania until 1996. On 10 July 1993, it took the name of Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR) upon merger with the Socialist Democratic Party of Romania, the Republican Party, and the Cooperative Party. From 1994 to 1996, the PDSR ruled in coalition with the right-wing Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR) and Greater Romania Party (PRM), and the left-wing Socialist Party of Labour (PSM). The PUNR had ministers in the cabinet chaired by Nicolae Văcăroiu from March 1994 to September 1996. The PRM was not present at the cabinet-level but was given some posts in the state administration. The PDSR went into opposition after the 1996 Romanian general election, which was won by the right-wing coalition Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR).

After four years of governmental turmoil and economic downfall, poorly managed by the crumbling CDR, saw PDSR making a fulminant comeback, winning the 2000 Romanian general election, this time in a coalition named the Social Democratic Pole of Romania (PDSR) along with the Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSDR) and the Romanian Humanist Party (PUR). The PSDR merged with PDSR on 16 June 2001, and the resulting party took the PSD name.

In November 2004, Adrian Năstase, the PSD candidate and incumbent Prime Minister of Romania, won the first round of the presidential elections but did not have a majority and had to go to a second round of voting, which he narrowly lost to Traian Băsescu of the opposition Justice and Truth Alliance, who became Romania's 4th president. In the 2004 Romanian general election, the PSD gained the largest share of the vote but because it did not have a majority, the other parties that managed to enter parliament, UDMR and PUR, abandoned their respective pre-electoral agreements with the PSD and joined the Justice and Truth Alliance, mainly at the pressure of Băsescu. Mircea Geoană was elected president of the party in April 2005 by delegates at a PSD Party Congress held in Bucharest. His victory represented a surprise defeat for Iliescu, who was expected to defeat Geoană with ease. On 17 April 2008, the PSD and the PC announced they would form a political alliance for the 2008 Romanian local elections.[30]

In February 2010, the Congress elected Victor Ponta as president after Geoană lost the 2009 Romanian presidential election. On 5 February 2011, the PSD formed a political alliance known as the Social Liberal Union (USL) with the PC and the National Liberal Party (PNL).[31] The USL was disbanded on 25 February 2014 with exit of the PNL, which entered the opposition.[32]

In July 2015, Liviu Dragnea was elected by the Congress of the PSD as the new president of the party, with 97% of the votes from the members. He was elected as leader after the former prime minister Victor Ponta stepped down on 12 July 2015 following charges of corruption that were later dropped. On 12 April 2019, the PSD was suspended from the Party of European Socialists (PES) following concerns about judicial reforms of the Dăncilă Cabinet.[33] In May 2019, after Liviu Dragnea's jailing, Viorica Dăncilă was elected by the Congress of the PSD as the new president of the party. In 2020, Marcel Ciolacu became president of the party.[34]

After being ousted from power in October 2019, the PSD also lost the 2019 Romanian presidential election. Such decline sent shockwase across the European Union, especially the PES, as it resulted in their loss of power within von der Leyen Commission. Nonetheless, Daniel Hegedüs posited that this could be a win for both the PES and the wider European left, as the PES would regain credibility because "mounting authoritarianism in Hungary and Poland has suffered under the burden of PSD's rule-of-law record." In addition, it is a chance for the PSD to reform itself and change its ways.[35]

While the largest party after the 2020 Romanian legislative election, the PSD suffered significant losses and remained the biggest parliamentary opposition. In August 2020, the PSD was willing to vote a motion of no confidence against the Second Orban Cabinet.[28] During the 2021 Romanian political crisis, the PSD was again willing to have such a vote, this time against the Cîțu Cabinet,[36] which it subsequently did,[37] thereby contributing to its final dismissal.[29] In November 2021, successful negotiations with the PNL led the PSD closer to returning government.[38]

Predecessors and successors

Flowchart denoting the political evolution of PSD, from its origins in the FSN in 1990 until the year 2010, with political groups which were both integrated and seceded from the party throughout the passing of time.
Flowchart denoting the political evolution of PSD, from its origins in the FSN in 1990 until the year 2010, with political groups which were both integrated and seceded from the party throughout the passing of time.

Party splits

Absorbed parties

Notes

1 After the merger, the party changed its name from the Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN) to the Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR).

2 After the merger, the party changed its name from the Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR) to the Social Democratic Party (PSD).

Ideology and platform

Like its counterpart national-level members of the Party of European Socialists, the PSD has a centre-left outlook[39][40][41] but has been described as pragmatic,[1] owing to its big tent, catch-all party nature, and syncretic politics.[1][2] Unlike the majority of Western European PES party members and as other like-minded centre-left, social democratic parties in Central and Eastern European post-Communism, it has taken a more soft Eurosceptic[10] outlook,[12][13][42] though it is neutral in regards to European integration.[43] The party is more conservative than PES when it comes to social issues,[9][44][45] reflecting the country's social-conservative outlook,[46] including in its centre-right counterpart, the National Liberal Party.[8] It has been described as a left-wing nationalist[2][47][48] and left-wing populist[49][6][7] social democratic party.[8][50][51] Alongside Direction – Slovak Social Democracy, it has been described as the PES' enfant terrible.[52]

The party has been described as having centre-left rhetoric and economic policies, while being more conservative on personal and ethical matters. According to Florin Poenaru, "the movement led by Ion Iliescu was from the very beginning the party of local capitalists and not of the industrial proletariat. ... PSD was the party that aggregated the interests of the autochthonous capitalists, but whose electoral basis was the former industrial proletariat."[53] Poenaru states that PSD never said no to the neoliberal agenda but applied it rather slowly.[53] Andrei Pleșu once stated that the main post-Communist Romanian parties do not act according to some ideology or doctrine.[54]

Political analyst Radu Magdin said that the PSD is "a catch-all party: its values are conservative, its economic policy is liberal and it has a social, left-leaning rhetoric when it comes to public policies." An example is their calls for both tax cuts and pensions and wages increase in 2016.[1] Its more conservative outlook is owed to the social-conservative nature of post-Communist countries, and has been adopted by both the centre-left (PSD) and the centre-right (PNL).[55] For Cornel Ban, Assistant Professor of International Relations at the Pardee School of Boston University, the PSD is an anomaly in Eastern Europe in that it was an ideal playground for right-wing populist parties but has seen the political left routinely win; this was in part because the political right and far right were in government, including at the local level, during the post-Communist slumps which remained in the mind of many voters.[8] Journalist Jean-Baptiste Chastand said that the PSD-led pro-European government in Romania took a national conservative turn, and expressed his fear that it could join the Eurosceptic Hungary and Poland.[56] The historian Ioan Stanomir stated that PSD is a conservative party, that has nothing to do with the left.[57]

The party has strong connections with the Romanian Orthodox Church, reflecting the country's strong social conservatism (some analysts labeled PSD as a Christian leftist party).[58][59][60][61][62]

Structure

President

The president of the party conducts the general activity of the party, the activity of the National Executive Committee and the National Permanent Bureau and responds to the Congress on the general work of the PSD. The president is elected by secret vote by the Congress for a four-year mandate and represents the party in the Romanian society, in relations with the central and local public authorities, as well as with other parties or organizations in the country or abroad.

Honorary President

PSD Honorary President is nominated by Congress for the four-year mandate of the party's recognized personalities. The Honorary President of the PSD participates with the right to vote in the work of the national governing bodies.

Secretary-General

The Secretary-General manages the functional services at the central level and the relationship with the county and Bucharest organizations. It coordinates the Executive Secretariat of the PSD with 7 to 9 executive secretaries. Executive secretaries shall be appointed by the National Executive Committee, on a proposal from the Chair, after consulting the Secretary-General.

Permanent National Bureau

The Permanent National Bureau is the operative body for analyzing and deciding the party. It has the following composition: PSD President, PSD Honorary President, PSD Secretary General, PSD Deputy Chairpersons. At the National Permanent Bureau, the chairman of the National Council, the leaders of the parliamentary groups, the presidents of women and youth organizations, the treasurer, the director of the Social Democratic Institute, the representative of the county administrative council presidents, the mayors of municipalities and the representative of the National League of Mayors and PSD Councilors participate. The National Permanent Bureau meets weekly, usually Monday.

The Permanent National Bureau have the following duties:

  • To organize and direct the entire activity of the party according to the decisions adopted as appropriate by the Congress, the National Council, and the National Executive Committee.
  • Drafts draft decisions that it submits to the debate and adoption of the National Executive Committee.
  • Orientates the work of parliamentary groups.
  • Establishes and coordinates working committees on doctrine, electoral programs, and strategies.
  • Establishes and co-ordinates political analysis groups of the economic, social, domestic and international situation.
  • Manages the party's patrimony.

National Executive Committee

Coordinates the entire activity of the party between the meetings of the National Council. The PSD National Executive Committee analyzes, debates and decides on the fundamental issues of the Party's work on: the program, the electoral strategy, the political and electoral alliances, the governing program, the structure and the nominal composition of the Government, the validation of the party's preliminary election for the nomination of candidates for senators, MEPs, MEPs, and elected local, merging by absorption or merging with other parties; PSD collaboration agreements with trade unions and employers' confederations; the strategy of selecting, preparing, training and promoting the party's human resources, organizing and conducting internal party choices, coordinating the activities of the Youth Organization and the Women's Organization.

The adopted decisions are validated by the National Council. The National Executive Committee consists of PSD President, PSD Honorary President, PSD Secretary General, PSD Vice Presidents, President of the National Council, Presidents of County Organizations, Sectors and the Bucharest Municipality Organization, the President of the Women's Organization and the President of the Youth Organization.

National Council

Adrian Năstase during a meeting of the National Council in November 2013
Adrian Năstase during a meeting of the National Council in November 2013

The National Council is the governing body of the party in the interval between two congresses. It consists of a maximum of 751 members elected from the candidates nominated by the County and Bucharest Conferences, or proposed by the Congress. The National Council elects and revokes by secret vote the President of the National Council and the treasurer, validates the composition of the National Executive Committee and The Permanent National Bureau; decides to conclude political alliances as well as merge by merging or absorbing with other political parties or political parties; to hear the activity reports submitted by members of the Permanent National Bureau, by the Chairman of the Commission for Arbitration and Moral Integrity, by the President of the National Commission for Financial Control and Treasurer and decides accordingly on the basis of the mandate given by the Congress, according to the provisions of the Statute; is responsible for organizing presidential, parliamentary, euro-parliamentary and local electoral campaigns; analyzes the work of parliamentary groups, women's and youth organizations, the National League of Mayors and PSD Councilors; validates the decisions of the National Executive Committee on the Governance Program and confirms the proposals of members of the Government; resolve the appeals lodged against the decisions of the councils of the county organizations or of the Bucharest municipality; resolves the divergences between the Councils of the County Organizations, respectively the Bucharest Municipality Organization and the National Executive Committee in connection with the nomination of the candidates for the legislative elections, if they persist; approves the party's annual revenue and expenditure budget, decides on its execution.

The PSD National Council meets annually and whenever needed. Deputies, senators and MEPs who are not members of the National Council participate in its meetings without the right to vote. The National Council may decide, on a proposal from the Permanent National Bureau, to organize forums, leagues, associations, clubs and other such bodies for the promotion of strategies in the PSD Political Program, in the Romanian society and in partnership with the trade unions. The party-union relationship as well as the concrete ways of collaboration will be established by the National Permanent Bureau. Within the PSD there are: the National Workers' Forum; National Farmers Forum; National Ecologists' Forum; The National Forum of Scientists, Culture and Art and the Pensioners' League. In order to develop PSD programs and strategies in the field of party life, consultative councils can be set up on: political analysis, image and relations with the media; organization and human resources. The Consultative Council for the Problems of National Minorities of the PSD carries out activities to identify the specific problems faced by national minorities in Romania and develops appropriate solutions and proposals for their resolution.

Congress

The supreme governing party of the Social Democratic Party is the Congress, which is convened every four years or in extraordinary cases. The PSD Congress is made up of elected delegates by secret ballot by the County Conferences and the Bucharest Municipality and has the following attributions: adopting or modifying the PSD Statute and the Political Program of the Party; sets out the party's guidelines, strategy and tactics for the period between two congresses; elects the party chairman, the vice-presidents, the general secretary, the other members of the National Council, the National Commission for Arbitration and Moral Integrity and the National Commission for Financial Control; appoints the PSD candidate to the position of President of Romania and the Prime Minister in the event of winning the elections; resolves possible appeals against decisions of other PSD central bodies.

Party leadership

  Also served as President of Romania
  Also served as Prime Minister
  Also served as Chamber President
  Also served as Senate President
Name
Birth–Death
Portrait Term start Term end Duration
1 Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg
December 1989 June 1990 c. 7 months
2 Petre Roman1
(1946–)
Petre Roman.jpg
June 1990 7 April 1992 c. 2 years
(1) Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg
7 April 1992 11 October 1992 6 months and 4 days
3 Oliviu Gherman
(1930–2020)
11 October 1992 January 1997 c. 4 years
(1) Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg
January 1997 20 December 2000 c. 4 years
4 Adrian Năstase2
(1950–
Adrian Năstase3.jpg
20 December 2000 21 January 2005 4 years, 1 month and 1 day
5 Mircea Geoană
(1958–
Mircea Geoana la reuniunea BPN - 02.12.2013 (11173070964) (cropped).jpg
2005 2010 c. 5 years
6 Victor Ponta
(1972–
Victor Ponta debate November 2014.jpg
21 February 2010 12 July 2015 5 years, 4 months and 21 days
Rovana Plumb
(Interim)
(1960–
Mitingul Electoral al Aliantei PSD-UNPR-PC, Galati - 10.05 (14) (14278213368).jpg
24 June 2015 22 July 2015 28 days
Liviu Dragnea
(Interim)
(1962– )
Victor Ponta la semnarea declaratiei politice privind infiintarea USL 2.0 - 14.11 (3) (15621867427) (cropped).jpg
22 July 2015 12 October 2015 2 months and 20 days
7 Liviu Dragnea
(1962– )
Victor Ponta la semnarea declaratiei politice privind infiintarea USL 2.0 - 14.11 (3) (15621867427) (cropped).jpg
12 October 2015 27 May 2019 3 years, 7 months and 15 days
8 Viorica Dăncilă
(1963–
Viorica Dăncilă June 2019.jpg
27 May 2019 26 November 2019 5 months and 30 days
Marcel Ciolacu
(Interim)
(1967–
MarcelCiolacuPSD2021.png
26 November 2019 22 August 2020 8 months and 27 days
9 Marcel Ciolacu
(1967–
MarcelCiolacuPSD2021.png
22 August 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 3 months and 11 days
Notes

1 Roman subsequently served as Senate President between November 1996 to December 1999.

2 Năstase served twice as Chamber President, the first term from March 1992 to May 1996, while the second from December 2004 to March 2006.

Presidents
Executive presidents

Notable members

Former members

Electoral history

Legislative elections

Year Chamber Senate Position Aftermath
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
1992 3,015,708 27.72
117 / 341
3,102,201 28.29
49 / 143
 1st 
(as FDSN)
PDSRPUNRPRMPSM government (1992–1996)
1996 2,633,860 21.52
91 / 343
2,836,011 23.08
41 / 143
 2nd 
(as PDSR)
Opposition to CDRUSDUDMR government (1996–2000)
2000 3,968,464 36.61
139 / 345
4,040,212 37.09
59 / 140
 1st 
(within PDSR)1
PDSR minority government (2000–2004)
2004 3,730,352 36.61
113 / 332
3,798,607 36.30
46 / 137
 1st 
(within PSD+PUR)2
Opposition to DAPUR3UDMR government (2004–2007)
Supporting PNLUDMR minority government (2007–2008)
2008 2,279,449 33.10
110 / 334
2,352,968 34.16
48 / 137
 2nd 
(within PSD+PC)4
PDL–PSD government (2008–2009)
Opposition to PDLUNPRUDMR government (2009–2012)
USL government (2012)
2012 4,344,288 58.63
149 / 412
4,457,526 60.10
58 / 176
 1st 
(within USL)5
USL government (2012–2014)
PSD–UNPRUDMRPC government (2014)
PSD–UNPR-ALDE government (2014–2015)
Supporting the technocratic Cioloș Cabinet (2015–2017)
2016 3,204,864 45.48
154 / 329
3,221,786 45.68
67 / 136
 1st  PSD–ALDE government (2017–2019)
PSD minority government (2019)
Supporting PNL minority government (2019–2020)
Opposition to PNL minority government (2020)
2020 1,705,777 28.90
110 / 330
1,732,276 29.32
47 / 136
 1st  Opposition to PNLUSR PLUSUDMR government (2020–2021)
Opposition to PNLUDMR minority government (2021)
PSD–PNLUDMR government (2021–present)
Notes

1 Social Democratic Pole of Romania members: PDSR, PSDR (2 senators and 10 deputies), and PUR (4 senators and 6 deputies).

2 National Union PSD+PUR members: PSD and PUR (11 senators and 19 deputies).

3 Soon after the elections, PUR broke the alliance and switched sides, joining Justice and Truth Alliance (DA).

4 Alliance PSD+PC members: PSD and PC (1 senator and 4 deputies).

5 Social Liberal Union (USL) was an alliance of two smaller alliances: Centre Left Alliance (ACS) and Centre Right Alliance (ACD). Centre Left Alliance (ACS) members: PSD and UNPR (5 senators and 10 deputies). Centre Right Alliance (ACD) members: PNL (51 senators and 101 deputies) and PC (8 senators and 13 deputies).

Local elections

Year County councilors Mayors Local councilors Popular vote % Position
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
1996 1,390,225 16.28
290 / 1,718
2,713,095 26.28
928 / 2,954
1,716,899 18.82
9,483 / 33,429
N/A N/A  1st 
2000 2,241,930 27.4
496 / 1,718
2,416,598 27.4
1,050 / 2,954
2,197,719 25.8
11,380 / 39,718
N/A N/A  1st 
2004 2,957,617 32.70
543 / 1,436
3,908,895 41.83
1,702 / 3,137
2,951,226 31.88
14,990 / 40,031
N/A N/A  1st 
2008 2,337,102 27.97
452 / 1,393
2,717,490 30.77
1,138 / 3,179
2,268,271 26.67
12,137 / 40,297
N/A N/A  2nd 
2012 4,203,007 49.68
723 / 1,338
2,782,792 33.99
1,292 / 3,121
2,630,123 32.74
12,668 / 39,121
N/A N/A  1st 
(as USL)
2016 3,270,909 39.60
638 / 1,434
3,330,213 38.98
1,708 / 3,186
3,161,046 37.70
16,969 / 40,067
N/A N/A  1st 
2020 1,605,721 22.32
362 / 1,340
2,262,791 30.34
1,362 / 3,176
2,090,777 28.40
13,820 / 39,900
N/A N/A  2nd 
Year County presidents Position
Votes % Seats
1992 N/A N/A
30 / 41
 1st 
(as FSN)
1996 N/A N/A
17 / 41
 1st 
2000 N/A N/A
29 / 41
 1st 
2004 N/A N/A
19 / 41
 1st 
2008 2,234,465 28.06
17 / 41
 1st 
2012 4,260,709 49.71
22 / 41
 1st 
(within USL)
2016 N/A N/A
28 / 41
 1st 
2020 1,663,399 22.86
20 / 41
 1st 

County council elections

County Year Percentage Councillors +/- Aftermath
Alba 2020 16.61% (2nd)
6 / 32
Decrease 3 Opposition
Arad 2020 9.89% (3rd)
3 / 32
Decrease 8 Opposition
Argeș 2020 44.78% (1st)
17 / 34
Decrease 3 PSD minority
Bacău 2020 42.25% (1st)
17 / 36
Steady PSD-ALDE
Bihor 2020 15.54% (3rd)
6 / 34
Decrease 3 Opposition
Bistrița-Năsăud 2020 40.62% (1st)
14 / 30
Decrease 3 PSD-PMP
Botoșani 2020 40.13%
15 / 32
Decrease 3 PSD-ALDE
Brăila 2020 47.97%
17 / 30
Increase 3 PSD majority
Brașov 2020 19.35%
8 / 34
Decrease 3 Opposition
Bucharest 2020 32.38%
21 / 55
Decrease 3 Opposition
Buzău 2020 57.68%
21 / 32
Increase 1 PSD majority
Călărași 2020 45.09%
15 / 30
Increase 3 PSD minority
Caraș-Severin 2020 27.51%
10 / 30
Decrease 4 PSD-PMP
Cluj 2020 13.32%
5 / 36
Decrease 7 Opposition
Constanța 2020 23.01%
10 / 36
Decrease 6 Opposition
Covasna 2020 5.73%
2 / 30
Decrease 1 Opposition
Dâmbovița 2020 43.66%
17 / 34
Decrease 5 PSD majority
Dolj 2020 39.66%
16 / 36
Decrease 9 PSD-PRO-PER
Galați 2020 39.73%
17 / 34
Increase 2 PSD majority
Giurgiu 2020 33.20%
12 / 30
Decrease 8 Opposition
Gorj 2020 42.95%
16 / 32
Steady PSD majority
Harghita 2020 7.76%
3 / 30
Steady Opposition
Hunedoara 2020 43.80%
17 / 32
Decrease 1 PSD majority
Ialomița 2020 37.27%
14 / 30
Decrease 4 PSD-PNL
Iași 2020 24.49%
10 / 36
Decrease 7 Opposition
Ilfov 2020 12.81%
5 / 32
Decrease 7 Opposition
Maramureș 2020 25.14%
10 / 34
Decrease 9 Opposition
Mehedinți 2020 45.58%
15 / 30
Decrease 3 PSD majority
Mureș 2020 17.87%
7 / 34
Decrease 3 Opposition
Neamț 2020 35.76%
13 / 34
Decrease 4 Opposition
Olt 2020 54.44%
21 / 32
Increase 2 PSD majority
Prahova 2020 31.59%
11 / 36
Decrease 5 Opposition
Sălaj 2020 27.89%
10 / 30
Decrease 2 Opposition
Satu Mare 2020 14.00%
5 / 32
Decrease 4 Opposition
Sibiu 2020 13.90%
5 / 32
Decrease 7 Opposition
Suceava 2020 30.47%
13 / 36
Decrease 3 Opposition
Teleorman 2020 39.37%
15 / 32
Decrease 3 Opposition
Timiș 2020 15.02%
7 / 36
Decrease 9 Opposition
Tulcea 2020 34.35%
12 / 30
Decrease 2 Opposition
Vâlcea 2020 41.69%
16 / 32
Increase 2 PSD-PER
Vaslui 2020 39.11%
14 / 34
Decrease 6 PSD-ALDE
Vrancea 2020 41.91%
15 / 32
Decrease 3 PSD-ALDE

Mayor of Bucharest elections

Year Candidate First round Second round
Votes Percentage Position Votes Percentage Position
1996 Ilie Năstase N/A
30.38%
 2nd  N/A
43.26%
 2nd 
2000 Sorin Oprescu 260,689
41.16%
 1st  353,038
49.31%
 2nd 
2004 Mircea Geoană 225,774
29.74%
 2nd 
2008 Cristian Diaconescu 67,251
12.33%
 3rd  not qualified
2012 Sorin Oprescu1 430,512
53.79%
 1st 
2016 Gabriela Firea 246,553
42.97%
 1st 
2020 Gabriela Firea 250,690
37.97%
 2nd 
Notes

1 Independent candidate endorsed by USL

Presidential elections

Year Candidate First round Second round
Votes Percentage Position Votes Percentage Position
1990 Ion Iliescu 12,232,498
85.07%
 1st 
1992 Ion Iliescu 5,633,465
47.5%
 1st  7,393,429
61.4%
 1st 
1996 Ion Iliescu 4,081,093
32.3%
 1st  5,914,579
45.6%
 2nd 
2000 Ion Iliescu 4,076,273
36.4%
 1st  6,696,623
66.8%
 1st 
2004 Adrian Năstase 4,278,864
40.9%
 1st  4,881,520
48.8%
 2nd 
2009 Mircea Geoană 3,027,838
31.1%
 2nd  5,205,760
49.7%
 2nd 
2014 Victor Ponta 3,836,093
40.4%
 1st  5,264,383
45.6%
 2nd 
2019 Viorica Dăncilă 2,051,725
22.3%
 2nd  3,339,922
33.91%
 2nd 

European elections

Year Votes % MEPs Position EU party EP group
2007 N/A 34.28
12 / 35
 1st  PES S&D
2007 1,184,018 23.11
10 / 35
 2nd  PES S&D
2009 1,504,218 31.07
10 / 33
 1st 
(within PSD+PC)1
PES S&D
2014 2,093,237 37.60
12 / 32
 1st 
(within USD)2
PES S&D
2019 2,040,765 22.51
9 / 32
 2nd  PES S&D
Notes

1 Alliance PSD+PC members: PSD and PC (1 MEP).

2 Social Democractic Union (USD) members: PSD, PC (2 MEPs), and UNPR (2 MEPs).

Controversies

Political opponents have criticised PSD for harbouring former Romanian Communist Party (PCR) officials, and for allegedly attempting to control the Romanian mass media. By 2009, a number of its incumbent or former senior members have also been accused of corruption, interfering in the judiciary and using their political positions for personal enrichment.[63] As of 2015, founding member Ion Iliescu is facing prosecution on charges of crimes against humanity for his role in the June 1990 Mineriad,[64] while former president Liviu Dragnea was convicted for electoral fraud and for instigation to the abuse of public office and being indicted for forming an "organised criminal group" in 2018.[65] That same year, former president Victor Ponta had also been investigated for corruption but was ultimately acquitted.[66] Adrian Năstase temporarily self-suspended himself from the position on 16 January 2006, pending investigation of a scandal provoked by his wealth declaration, where he was accused of corruption.[67] Alleged text transcripts of PSD meetings surfaced on an anonymous website just before the 2004 Romanian general election. Năstase and his ministers are shown talking about political involvement in corruption trials of the government's members, or involvement in suppressing "disobedient" media. Năstase stated that the transcripts were fake, but several party members, including former PSD president and former foreign minister Mircea Geoană, have said they are genuine, though Geoană later retracted his statement.[68]

Politicians of the party have occasionally employed "utilitarian anti-Semitism", meaning that politicians who may usually not be antisemites played off certain antisemitic prejudices in order to serve their political necessities.[69] On 5 March 2012, PSD Senator Dan Șova, at that time the party spokesman, said on The Money Channel that "no Jew suffered on Romanian territory, thanks to marshal Antonescu."[70] Elie Wiesel National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania expressed its deep disagreement and indignation over the statements of the spokesman of the party.[71] Following public outcry, Șova retracted his statement and issued a public apology; nevertheless, the chairman of the party, Victor Ponta, announced his removal from the office of party spokesman.[72]

Between 2017 and 2019, the party, along with its former coalition members, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) and the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ), unsuccessfully tried to pass a series of controversial laws related to the judicial system. In a 2018 preliminary opinion, the Venice Commission said that the changes could undermine the independence of judges and prosecutors.[73] This endeavour by the former PSD–ALDE coalition was the basis for the nationwide 2017–2019 Romanian protests,[74] the largest in the country's entire history thus far.[75]

See also

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External links

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